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© Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 23 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. © Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 23 Nazi Germany Germany and the End of World War I
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 2 of 23 Learning objectives © Boardworks Ltd 2006 2 of 23 Why the German government decided to surrender to the Allies at the end of World War I. What the main issues were for the peacemakers. Why the peace treaty which they produced was considered too harsh by many German people. Why the German government nevertheless accepted it, and with what results. Learning objectives What we will learn in this presentation:
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 3 of 23 Key vocabulary
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 4 of 23 In late 1918, the Allies were prepared to discuss an end to hostilities, but only on the understanding that Kaiser Wilhelm made his country more democratic. When the Kaiser refused, his people rose up in revolution. The Kaiser was forced to abdicate and a German republic was established. In November 1918, the new rulers signed the Armistice which brought hostilities to an end. The following year, they signed the Treaty of Versailles, which laid out detailed peace terms. For detailed events in 1918, see the next slide. Events in 1918
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 5 of 23 Events in 1918 – timeline
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 6 of 23 Should Germany sign the Armistice?
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 7 of 23 Friedrich Ebert, the leader of the Social Democrats (SPD) became the first elected president of the Weimar Republic. The government was called this because it established itself in the small town of Weimar, rather than the unstable Berlin. Signing the Armistice in November 1918 gave the new republic some breathing space. The country’s first free elections were held in January 1919. What were the results of the Armistice?
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 8 of 23 The Germans were expecting to be treated fairly under the Treaty of Versailles. They had got rid of the Kaiser and elected a democratic government as the Allies had asked. However, the Allies did not allow the Germans to take part in negotiations. The Treaty was very harsh on Germany. The German navy scuttled (sank) itself in protest, but it made no difference. The German government signed the Treaty just 90 minutes before the deadline the Allies had set them. German reaction: the Versailles Treaty
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 9 of 23 The signing of the Treaty of Versailles
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 10 of 23 When the leaders of the Allied countries met to discuss how to treat Germany, they were faced with five key questions. You can remember these using the keyword TRAWL: Territory: What land should be taken from Germany? Reparations: How much compensation money should Germany be forced to pay? Armaments: How far should Germany's armed forces be limited? War guilt: Should Germany be held responsible for the war breaking out? League of Nations: Should Germany be allowed to join this new peacekeeping institution? What issues did the Treaty deal with?
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 11 of 23 Territory – further information
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 12 of 23 The Allies were keen that Germany should pay for the cost of the war. France had lost 1½ million men and 750,000 homes in the war. Britain had also been drained, having lost a million men. Both France and Britain were left heavily in debt to the USA as a result of the war. Germany argued that massive reparations would leave the country destitute. This would make Germany vulnerable to revolution or civil war, which could lead to more international instability. Reparations – further information
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 13 of 23 The Allies felt that Germany’s massive armed forces had created a country that was desperate for war. They were very keen to limit the size of the German army. The Germans argued that this would leave their country defenceless against attack, and that this could make another war more, not less, likely. Armaments – further information
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 14 of 23 To justify their demands for territory, reparations and arms restrictions, the Allies felt it would be necessary to blame Germany entirely for the war. The causes of World War I were very complicated. The Germans felt that it was unreasonable that they should take full blame for the war, and warned that it would only create a desire for revenge later on. War Guilt – further information
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 15 of 23 The US president Woodrow Wilson was very keen to set up an international parliament to prevent more wars breaking out in the future. Wilson proposed a League of Nations to settle international disputes and prevent war. The Allies disagreed about whether Germany should be allowed to join this body or not. The League of Nations – further information
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 16 of 23 Territory – the terms on paper
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 17 of 23 Germany split by the Polish Corridor Alsace-Lorraine returned to France Germany was also forbidden to unite with Austria or Hungary How did each of these terms affect Germany? Which was the most serious, and why? Saar coalfields now under French rule for 15 years African colonies taken away. Territory – the terms on the ground
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 18 of 23 Other terms
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 19 of 23 The terms of the Treaty of Versailles can be summarized as: Territory: Land lost to Britain, France, Belgium, Poland and Denmark. Reparations: Germany forced to sign a ‘blank cheque’, later settled at £6,600 million. Armaments: Army reduced to 100,000 men. No air force, 6 warships, no conscription. Rhineland demilitarized – German troops were not allowed there. War guilt: Germany held entirely responsible for the war breaking out. League of Nations: Germany not allowed to join. Summary
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 20 of 23 Look at the areas dealt with in the Treaty of Versailles. Which do you think was the most serious for Germany? What was the impact on Germany?
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 21 of 23 The Treaty of Versailles was hated by Germans. Rathenau, the foreign minister, was assassinated in 1922 for signing the treaty. The Armistice had not led to a fair settlement. The Weimar politicians who signed it were called November Criminals because people felt they had betrayed Germany. Which was more damaging for the new German Republic – losing the war or signing the Treaty of Versailles? Explain your answer carefully. Conclusion: reaction of the German people
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 22 of 23 Revision – key vocabulary
© Boardworks Ltd 2006 23 of 23 What was the main aim of the Treaty of Versailles? (a) punish Germany (b) reward the winners of the war (c) provide a lasting peace? Support your answer by referring to the terms of the Treaty. Was it to: Discussion point
© Boardworks Ltd of 23 Germany and the End of World War I Nazi Germany For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. This.
The Treaty of Versailles GCSE. Learn some key vocabulary.
The Weimar Crises of Lower 6. What factors can affect the legitimacy of a government?
© Boardworks Ltd of 11 How Did The Peace Treaties At The End Of World War I Affect Germany?
Peacemaking How did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace?
Treaty of Versailles Paris Peace Conference January 18 – June 28, 1919.
The Treaty of Versailles Clemenceau, Wilson and Lloyd George met to determine the terms of Germany’s surrender of WWI, Germany was not allowed to give.
Learning Objective: To explain why the Big Three disagreed.
Friday 10 th October 2008 Why did the Germans hate the Treaty of Versailles? Objective: To understand why the Germans were angered by the Treaty of Versailles.
The Weimar Republic Lesson starter: 1.How do you think Germans reacted to the Treaty of Versailles? 2.Which term do you think would have caused the most.
The Weimar Republic Lesson starter: 1.What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
The Legacy of War. The First World War Known as the ‘the war to end all wars’ Hostilities of WW1 ended with the signing of an armistice on Nov.11, 1918.
What was the ceasefire of November 1918 called? Armistice When did the Versailles Conference begin? Jan 1919 How many countries attended the.
Was the Treaty of Versailles fair?. Lesson objectives To evaluate the positions of the Allied Powers before the Treaty of Versailles was signed. To be.
Total Casualties The total number of casualties in World War I, both military and civilian, were about 37 million (16 million deaths and 21 million wounded)
Unit 3 Overview 5 weeks (now through winter break) Major topics: The Weimar Republic and its failings Hitler’s rise to power Nazi ideology.
In 1919 the leaders of the Allies met in France, to decide the terms of peace at the end of the Great War. They chose to meet in the Palace used by the.
What was the Treaty of Versailles? David Lloyd George – British PM George Clemenceau – French PM Woodrow Wilson – American President Britain, France and.
Germany and the end of the Great War How did the peace treaties of 1919 affect Germany?
Text Summary 1.2: Why did the Germans hate the Treaty of Versailles so much?
The aim of today’s lesson is: to understand why the Germans hated the Treaty of Versailles.
THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES. What happens when a war has just finished?
The Treaty of Versailles Lesson starter: Summarise what each of the Big Three wanted at the Versailles Peace Conference. Today we will learn more about.
The Versailles Peace Treaty and Germany. The Versailles Peace Treaty was the main agreement signed after the war. The discussions of the Paris Peace Conference.
Treaty of Versailles Aims: Understand why Germany was angry about the Treaty of Versailles. Identify how people in Britain felt about the Versailles.
© Boardworks Ltd of 16 © Boardworks Ltd of 16 International Relations 1900–1939 The Treaty of Versailles (part 1) Icons key: For more detailed.
© Boardworks Ltd of 21 Hitler's Foreign Policy Nazi Germany For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. This icon indicates.
The Versailles Treaty June 28, 1919 …The treaty that ended WWI only to plant the seeds for WWII. … first, an overview of eventsoverview of events.
The Treaty of Versailles LO: To understand the difficulties in creating a peace treaty after WW1 STARTER: Using the picture: Finish off the sentence.
Germany 1918 – GSCE Revision.. Break it down….. Versailles & Weimar. The Depression & Hitler’s Rise to Power. The Consolidation of Power. Life in.
GCSE MODERN WORLD HISTORY INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE INTERACTIVE How successful were the peace treaties?
TREATY OF VERSAILLES: TREATY THAT ENDED THE “GREAT WAR”
Paris 1919 The Treaty of Versailles. Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of WWI Ended the state of war.
WWI - Peacemaking The war officially ended on November 11 th 1918.
The Armistice and Treaty of Versailles. On March 18 th 1918 the Ludendorff Offensive began. In the early stages it seemed like the offensive would be.
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IMPACT OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES. War Guilt ‘The Allied governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her allies for.
An End to the Stalemate WWI. Entry of the U.S. U.S. had claimed neutrality Americans were swayed by British propaganda May 1915 German U-Boats torpedo.
League of Nations Territorial lossesMilitary restrictions War Guilt International organization aimed at preventing future conflict Germany returns Alsace-Loraine.
WWI MAIN or MANIA Militarism Alliance System Imperialism Nationalism Asassination of Archduke Ferdinand. Brought alliances into war.
You are in your nation As a nation you are going to make your demands to punish/regain land from Germany. A brief summary of the sentiment of the country.
28 June “This is not peace. It is an armistice for 20 years” French Field Marshal Ferdinand Foch.
Objectives Discuss the Paris Peace Conference, the League of Nations, and the Treaty of Versailles.*
Treaty of Versailles November 11th, The War is Over.
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