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Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptations and Policy-Making Process: Palestine as a Case Study By Ziad A. Mimi 1, Michael Mason 2 and Mark Zeitoun 2 1 Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptations and Policy-Making Process: Palestine as a Case Study By Ziad A. Mimi 1, Michael Mason 2 and Mark Zeitoun 2 1 Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptations and Policy-Making Process: Palestine as a Case Study By Ziad A. Mimi 1, Michael Mason 2 and Mark Zeitoun 2 1 Institute of Environmental and Water Studies (IEWS), Birzeit University, P.O Box 14, Birzeit, Palestine, 2 Centre of Environmental Policy and Governance, Department of Geography & Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK

2 EQA/UNDP Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the Occupied Palestinian Territory (2009) GLOWA- Jordan River Project: Rising Temperatures, Rising Tensions. The project was implemented by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). Key climate change actors and research at Palestine Ministries International organizations Universities

3 According to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (2007), the Mediterranean region is forecast to receive a mean warming over this century of 2.2 o C-5.1 o C (Scenario A1B). Precipitation is forecast to decrease by 10% by 2020 and 20% by 2020, with an increase in drought periods. A Japanese/Tel Aviv University climate change analysis forecasts a 82-98% decrease in the Jordan River flow by In its draft Climate Change Adaptation Programme (2008) the Israeli Ministry of the Environment predicts the sea level in the Mediterranean to increase by 0.5 metres in 2050 and 1 metre by 2100 Climate Change Analysis of the Eastern Mediterranean

4 Analysis of the Climate Change Situation in Palestine

5 “sustainable development can reduce vulnerability to climate change” (IPCC 2007 in UNDP 2008)  WHAT IS ‘ VULNERABILITY ’ ? Climate Vulnerability = Biophysical Vulnerability + Social Vulnerability GEO-4 (UNEP 2007) CLIMATE VULNERABILITY

6 Biophysical Vulnerability = “the degree to which a [physical] system is… unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change” IPCC CLIMATE VULNERABILITY (Physical) RISK = HAZARD x VULNERABILITY (climate) x (exposure) Social Vulnerability = measure of a society to adapt to hazards (Social) VULNERABILITY = RISK – ADAPTATION ( i.e. the residual impact after adaptation measures implemented )

7 Adapted from Vincent (2004). Adaptive Capacity  ability to develop long-term options Coping range  ability to generate short-term solutions Key Components of Social VULNERABILITY

8 Shelter for Sudanese refugees in Chad, 2004 Harsh climate + High exposure  High Physical Risk (Physical) RISK = HAZARD x VULNERABILITY (climate) x (exposure) (Social) VULNERABILITY = RISK – ADAPTATION High Risk + High coping mech., but Low Adaptation  High Social Vulnerability

9 Shelter for American citizens, California USA Harsh climate + High exposure  High Risk But… (Physical) RISK = HAZARD x VULNERABILITY (climate) x (exposure) (Social) VULNERABILITY = RISK – ADAPTATION High Risk + Many Coping Mech., + High Adaptive Capacity (e.g.insurance)  Low Social Vulnerability Relatively Low Climate Vulnerability 

10 Refugees from Palestine, 1948 (Physical) RISK = HAZARD x VULNERABILITY (climate) x (exposure) (Social) VULNERABILITY = RISK – ADAPTATION Harsh climate + High exposure  High Physical Risk High Risk + High coping mech., but Low Adaptation  High Social Vulnerability

11 = the political component of vulnerability. Are national adaptation plans applied evenly? Does ‘political cover’ extend selectively to some communities? How does the marginalisation of a community or people affect their ability to adapt?? Financial mobility? Physical mobility? SOCIO - POLITICAL VULNERABILITY

12 Determinants and Indicators of Climate Change, Water and Vulnerability Towards a Vulnerability Assessment… Discuss during focus group discussions e.g. What are the links between Livelihood Choices and Water Infrastructure?? Discuss during focus group discussions e.g. What are the links between Livelihood Choices and Water Infrastructure??

13 WEST BANK

14 Palestinians living in Area C are the most vulnerable in their subsistence living. Vulnerable to elements (in plastic tents), seasons (drought, frost), violence (from settlers) and expulsion (from IDF).

15 Drastic drop in rainfall 1 Problems that are related to water availability West Bank: Jordan River Valley

16 Reducing accessibility to water sources through denial of travel to the Jordan River Reducing the quantity of water through indiscriminate destruction of water infrastructure such as pipes, cisterns and wells Denial of permission to construct water and sanitation infrastructure like deep wells Supplying water to settlements Israeli Practices 2

17 Damaged agricultural wells 3

18 ‘Ein Fasa’el spring (feeding Fasa’el village) Jericho - Biophysical Vulnerability Drop in precipiation + Livelihoods dependant on irrigated agriculture  High Physical Risk West Bank – CLIMATE VULNERABILITY Unplanted fields near Fasa’el (May 2007) (Physical) RISK = HAZARD x VULNERABILITY (climate) x (exposure) (Social) VULNERABILITY = RISK – ADAPTATION High Risk + Low coping mech., + Low Adaptation  High Social Vulnerability

19 Zubeydat (May 2007) Unplanted fields near Fasa’el (May 2007) Jericho - Biophysical Vulnerability Irrigated agriculture [Ziad… more on jericho]

20 Rainfed agriculture near Massafer Yatta Drop in precipiation + Livelihoods dependant on irrigated agriculture  High Physical Risk (Physical) RISK = HAZARD x VULNERABILITY (climate) x (exposure) (Social) VULNERABILITY = RISK – ADAPTATION High Risk + High coping mech., but Low Adaptation  High Social Vulnerability Sfay al Tahta West Bank – CLIMATE VULNERABILITY

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22 Climate Vulnerability = Biophysical Vulnerability + Social Vulnerability … and the political component ! …Remember

23 Crop water requirement CWR Methodology of Analysis Reference evapotranspiration ETo Irrigation water requirement IWR CROPWAT Computer model Crop data Length of growing period, crop coefficient, crop yield response factor and root zone Soil data Soil texture, available moisture, infiltration rate and initial soil moisture Metrological data Temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed Historical data Formulated scenarios

24 GAZA

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26 Nearly ALL Palestinians in Gaza are highly vulnerable in their subsistence living: Vulnearble to: the elements (heating), seasons (drought, shorter growing seasons), violence (internally, and from IDF) expulsion/home demolition (from IDF); and (mainly) – the economy (even remittances are slowing). CLIMATE VULNERABILITY

27 Afifi - Gaza Coastal and Marine Environmental Protection and Management Action Plan, MEA Sea-level rise (Harsh climate) + Houses near shore (?) (Med exposure)  Med -High Risk (Physical) RISK = HAZARD x VULNERABILITY (climate) x (exposure) GAZA - BIOPHYSICAL VULNERABILITY  + Even worse water quality

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29 High Risk + Low Coping and Adaptative Capacity  High Risk (Social) VULNERABILITY = RISK – ADAPTATION GAZA – SOCIAL VULNERABILITY

30 27 March 2007 before (Very) High Risk + (Very) Low Adaptative Capacity  Extreme Risk GAZA – SOCIAL VULNERABILITY (Social) VULNERABILITY = RISK – ADAPTATION

31 Gaza is under siege; Lifelines extend near, but not to it… GAZA AS A WHOLE is socially vulnerable to environmental hazards GAZA – SOCIAL VULNERABILITY Coping mechanisms abound; BUT… …long-term adaptation is foreclosed by politics.

32 e.g. Tel Avive.g. Fesa’el Example of Potential Findings

33 Grey Water re-use – cheese water Rainwater Harvesting – Wadi Terracing Adapting to Vulnerability – Adaptive Capacity

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35 Adapting to Vulnerability – Coping Mechanisms

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40 Adaptation Integration into Policy and Planning


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