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Lecture 17 ROCKY SUBTIDAL

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Substrate Types CobbleWalls Horizontal bedrock Sandy

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ZONATION CHART DATUM infralittoral fringe littoral About 200 m Infralittoral Circalittoral Adequate light for photosynthesis Infralittoral + Circalittoral = Subtidal

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ZONATION CHART DATUM infralittoral fringe littoral Upper infralittoral Lower infralittoral Upper circalittoral Lower circalittoral Laminaria forest + foliose algae + few animals Foliose algae + few animals Few foliose algae + many animals No algae many animals

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Rocky Subtidal - Zones 1) Sublittoral fringe Laminaria Bryozoan Anemone (Metridium)

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Rocky Subtidal - Zones 2) Infralittoral Laminaria Anemone (Metridium) Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis Urchin barrens

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Rocky Subtidal - Zones 3) Circalittoral Anemone (Metridium) tunicates Sea stars Lamp shells

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Determinants of Zonation Slope HorizontalVertical

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Determinants of Zonation Slope Differences in species’ patterns 1. Higher light levels on horizontal surfaces 2. Higher sedimentation on horizontal surfaces 3. Photonegative larvae select walls/overhangs 4. More shelter from disturbance

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Determinants of Zonation Depth Density Depth 33 m42 m % Cover Depth 28 m45 m Brachiopods Sponges

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Local Processes Affecting the Community Temperature Maine (Machias Seal Is) Aug Galapagos (May1999)

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Local Processes Affecting the Community Temperature Internal wavesUpwelling

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Physical Disturbance Depth LowHigh

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Physical Disturbance

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Creation of Patches Type I Disturbance -death of some residents -patch surrounded by survivors Type II Disturbance -widespread destruction Recovery - vegetative growth & asexual budding Recovery - long distance dispersers -more stochastic

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Physical Disturbance Creation of Patches Wittman (‘98) Patch of anemones Predation by nudibranchs Got Type I patches

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Physical Disturbance Creation of Patches Wittman (‘98) ExpectGot Recruitment of planktonic bryozoans, polychaetes and ascidians Asexual/vegetative growth of neighbours

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Physical Disturbance Flow Patterns - Reidl ‘71 Primary - effect of flow directly on organisms Secondary - effect of flow on transport of nutrients, gasses, foods Tertiary - effect of flow on substrate

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Physical Disturbance Flow Patterns cm/s Minimum Maximum DepthDepth

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Physical Disturbance Sedimentation Sedimentation rate = 1/flow

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Light Depth Percent surface light Turbid coastal water Clear open ocean water Limit for Laminaria Limit for foliose algae

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Rocky Subtidal - communities Terebratulina septentrionalis Community Terebratulina septentrionalis Chiton

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Rocky Subtidal - Communities Crustose coralline algae Community Terebratulina septentrionalis Chiton Bryozoans

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Rocky Subtidal - Biotic Factors

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal Predictions: 1. Predation - reduced in harsh environments 2. Biotic factors set lower distribution limits 3. Physical factors set upper distribution limits

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 1. Predation - reduced in harsh environments LowHigh Predator pressure

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 1. Predation - reduced in harsh environments PREDATOR SURVIVAL Number of waves Time (Months) Denny et al, 1985 Survivorship L r /2 LrLr 2L r L r /2 LrLr 2L r Colisella digitalis

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Predator density Galapagos Seychelles Gulf of Maine Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 1. Predation - reduced in harsh environments Absence of predators

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 1. Predation - reduced in harsh environments minuteshoursdays Birds Crabs/lobster Snails/urchins /seastars Impact of predator on prey (per capita prey removal rate) Return time of limiting stress

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 1. Predation - reduced in harsh environments New Zealand

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 1. Predation - reduced in harsh environments urchins, sea stars, lobsters freshwater mussels New Zealand

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal Predictions: 1. Predation - reduced in harsh environments 2. Biotic factors set lower distribution limits 3. Physical factors set upper distribution limits √

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal Predictions: 1. Predation - reduced in harsh environments 2. Biotic factors set lower distribution limits 3. Physical factors set upper distribution limits

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Biotic factors set lower distribution limits Anderson Ledge, New Hampshire Laminaria - limit dictated by urchin grazing Urchins - stay near bottom of Laminaria - physical stress too high to go shoreward Mytilus - colonized areas grazed by urchins Sea stars - prevent Mytilus recruitment lower in subtidal

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Biotic factors set lower distribution limits Scheibling et al, 1999 Mill Cove Little Duck Island

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Biotic factors set lower distribution limits Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis Laminaria longicruris

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Biotic factors set lower distribution limits Scheibling et al, 1999 kelp grazed edge

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Biotic factors set lower distribution limits Scheibling et al, 1999

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Biotic factors set lower distribution limits But …. within limits set by physical factors Vadas & Steneck, depth greater without grazers

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Biotic factors set lower distribution limits But …. within limits set by physical factors Miller and Hay, 1996 Oculina

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal Predictions: 1. Predation - reduced in harsh environments 2. Biotic factors set lower distribution limits 3. Physical factors set upper distribution limits √ (with qualifications)

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal Predictions: 1. Predation - reduced in harsh environments 2. Biotic factors set lower distribution limits 3. Physical factors set upper distribution limits √ (with qualifications)

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Competition LowHigh Competition for space

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Competition Competition for space (among algae) a. allelopathy

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Competition Competition for space (among algae) b. overgrowth

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Competition Competition for space (among algae) c. overtopping

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Competition Competition for space (among algae) d. Algal whiplash

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 2. Competition Competition for space e. Aggression (Cnidaria) acrorhagi

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 3. Recruitment LowHigh % space covered

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 3. Recruitment LowHigh % space covered effect of predators

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Biotic Factors on the Subtidal 3. Recruitment Osman & Whitlach, 1995 Mitrella Anachis Without predators With predators

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Mesoscale Processes High flow Low flow km’s

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Other mesoscale processes Disease Productivity Thermoclines

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