Presentation on theme: "Information Systems Using Information Higher. Introduction Data and information Organisational Information Systems Information Management Software The."— Presentation transcript:
Information Systems Using Information Higher
Introduction Data and information Organisational Information Systems Information Management Software The implications of ICT Outcome 1 Content
Introduction Information and knowledge are so important that society can be divided up into two groups. Information rich - you have access to: many TV and radio channels books, newspapers and journals computers and the World Wide Web. Information poor - tend to not have access to the Web and probably find it difficult to access relevant books and journals. If you are following this course you will probably be information rich. We are going to examine the nature and uses of information by looking at: 1.Differences between Data and Information 2.Organisational Information Systems 3.Information Management Software 4.Implications of Information and Communications Technology.
Data and Information The Differences Between Data and InformationThe Differences Between Data and Information Metadata Categorisation of Information Characteristics Which Affect the Quality of InformationCharacteristics Which Affect the Quality of Information
Data and Information Data is raw unprocessed facts and figures that have no context or purposeful meaning. Information is processed data that has meaning and a context. Data 36.41 Binary patterns on a disc Information £36.41 – bill for DVDs Processed data – e.g. display on screen, icons, etc.
Knowledge Knowledge is gained from Information. We gain knowledge from information and we use that information to make decisions. Explicit knowledge is rules or processes or decisions that can be recorded either on paper or in an information system. Tacit knowledge exists inside the minds of humans and is harder to record. It tends to be created from someone’s experiences, so again is a set of rules or experiences.
Metadata Metadata can be thought of as data that describes data. Examples a data dictionary the card index system used by libraries before computerisation, where each card told you the author, title and where to find the book data about documents or files stored on the computer. The computer keeps a file on its hard disk where it records information about each and every file on the computer. This includes information such as when the file was created or modified; who created it; the size of the file; the file type it is. This master or directory file is an example of metadata.
Categorisation of Information Information can be categorised under several headings that allow us to determine its overall usefulness. Main categories Source Nature Level Time Frequency Use Form Type.
Source – Primary or Secondary Where statistical information is gathered, such as in surveys or polls, the survey data or polling data is the primary source and the conclusions reached from the survey or the results of the poll are secondary sources A secondary source of information is one that provides information from a source other than the original. A primary source provides the data to an information system from an original source document. e.g. an invoice sent to a business or a cheque received. sales figures for a range of goods for a tinned food manufacturer for one week or several weeks and one or several locations. e.g. an accounts book detailing invoices received, or a bank statement that shows details of cheques paid in.
Source – Internal All organisations generate a substantial amount of internal information relating to their operation. Examples of internal sources: Marketing and sales information on performance, revenues, market share, distribution channels, etc. Production and operational information on assets, quality, standards, etc. Financial information on profits, costs, margins, cash flows, investments, etc. Internal documentation such as order forms, invoices, credit notes, procedural manuals.
Source – External An external source of information is concerned with what is happening beyond the boundaries of the organisation. census figures judgments on court cases legislation, e.g. the Data Protection Act trade journals professional publications industry standards telephone directories computer users’ yearbook Gallup & national opinion polls Ordnance Survey maps Financial services agencies such as Dunn and Bradstreet the Internet
Source - Nature Formal Communication information presented in a structured and consistent manner main methods the formal letter, properly structured reports, writing of training materials, etc. in cogent, coherent, well-structured language. Informal Communication less well-structured information transmitted within an organisation or between individuals who usually know each other. Quantitative Information information that is represented numerically. Qualitative Information information that is represented using words.
Levels of Information STRATEGIC TACTICAL OPERATIONAL Long-term decisions - both internal & external sources Top level of management Medium-term decisions - mostly internal but some external sources Middle management Day-to-day decisions - largely internal sources Lowest level of staff
Time Historic Information gathered and stored over a period of time. It allows decision makers to draw comparisons between previous and present activities. Historic information can be used to identify trends over a period of time. Present Information created from activities during the current work- window (day, week or month). In real-time systems this information would be created instantly from the data gathered (e.g. the temperature in a nuclear power plant turbine) giving accurate and up-to-date information. Future Information that is created using present and historic information to try to predict the future activities and events relating to the operation of an organisation.
Frequency of Information Continuous This is information created from data gathered several times a second. It is the type of information created by a real-time system. Periodic Information created at regular time intervals (hourly, daily, monthly, annually). Annually – On an annual basis a company must submit its report and accounts to the shareholders. Monthly – Banks and credit card companies produce monthly statements for the majority of their customers. Daily – A supermarket will make daily summaries of its sales and use the product information to update its stock levels and reorder stock automatically. Hourly – A busy call centre will often update totals for each operator on an hourly basis and give the top employee for the hour some reward.
Uses of Information within Organisations Planning is the process of deciding, in advance, what has to be done and how it is to be done. Planning is decisions by management about: What is to be done in the future How to do it When to do it Who is to do it An objective is something that needs to be achieved. A plan describes the activities or actions required to achieve the objective.
Uses of Information within Organisations Control is the monitoring and evaluation of current progress against the steps of a pre- defined plan or standard. Operational level the manager’s time will be spent on control activities At higher levels planning and control are more closely linked, with management being concerned with the monitoring of progress against the plan, assessing the suitability of the plan itself, and predicting future conditions.
Uses of Information within Organisations Decision-making – means selecting an action or actions from those possible based on the information available. involves determining and examining the available actions and then selecting the most appropriate actions in order to achieve the required results. is an essential part of management and is carried out at all levels of management for all tasks. is made up of four phases: Finding occasions for decision making Finding possible courses of action Choosing among these courses of action Evaluating past choices.
Forms of Information Written Hand-written, word-processed, e-mails. Reports from different classes of software. Reports, memos and tables, receipts, invoices, statements, summary accounting information. Aural Speech, formal meetings, informal meetings, talking on the phone and voice-mail messages. Employee presentations to a group where there may be use made of music and sound effects as well as speech. Visual pictures, charts and graphs. Presentations via data projects, DVDs, etc.
Types of Information Detailed An inventory list showing stock levels Actual costs to the penny of goods Detailed operating instructions Most often used at operational level Sampled Selected records from a database Product and sales summaries in a supermarket Often used at a tactical level (maybe strategic) Aggregated Totals created when detailed information is summed together Details of purchases made by customers totaled each month
Characteristics of Information Availability / Accessibility Information should be easy to obtain or access Accuracy Information needs to be accurate enough for the use to which it is going to be put. Reliability or Objectivity Reliability deals with the truth of the information or the objectivity with which it is presented. Relevance / Appropriateness Information should be relevant to the purpose for which it is required. It must be suitable.
Characteristics of Information Completeness Information should contain all details required by the user. Level of Detail / Conciseness Information should be in a form that is short enough to allow for its examination and use. There should be no extraneous information. Presentation Information can be more easily assimilated if it is aesthetically pleasing. Timing Information must be on time for the purpose for which it is required. Information received too late will be irrelevant.
Characteristics – Value and Cost Value The relative importance of information for decision-making can increase or decrease its value to an organisation. Cost Information should be available within set cost levels that may vary dependent on situation. The difference between value and cost Valuable information need not cost much. Information costly to obtain may not have much value.
Organisational Information Systems Categories of Information Systems Organisational Management Systems Concepts, functions & strategies Conceptsfunctions strategies Centralised database Network strategy Security strategy Backup strategy Upgrade strategy Software strategy Distributed databases, data warehousing & data miningDistributed databases, data warehousing & data mining
Categories of Information Systems Data Processing Systems (DPS) - Operational Management Information Systems (MIS) - Tactical Decision Support Systems (DSS) - Tactical Executive Information System (EIS) - Strategic
Data Processing Systems Transactional Processing System Deals with day-to-day transactions Accountancy, invoicing, stock control Items scanned by bar code reader DPS are the tools used at the Operational level of an organisation DPS involves use of a computer
Management Information Systems MIS convert data from internal and external sources into information for managers. The source of data for an MIS usually comes from numerous databases. These databases are usually the data storage for Data Processing Systems. MIS summarise and report on the organisation’s basic operations. MIS produce reports for managers interested in historic trends on a regular basis. MIS operate at the tactical level.
Decision Support Systems DSS provide information and models in a form to help tactical and strategic decision-making. They support management decision-making by integrating: Company performance data Business rules in a decision table Analytical tools and models for forecasting and planning A simple user interface to query the system. DSS are useful when making ad-hoc, one-off decisions. The sources of data for DSS tend to be a combination of summary information gathered from lower-level DPS and MIS.
Executive Information Systems EIS provide senior managers with systems to assist in taking strategic and tactical decisions. Purpose – to analyse, compare and identify trends to help the strategic direction of the organisation. EIS incorporate data about external events. They: draw summarised information from internal MIS and DSS. filter, compress, and track critical data. reduce time and effort required to obtain information useful to strategic management. employ advanced graphics software to provide highly visual and easy-to-use representations of complex information and current trends. do not provide analytical models. EIS allow the user to look at specific data that has been summarised from lower levels within the organisation and then drill down to increase the level of detail - data warehouse analysis.
Expert Systems An expert system is a computer program that tries to emulate human reasoning. It does this by combining the knowledge of human experts and then, following a set of rules, draws inferences. An expert system is made up of three parts: A knowledge base stores all of the facts, rules and information needed to represent the knowledge of the expert. An inference engine interprets the rules and facts to find solutions to user queries. A user interface allows new knowledge to be entered and the system queried. Expert systems are used for the following purposes: To store information in an active form as organisational memory. To create a mechanism that is not subject to human feelings, such as fatigue and worry. To generate solutions to specific problems that are too substantial and complex to be analysed by human beings in a short period of time.
Interrelationships between Information Systems
Concepts in Relation to Organisational Management Systems Speed The processor is able to carry out millions of calculations per second. Accuracy Computers store and process numbers to a high degree of accuracy. Depends on the software written and of course human accuracy. Much financial software is accurate to 3 decimal places rounded to 2. The software and hardware combined will perform the calculation correctly every time. Volume The number of transactions in a period of time is the volume. Efficiency The efficiency of an Information System is a combination of the speed, accuracy and volume of the data processed.
The Functions of an Organisational Information System (1) Gathering data Turnaround documents in mail order and bills Bar codes on almost every item sold Call centres, customers pay by card Internet ordering – credit and debit cards Cards with magnetic strips and chip and PIN Magnetic ink character reader on cheques Optical character recognition Mark sense reader (Lottery tickets) In each case the data is captured and then stored electronically and used for some purpose.
The Functions of an Organisational Information System (2) Storing information Magnetic media Magnetic tape – long-term and backup storage. Very cheap but slow to access. Hard disk – very fast random access, used in most applications including ordering and booking systems. Optical media CD-ROMS and DVDs – both available in writeable and re-writeable formats. Not as flexible as disk, but very compact.
The Functions of an Organisational Information System (3) Processing data Searching and selection Search and select a sub-section of the data that matches specified criteria. Sorting and rearranging Alphabetic or numeric, ascending or descending. Aggregating Summarising data by totalling details. Performing calculations Working out bills like utility bills.
The Functions of an Organisational Information System (4) Outputting information Paper Till receipts, statements, cheques, internal reports and almost anything. Screen Data entry screens and reports for managers. Web-aware applications where pages are viewed as if on the Internet. File Saving to backing storage. Files can be e-mailed as attachments.
Organisational Information System Management Strategies Network strategy Addresses data transfer, distribution, access and security, facilities, storage. Security strategy Deals with access to the network and keeping unauthorised people out. Backup and recovery strategy To ensure data is not accidentally erased and that it can be recovered once backed up. Upgrade strategy To plan new hardware and software and ensure that everything new will work properly. Software strategy Choose between bespoke and standard packages.
Centralised Database A very large and powerful database - at the heart of an organisation. Database program is called the database engine; it saves and indexes files in tables and manages the relationships between the tables. Information can be found fairly easily by querying the centralised database. Usually a multi-user or network system is used which means that any user on the system can have access to the database. Advantages to the database being centralised. Much easier to organise, edit, update and back-up the data. Communications are easier. No real disadvantages to a centralised database.
Information System Management Strategies Network Strategy Upgrade Strategy Security Strategy Backup Strategy Software Strategy Organisational Information Systems
Networks LAN (Local Area Network) – in one building. Device sharing. Software sharing. Data sharing. Communication. WAN (Wide Area Network) – over a city, country or the wide world. Uses telecommunications. Distributed networks LAN with several servers, data accessible from all over the network.
Network Hardware Client-server network Central server stores data files and log-in details. Peer-to-peer network No central server, all stations equal. Cheaper, data less secure.
Network Hardware Network Adapter Card Built-in to the computer. Allows the computer to send and receive data around the network. Structured Cabling Cables made from copper wire, co-axial cable, fibre-optic cable and twisted pairs. Twisted pair Ethernet is the most common. Fibre optic used to link over longer distances and to carry a very high bandwidth.
Network Software Network Operating System – 2 parts The version that runs on the server. This is needed to control which users and workstations can access the server, to keep each user’s data secure, and to control the flow of information around the network. It is also responsible for file and data sharing, communications between users and hardware, and peripheral sharing. The version that runs on the personal computers to turn them into network stations. Each workstation (computer) connected to the network needs the Network Operating System installed before it can connect successfully to the network facilities.
Network Software Network Auditing and Monitoring Software This software keeps a track of network activity. It records user activity and workstation activity. In a commercial organisation this sort of auditing and monitoring can be used to detect fraud and suspicious activity.
. Problem sourceActivity Pupils/studentsBreaching of network security features as a challenge. Prying into other people’s work. HackersMalicious breaching of network security features via virus or worm infestation. Ex EmployeesGaining access to confidential files and manipulating the data for personal benefit AccountantsEmbezzling money from the company. FraudstersUsing stolen credit card details to purchase goods and services over the internet. Hackers/SpiesTapping into wireless networks using radio- listening devices to gain information or steal data.
Security Strategy This covers security, integrity and privacy of data. Data security means keeping data safe from physical loss. Data integrity means the correctness of the stored data. Data privacy means keeping data secret so that unauthorised users cannot access it.
Security Risks A virus a piece of programming code that causes some unexpected and usually undesirable event in a computer system. Viruses can be transmitted as attachments to an e-mail as a download on a disc being used for something else. Some viruses take effect as soon as their code takes residence in a system. Others lie dormant until something triggers their code to be executed by the computer. Viruses can be extremely harmful and may erase data or require the reformatting of a hard disk once they have been removed.
Security Risks Trojan a destructive program that pretends to be a helpful application or file. Worm a self-replicating program that reproduces itself over a network using the resources on one machine (processor time, memory, hard disk, network connection etc) to attack other machines.
Security Risks Denial of service This involves flooding an organisation’s Internet server with a large number of requests for information (traffic). This increase in traffic overloads the server, which becomes incapable of dealing with the backlog of requests, and results in the server crashing or needing to be taken offline to resolve the problem.
Security Risks Denial of service This type of attack can be very costly. An example was the attack on Yahoo in 2000, which involved their servers being flooded with 1billion hits per minute. The attack was estimated to have cost £300,000 in lost advertising revenue alone.
Security Risks Hacking This is the gaining of unauthorised access to a computer information system. The offence is to maliciously alter data or steal information.
Data Security Policies and Procedures Codes of Conduct These apply to users of an information system. Most organisations insist that users follow a set of rules for using their system. Employees have to sign a code of conduct as part of their conditions of employment. A code of conduct can cover basic professional competences as well as obvious statements like “Never disclose your password to anybody else and change your password every week.”
Data Security Policies and Procedures BCS code of ethics covers: Professional conduct Professional integrity Public interest Fidelity Technical competence. Password guidelines Minimum length of 5 characters Must consist of letters and numbers Must not contain any words Must not be the same as the previous password Must not use easily guessed strings of letters or numbers (e.g. 123456 and abcdef).
Implementing Data Security Virus protection Prevention Prevent users from using floppy disks. Scan incoming e-mails for viruses. Do not open mail or attachments from someone you don’t recognise. Detection Install anti-virus software. Update it regularly to detect new viruses. Repair Anti-virus s/w can quarantine a virus. Can delete the virus code from an infected file.
Implementing Data Security Firewalls Device or software used to prevent unauthorised access to a network. Placed between the server and the Internet connection (router). Can block sections of the network. Only allows authorised users to join the network (dial-in).
Implementing Data Security Encryption Used by on-line retailers to keep card details secure. Needed in order to gain trust of purchasers. 32-bit encryption almost impossible to crack.
Implementing Data Security Access rights Read – allows users to read files. Write – allows users to write (save) files. Create – allows users to create new files. Erase – allows users to erase files. Modify – allows users to modify files. Groups of users may have. Read/write/create/erase on home drive. Read only on shared areas.
Back-up Strategy A backup is a copy of files on second medium (disk or tape) as a precaution in case the first medium fails. This can be tape, external portable hard disks, writeable CD-ROM or DVD. To be especially safe, one of these backups should be kept in a different location from the others. Back up programs used by large organisations are capable of compressing the data so that backups use less storage capacity.
Back-up Strategy Every computer user should have a strategy in place to back-up their data. The purpose of backing up data is to ensure that the most recent copy of the data can be recovered and restored in the event of data loss. Reasons for loss: Natural disaster – fire, flood, building collapse etc electronic disasters such as a damaged disk head files being accidentally erased the disk being attacked by a virus.
Archive, Recovery and Storage Methods Archive The process of copying data from hard disk drives to tape or other media for long-term storage. Data verification It is important to check that the data stored on the back-up media can be recovered. Storage methods DAT tape on built-in drives on servers. USB removable hard drives. Frequency and version control Full back-up (weekly) and incremental daily. Grandfather, father, son method.
Archive, Recovery and Storage Methods Full Backup a full copy of all the files on your computer Incremental Backup only the data which has changed since the last incremental backup is saved to the backup device Differential Backup only the data which has changed since the last full backup is saved to the backup device.
Grandfather Father Son Stage 1 Four media sets are designated for incremental daily backups for Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday. Any of these media sets can be referred to as a ’son’ media set. These media sets are reused each week on the designated day. Stage 2 On a Friday a full backup is performed for the week’s files( a daily incremental backup is not performed on this day). The media set used on Friday can be referred to as a ’father’ media set. Stage 3 On the last business day of the month a full backup is performed to a new media set, which can be referred to as a ’grandfather’ media set. These media sets are labelled for each month of the year
Future proofing Making sure that a system has a reasonable life and does not need to be totally replaced too soon. Hardware compatibility Will older hardware work with newer equipment (e.g. printers with computers)? Software compatibility Will older software work with new operating systems, etc?
Upgrade Strategy Integration testing Are the peripheral devices compatible with the hardware and operating system? Does the network software support the hardware and operating system? Is the application software compatible with the operating system and computer? Is the hardware compatible with the operating system?
Upgrade Strategy Legacy systems Old information systems running on out-of-date hardware and operating systems are often referred to as legacy systems. Emulation An emulator is a product designed to imitate one system while running on another. This allows access to a greater range of applications that might not be available on the given hardware platform. The use of an emulator allows data to be transferred between platforms
Needs to take account of the issues: evaluating the software for use user support for the software training supplied for end users of the software upgrade path of the software.
Software Evaluation Software evaluation should cover: Functionality – This refers not only to the number of features an application program has but to the number of useable features it has. Also the tasks to be completed need to be evaluated against the features in the software. Performance – The performance of software can be measured by several different criteria depending on the type of software.
Criteria for Evaluation of Software Speed Measured against benchmarks. Usability Look and feel, choices in menus, etc. Compatibility With operating system. Data Migration Translating from one format to another. Reliability Does the job it is supposed to? Resource requirements enough RAM enough hard disks space Portability Will it work on different systems? Support Assistance from vendors or writers?
Training in Using Software On-the-job A new user needs to be introduced to the software. This means working through a tutorial to become familiar with the functions of the software. It usually involves an online tutorial program or tutorial manual that teaches the user about the software. In-house This is when small groups of staff, within the company, receive a training course delivered by IT staff. External This is offered by specialist training providers for popular application software, such as software created by Microsoft, Macromedia and Adobe.
User Support Manuals Installation guide – gives advice on how to install the software and how to configure it to work with various hardware. Tutorial guide – gives step-by-step instructions on how to use the software. Reference manual – is an indexed guide detailing all the functions of the software. On-line help Explains to the user what each feature of the software does. It is a part of the program situated on the computer and is not on the Internet. On-line tutorials Step-by-step instructions on the computer, not on the Internet.
User Support Help desk Internal (end user) and external (software vendors). Newsgroups A Newsgroup allows users of a piece of software to post e-mail messages to the wider user community. FAQs This stands for Frequently Asked Questions. It is usually a file that contains a list of commonly asked user queries about a piece of software.
Issues Affecting Decisions to Upgrade Software Lack of functionality Business changes, new technology outdates software. Hardware incompatibility Upgraded computers do not support old software. Software incompatibility New operating system will not run old software. Perfecting the software Removing bugs and improving it – will existing data work with it?
Centralised and Distributed Databases Centralised database All the data is held on a central computer mainframe or server. Advantages mean it is far easier to manage and control if it is only in one location. far easier to back up when it is centralised. Distributed database Consists of two or more files located at different sites on a computer network. Different users can access it without interrupting one another. The DBMS must synchronise the scattered databases to make sure they all have consistent data.
Data Warehousing Historical data transactions are separated out from the ongoing business. The data is re-organised in such a way as to allow it to be analysed; the newly structured data is then queried and the results of the query are reported. Could be used as a predictive tool, to indicate what should be done in the future. Main use is as a review tool, to monitor the effects of previous operational decisions made in the course of a business.
Data Mining Data mining Data mining is the analysis of data and the use of software techniques for finding patterns and regularities in sets of data. The computer is responsible for finding the patterns by identifying the underlying rules and features in the data. The mining analogy is that large volumes of data are sifted in an attempt to find something worthwhile (in a mining operation large amounts of low-grade materials are sifted through in order to find something of value).
Information Management Software Classes of software Evaluation of software
Information Management Software Word processing Entering and formatting text Spreadsheet Financial and numerical analysis and record keeping Database Store, search, sort data Graphics design Create and manipulate pictures Browsers Surf the Net E-mail client Compose, send and receive e-mails Chat client Send and receive messages interactively Desk-top publishing (DTP) Layout text and graphics professionally Presentation Create slide shows Reference Encyclopaedias and dictionaries Financial Manage and control money Web authoring Create web pages and sites.
Classes of Software There are five classes of software: Presenting information for print media Presenting information for on-line media Spreadsheet (data handling) Project management Personal information management
Presenting Information for Print Media Word Processing (WP) Desk Top Publishing (DTP)
Word Processing Software Data objects characters, words paragraphs graphic objects Operations File menu – save, print, open, close Edit menu – cut, copy, paste View menu –headers and footers. Insert menu – page break, date/time, picture Format menu – B I U, alignment, borders Tools menu – mail merge, spelling, word count Table menu – Insert table then table operations
Desk Top Publishing Standard File, Edit, View, Window, Help, menus Also a Toolbox. Arrow and Text, basic drawing tools, wordart, clipart, picture frame Many page different layouts Many pre set templates
Desk Top Publishing Inserting graphics Clip art Scanned pictures Digital camera Formatting graphics How graphic behaves on the page Square, tight, in front of, behind. A graphic formatted with tight Layout means text flows around it.
Desk Top Publishing Advanced operations and functions Page Layout Headers and Footers Columns Multi-Page Layout Pagination Contents and Indexing Style Sheets Colour Schemes
Presenting Information for Print Media Differences between WP and DTP WP is used for generating text, while DTP tends to use pre-prepared text. DTP manages to handle text and graphics far more easily and precisely. DTP handles multi-page documents far better especially when the page layout is different. DTP files tend to be very large, especially if photographic images are used.
Presenting Information for On-line Media Presentations Large growth in the use of software to create presentations. Cost of data projectors has dropped. Presentation software allows the user to create a slide show. Slides can hold a variety of multimedia objects. Slides can be sequenced - jump to using hyperlinks.
Presentation Software Page structure Individual slides follow a linear pattern Incorporation of graphics Graphics on slide are embedded in the page Presentation style Font selection vast Navigation Move to next slide by click of mouse Transitions can also be timed Slides can be linked together by hyperlinks Templates Various pre-prepared templates available. Can make up own template as a slide master
Web Authoring Software Page structure Individual pages linked to form a site File written as HTML code Incorporation of graphics Graphics should be JPEG or GIF to keep size down Graphics linked to the page Presentation style Should use standard fonts Use web safe colours Navigation Pages linked together by Hyperlinks Home Page URL is the address of the site Templates Style sheets provide common fonts, colours, etc.
Spreadsheet Uses Education Record and analyse marks and results Keeping track of budgets and financial information Home Keep track of household expenditure track share values Finance cash flow forecast accounts, invoices, sales orders, purchase orders, etc. Modelling and simulation forecasting goal seeking
Spreadsheet Software Data Objects Cells and groups of cells Containing text, numbers, formulas. Operations File menu – save, print, open, close Edit menu – cut, copy and paste. View menu – including headers and footers. Insert menu – rows, columns, worksheet, functions. Format menu – format cells including numeric like currency also standard text formatting. B I U Tools menu – spelling protection and macros Data menu – Sort, filter
Spreadsheet Software Advanced functions Goal seeking Automatically change values until desired result achieved. Forecasting Calculates or predicts a future value by using existing values. Using scenarios. Look-up tables Can be used to insert text in a cell depending on a value. E.g. Grades or Pass/Fail from an exam mark. Nested IF Using an IF function within an IF function. Count Gets the number of entries in a range of cells (COUNTA for text values). Macros A sequence of instructions that can be used to automate a task.
Project Management Project Management Software Used to help manage a project. Identifying the activities that need to be carried out to complete the project Activities scheduled to ensure efficiency. Planning, monitoring and control of the various activities or resources that contribute to its success.
Project Management Time lining Shows how and when a task needs to be completed before the next one starts. Resource allocation Software tools to help match materials, machines, people and money. Helps to maximise profits and achieve best quality. Gantt and PERT charts Gantt shows timings of each activity in a chart Developed by Charles Gantt PERT shows relationship between activities Program Evaluation and Review Technique Optimisation & Critical Path Analysis A mathematical process concerned with the optimisation of time. Used for very complicated processes e.g. (managing a production line).
Personal Information Management Personal information management software is a type of software application designed to help users organise personal information.
Microsoft Outlook Contacts - can be thought of as a very comprehensive address book. Calendar - lets the user keep a diary of events, meetings, appointments and activities. Task list - also called a “To-do list”. It keeps a list of all the tasks that require to be carried out and reminds the user when each task is due to be completed. Communication – e-mail. Most PIM applications support sending, receiving and management of emails.
Evaluation of Software Range of Data Objects Are the objects appropriate to the software? e.g. graphics and audio files important for web design. Range of Operations Appropriate to software – database should have good search and sort and reporting. Formatting Functions Look at fonts, style, graphics handling, paragraphing, text wrap, numerical formats, etc. HCI Use of keyboard commands, menus, toolbars and icons. Help and Tutorials Most packages have on-line help and tutorials. Often displayed as web pages but are NOT on the Internet.
Implications of ICT Social implications Legal implications Economic implications Ethical implications
Social Implications Ease of access and availability Information rich / poor Impact of IS on social structures Educational qualifications and ICT Knowledge workers Online retail Globalisation The impact on business of an IS-driven business model Identities and personas Privacy
Ease of Access and Availability Access to Internet at work and home. Digital satellite TV with all its services. Access to magazines, books & newspapers. Access in social lives – libraries and Internet cafes. We expect Internet access on holiday and in hotel rooms. Fact – There are more telephones in the city of New York than the continent of Africa (and telephones give access to information).
Information rich/Information poor Information rich – They will: Have easy access to computers and electronic communications. Get information and news from the Internet Buy the latest products through on-line shopping. Follow computer-based learning and skills training courses at home. Look for jobs that are advertised solely on the Internet. Find it easier to get well-paid jobs and will enjoy a more comfortable and secure life-style. Information poor – They will not: Have easy access to computers. Have the IT skills and confidence to take part in teleshopping, telebanking, Internet chat and news groups.
Impact of IS on Social Structures Families Feel more secure with two wages coming into the family. More mothers have careers and they may not have any children till they are 30 or older. Is this change in family patterns partly caused by computerisation? Are there any risks to the family and to society as a whole from this development? Banks Used to be paper based and only for middle and upper classes – for reasons of wealth and trust. Use of IT means anyone can have a bank account – transaction processing and high levels of security. Now widespread use of plastic money – credit and debit cards.
Educational Qualifications and ICT Educational qualifications Qualifications in Computing since the early 1960s, but these were solely in universities and colleges. By mid-1980s computing was available in schools. By 1999 the two strands of software and hardware divided into Computing and Information Systems. Now there are very many different courses offered at degree and NC level, all related to ICT. Need for ICT awareness ICT lets people vote by text on game shows, shop on the Internet, use digital TV to order goods. Families send digital photos round the world. Almost all office jobs and professionals need to use ICT.
Knowledge Workers Knowledge worker A person who adds value by processing existing information to create new information that could be used to define and solve problems. Examples of knowledge workers Lawyers, doctors, diplomats, law-makers, software developers, managers and bankers. People who use their intellect to convert their ideas into products, services, or processes. Problem solvers rather than production workers. Use intellectual rather than manual skills to earn a living. Core knowledge workers Those in specific ‘knowledge management’ roles. Knowledge managers, librarians, content managers, information officers, knowledge analysts, etc. Everyone else All the other knowledge workers – everyone engaged in some form of ‘knowledge work’.
Online Retail Internet shopping – the here and now. Young people much more likely to shop online than older people. Young people spend on low-value goods (CDs, DVDs, books and hair straighteners). Older people spend on high-value items like holidays and make repeat grocery orders. Why Internet shop? Goods can be difficult to buy locally. Goods are often much cheaper. National chains carry the same goods – the Internet gives wider choice.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Shopping Consumer advantages More choice of goods online. Cheaper prices. Home delivery – Grocery shopping on-line very useful for young families. Consumer disadvantages Often long delivery times. Temptation to spend more money than intended. Social isolation (supermarkets are the new social scene). On-line Retailer advantages Can reach a far wider audience. Doesn’t need expensive showrooms. Doesn’t need to employ trained sales staff. On-line Retailer disadvantages Must spend money on a website with secure payment system. Must accept a high rate of returns. Never meets customers.
The Changing Relationships between Retailer and Customer Shoppers are: Becoming intolerant of goods being unavailable or out of stock. Very wary of over-pricing and long delivery times. Consumers are: More willing to go online and order from different retailers. Willing to use a credit card to buy online Aware of the stress of waiting for goods bought when presents don’t turn up on time. We still maintain relationships: With local specialist shops. Customers who buy their groceries on-line and have the same delivery driver every week often build up a good relationship with the driver. In general: The two types of shopping can complement each other, opening up new markets to specialist retailers and giving more choice to customers.
Globalisation Is the growing integration of economies and societies around the world. Has been a hotly debated topic in economics. Positive aspects Rapid growth and poverty reduction in China, India, and other countries that were poor 20 years ago. Negative aspects It has increased inequality. It contributes to environmental degradation. It is most conspicuous in huge companies producing products as diverse as oil, Cola and burgers.
Impact of IS on Business and Societies Multinational companies As diverse as Cola and Oil technology. Achieved globalisation through the use of information systems. Originally a few large companies with mainframe computers. Confined to major US networks and European cities. Present-day examples of globalisation Smaller companies have global presence. Communicate via dedicated worldwide intranet. Publish reports, memos, etc & e-mail round the world. Don’t need mainframe systems. Use web and mail servers to communicate.
The Impact on Business of an IS- Driven Business Model Traditional businesses Have embraced IT with open arms. Have had IT forced upon them and adapted. Modern IS-driven businesses Companies without High Street branches. Call centre based companies. Advertise heavily on TV. Much lower overheads than maintaining a network of branches. Call centres can bring employment to smaller towns rather than cities.
Identities & Personas Using the Internet as a medium of communication Change is having a dramatic impact on people’s lives. Ability to communicate with anyone regardless of age, sex, location, background, etc. The Internet allows people to develop different identities and personas when communicating. Can join chat rooms and newsgroups and offer an expert opinion even when not an expert. Disadvantages Criminal offence of “grooming” via the Internet. Parents wary of letting teenagers have use of the Internet. Fear of the Internet among certain groups in society. Read about Jonathan Lebed and Marcus Arnold (either online or in the notes).
Privacy Private communications across the Internet Should be secure and safe. We feel we have a right to this privacy. Websites we visit should be our business. National security or criminal actions Terrorists use e-mail, mobile phones and the Internet to communicate amongst themselves. Criminals use the Internet to host websites. What about our privacy? Security organisations can scan all e-mail and mobile phone messages looking for tell-tale phrases. FBI caught thousands of paedophiles across USA and Europe via their IP address and phone number.
Legal Implications of Information Systems The Data Protection Act 1998 Computer Misuse Act 1990 Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 The Freedom of Information Act (Scotland) 2002 Health and safety regulations
The 1998 Data Protection Act The 8 data protection principles Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully. Personal data shall be obtained only for lawful purposes. Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive. Personal data shall be accurate and kept up to date. Personal data shall not be kept for longer than is necessary. Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects. Appropriate measures shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful processing of data. Personal data shall not be transferred to a country outside Europe. In the UK, data must be registered with the Data Commissioner.
The 1998 Data Protection Act Unconditional exemptions: Data related to national security. Data which by law has to be made public (e.g. the voters’ roll). Data held by the Police and National Health Service. Conditional exemptions: Mailing lists (names and addresses). Data used for calculating and paying wages. Information used for club memberships. Data used by a data subject at home.
The 1998 Data Protection Act Rights of data subjects: To see any personal data stored either electronically or manually about them. The data controller may ask that a small fee be paid to cover their costs in providing the data. To have their data corrected if it is inaccurate. To prevent their data being used by companies to send them junk mail. Responsibilities of data users: Have to register with the Data Protection Registrar if they wish to hold personal information about data subjects. They must be willing to let data subjects see data held about them, and must amend any false data without charge. Data users must also be willing to remove subjects’ names and addresses from mailing lists if asked to.
The 1998 Data Protection Act Changes from the 1984 Act: The 1984 DPA had certain shortcomings: It only covered data in electronic form. Companies could circumvent certain provisions. It had no European or worldwide dimension. There was no obligation on data users to tell the data subjects that they held any data about them. The 1998 Act: Covers the transmission of data in electronic form, which was not really an issue in 1984. Harmonised the European Union Data Protection legislation. It also made it a requirement of the Act to ask for the prior consent of data subjects to have data held about them, and it included paper-based records.
Computer Misuse Act The Act contains three sections covering: Unauthorised access to computer material Basic hacking – e.g. breaking into the school network, locking a user out of the system, etc. Unauthorised access with intent to commit or facilitate commission of further offences Where a computer system is used to help commit a crime. Unauthorised modification of computer material Expert hacking – modification of data without permission. Also covers the transmission of viruses.
Copyright, Designs & Patents Act Software licensing Software can be legally installed on as many computers as the licence allows. Shareware can be used legally for 30 days then either paid for or deleted. Freeware can be downloaded and used free of charge. Computer applications Databases can store vast amounts of copyright data. Act covers extracts from computer databases. Plagiarism to copy work directly from the Web. Music downloads must be paid for and copyright checked. Software piracy a crime - FAST.
The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 Gives powers to: Police, Special Branch, GCHQ and MI5. Organisations are allowed to monitor employees, e-mail and Web usage. It also provides powers to help combat the threat posed by rising criminal use of strong encryption to try to break into electronic transactions. The Act contains 5 parts It allows the authorities to monitor our personal e-mail and Internet usage. So businesses, local authorities and government departments can and do monitor internal e-mails. They can also monitor Internet usage of staff, students and pupils. It sounds very “Big Brother”. May enrage and disturb many people to realise this. But when terrorists can be anywhere in our society it may be a relief to know that the authorities are taking active steps to catch them.
The Freedom of Information Act (Scotland) 2002 From 1 January 2005 General right of public access to all types of 'recorded' information held by public authorities. Sets out exemptions from that general right. Places a number of obligations on public authorities. The Act applies only to 'public authorities' and not to private entities. Public authorities include Government departments, local authorities and many other public bodies, and also schools, colleges and universities. The Act is enforced by the Scottish Information Commissioner. Responsibilities of public authorities Required to adopt and maintain a Publication Scheme. This sets out the classes of information available (e.g. prospectuses, almanacs and websites); the manner in which they intend to publish the information; and whether a charge will be made for the information.
Health and Safety Regulations Covers physical aspects of work Seating: Is the seating comfortable and not causing strain? Lighting: Is the lighting adequate for the work? Employee injuries, etc. Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI): Caused by doing the same repetitive task too long (e.g. typing numbers all day on the number pad). Radiation: Not so much of a problem now but the big old monitors emitted a lot of radiation and were very dangerous. Eye Strain: Caused by spending too much time looking at the screen.
Health and Safety Regulations Requirements on employers: To carry out a risk assessment. Employers with five or more employees need to record the significant findings of the risk assessment. Risk assessment should be straightforward in a simple workplace such as a typical office. To provide a safe and secure working environment.
Economic Implications of ICT Type of jobs and costs in ICT The effect of new ICT on business Business and ICT Business costs
Jobs in ICT Starting positions Programmer / analyst: Responsible for program development and modification. Web administrator: Responsible for developing, managing and co-ordinating the posting of company material from departments onto the company website. Network administrator: Responsible for the day- to-day management and maintenance of the network. Salaries: In the region of £20,000 to £30,000 depending on the level of responsibility.
Jobs in ICT Advanced development positions Database manager: Responsible for identifying needs and developing software accordingly. There is an increasing role for data mining and data warehousing experts in this field. Project leader and senior analyst: Sometimes separate posts, sometimes a joint post the project leader will liaise with directors and top managers and translate ideas into computer related documentation. IT manager: Generally in charge of the entire IT operation, staff and equipment. Salaries: These senior posts can carry very high salaries with fringe benefits such as company cars.
The Effect of New ICT on Business Costs Investing in a new computerised system is very expensive. Staff training is a major cost. Benefits Increased productivity (fewer staff). Increased functionality. Reports from the computerised system can save the expense of professionals.
Business and ICT Competitive advantage Businesses want advantage over their competitors in the same area of business who have not made a similar investment. How to gain competitive advantage Employ a systems analyst. Complete a feasibility study covering technical aspects and legal and economic feasibility. Huge leap of faith? First paper-based mail order company had: to move over to a call centre and telephone ordering. to tie in with an “intelligent warehouse”. to do an exhaustive economic feasibility study to see if they would gain a competitive advantage over their rivals. They did all of this, but was it an even bigger leap of faith to be the first of these companies to introduce Internet ordering?
Business Costs Initial costs Huge costs to set up a production line, just-in-time ordering, or a call centre. Computers, software, robots, etc. Running costs Staff required. Paper, ink cartridges, back-up media. Software licences. Maintenance contracts.
Ethical Implications of ICT Netiquette Intellectual property rights (IPR) Censorship Regulating the content of the Internet Privacy and encryption Global citizenship
Netiquette General points Treat others the way you expect to be treated. Act within the law. Act responsibly and ethically. Advice Do not type e-mails in capitals – shouting. Always fill in the subject field. Don’t abuse people – flaming. Always minimise or compress large files. Do not forward stupid jokes and chain letters. Do not forward hoax virus warnings.
Intellectual Property Rights Written work Knowledge is the principal source of competitive advantage. All original work published on the Internet has IPR. IPR applies also to software. Music, etc IPR relates to the Internet sites where music can be downloaded. Copyright material must usually be paid for as the publishers of the music own the IPRs.
Censorship On the Internet Current UK censorship laws may not be adequate. Operators of questionable sites can host sites in countries without such laws. Controls can hinder freedom of speech. Now if you visit an illegal site (even if it is legal in its host country) you can be prosecuted. Should “spam” be illegal – freedom of speech? Visiting an illegal site by accident can be a valid defence (e.g. if its description bears no resemblance to the actual contents).
Regulating the content of the Internet Dubious material on the Internet Conscious access needs to be made before ‘offensive’ or ‘unacceptable’ material is displayed. Software can be installed that will monitor what accesses are made from which terminals, when and by whom. Internal organisational procedures should deal with this type of situation. Contravening legislation on the Internet Internet is no different from other media – it too can contravene legislation on sensitive matters. Successful libel cases have been taken out against bulletin- board operators for the materials published on their boards. Is current legislation enough? Presumably only time will tell. Future governments and public opinion will influence new legislation.
Privacy and Encryption Privacy Text messages, mobile calls, e-mail and Internet usage can all be monitored by security organisations. Criminals are using technology to try and intercept and read personal information. If we are to trust online shopping, then the online vendors must apply security to their site. Encryption Ensures that a card number is encrypted when it leaves the shopper’s computer until it arrives safely at the vendor’s website. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) uses a 32-bit encryption procedure. PGP is unbreakable and is used by good online retailers who will usually advertise the fact. They may also subscribe to a code of practice (like the Which? Code for Internet Shopping) based on PGP and 32-bit encryption.
ICT and Global Citizenship Study of citizenship Gives students the knowledge, skills and understanding to play an effective role in society at local, national and international levels. Global citizenship is generally thought of as being aware of global issues such as environment, commerce, politics and society in general. Use of ICT in citizenship If a student is studying citizenship then the use of the Internet means that information and discussion papers can be found and studied very easily. Newsgroups exist on a wide range of citizenship topics – informed and serious discussions. E-mail links with schools in foreign countries.