Presentation on theme: "Relations between Parenting and Child Self-Regulation in Early Childhood Hyein Chang, Xin Feng, Kelly M. Martin, Roger P. Potersnak, & Daniel S. Shaw Rationale."— Presentation transcript:
Relations between Parenting and Child Self-Regulation in Early Childhood Hyein Chang, Xin Feng, Kelly M. Martin, Roger P. Potersnak, & Daniel S. Shaw Rationale Self-regulation (SR) in early childhood shows heterotypic continuity in which manifestations of SR transform over time reflecting changing developmental tasks and child abilities (Kopp, 1982; Bronson, 2000). Although SR has a biological basis, its development may reflect transactional processes between the child and the context such as parenting (Sameroff & Chandler, 1975). However, few studies have tested a transactional model of child SR and parenting in the early childhood period. Study Goals We investigated reciprocal processes between heterotypic child SR and harsh parenting in early childhood. Both parent effects (i.e., harsh parenting → low child SR) and child effects (i.e., low child SR → harsh parenting) were examined. Figure 1. Hypothesized model of heterotypic child SR and parenting Method Participants 310 low-income boys recruited from the WIC Clinics in Pittsburgh: 47% non-White, 35% single-parent household, the mean per capita income of $241/mo. Measures Heterotypic, developmentally-salient constructs of child SR were assessed with maternal and lab measures (Table 1). Negative control parenting was measured observationally in a clean-up task and was a composite of negative physical contact, critical statement, and intrusiveness (α =.68,.72, and.53 for 18, 24, and 42 months, respectively; Winslow & Shaw, 1995). 18mo Harsh Parenting 24mo Harsh Parenting 42mo Harsh Parenting 18mo Child SR Deficit 24mo Child SR Deficit 42mo Child SR Deficit 60mo Child SR Deficit Table 1. Measures of heterotypic child SR Results Analysis Overview Substantive research questions were addressed with SEM in Mplus 5.21 with full-information maximum likelihood estimation to handle missing (Muthén & Muthén, 2007). Figure 2. Results of the transactional model of child SR and parenting The research reported was supported by grants to the fifth author from the National Institute of Mental Health (MH and MH 01666). For references and more information, please contact Hyein Chang at SR ConstructsMeasure 18mo Negative Emotionality Maternal report on the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (Bates et al., 1979) and the Toddler Behavior Checklist (Larzelere et al., 1989) ; Coder ratings of child fussing and crying during structured tasks 24mo Oppositionality/Aggression Maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/Achenbach, 1992) ; Lab examiner ratings of child noncompliance and aggression 42 months Frustration Intolerance Maternal report on the CBCL (Achenbach, 1992) ; Coder ratings of child anger and inability to wait during a delay of gratification task 60 mo Interpersonal Dysregulation Maternal report on the Social Skills Rating Scale (Gresham & Elliot, 1990); Coder ratings of child regulation in a sibling conflict task Figure 3. Moderating effect of maternal harsh parenting at 18 months on heterotypic continuity of deficits in child SR from 18 to 24 months Summary of Findings Both parent and child effects were significant. Specifically, harsh parenting at 18 months predicted low levels of child SR at 42 months controlling for earlier SR (parent effects). Deficits in child SR at 18 months predicted low levels of harsh parenting at 24 months controlling for earlier harsh parenting (child effects). Additionally, the interaction between child SR and parenting at 18 months was associated with child SR at 24 months. Children whose mothers engaged in high levels of harsh parenting maintained their struggle with SR from 18 to 24 months. Discussion Unlike parent effects (harsh parenting → low child SR), child effects (low child SR → low harsh parenting) were in the unexpected direction but are consistent with the idea that parents may initially try harder to respond to their temperamentally difficulty children (Crockenberg, 1986). The significant interactive effect (child SR x parenting) suggests that the heterotypic development of child SR may be moderated by contextual factors such as parenting. The findings highlight early toddlerhood as an important period in understanding the development of SR and for early identification and prevention of deficits in SR and related types of problems..13* 18mo Harsh Parenting 24mo Harsh Parenting 42mo Harsh Parenting 18mo SR x Harsh 18mo Child SR Deficit 24mo Child SR Deficit 42mo Child SR Deficit 60mo Child SR Deficit.27***.25***.17**.15**.29***.15*** -.12*.10+ Significant paths (standardized estimates) presented. χ 2 (10) = 13.93, p =.18, CFI =.97, RMSEA =.04 +p <.10, *p <.05, **p <.01, ***p <.001 Parent effect Child effect Interactive effect Children with low SR at 18 months continued to struggle with SR at 24 months if they had negatively controlling mothers at 18 months.