Presentation on theme: "Acer x freemanii ‘Jeffersred’ “Autumn Blaze ® maple” SIZE: Medium tree HABIT: Oval - rounded, dense crown FOL: Rich green in summer; long-lasting orange-"— Presentation transcript:
Acer x freemanii ‘Jeffersred’ “Autumn Blaze ® maple” SIZE: Medium tree HABIT: Oval - rounded, dense crown FOL: Rich green in summer; long-lasting orange- red in fall; deeply lobed leaf similar to Acer saccharinum FL. & FR.: Red in Spring; a mix of male and female and hermaphroditic flowers; fruit = a reddish samara in early summer
CULTURE: Tolerates most soils; tolerates air pollution but not a great urban tree; does not like salt! PESTS: none serious USE: Specimen tree for lawn, street, or park MISC.: Selected in the 1960’s by nurseryman Glenn Jeffers in Fostoria, OH. Introduced in 1980. From seedlings collected from a cross of A. rubrum x A. saccharinum. A. x freemanii was first developed in 1933 at the U.S. National Arboretum by Oliver Freeman
Acer negundo “boxelder” SIZE: Medium tree HABIT: Rounded; typically ragged and irregular
BARK: Mature bark is grayish brown with some ridges and furrows. Twigs tend to be covered with a glucose bloom.
FLOWERS and FRUIT: Dioecious, yellow-green in Spring; male flowers in corymbs; female in racemes
Corymb A flat-topped collection of flowersA flat-topped collection of flowers
Raceme A collection of flowers on a stalk which typically open starting at the bottom and working their way upwardsA collection of flowers on a stalk which typically open starting at the bottom and working their way upwards
CULTURE: Performs well in poor, wet or dry soils; pH adaptable. Will survive where other trees will not!
PESTS: Anthracnose, leaf spot, and powdery mildew; boxelder bugs USE: Weedy, “trash” tree; use only where all other trees fail! MISC.: ‘Flamingo’ = pink shoots with green leaves and white margins. Plant a male selection to eliminate messy female samaras
FOLIAGE: Dark green, changing to yellow; leaves persist on the tree late in the fall
BARK: Grayish black with some ridges at maturity.
FLOWERS and FRUIT: Perfect, yellow to greenish-yellow in corymbs in April before the leaves (somewhat showy); schizocarp = 4” long, 140 o angle
CULTURE: Soil adaptable; tolerates sand and clay; pH adaptable; tolerates air pollution (ozone and sulfur dioxide); tolerates some shade; will NOT tolerate 2,4-D (a broadleaf herbicide); easily transplanted
Acer rubrum “red maple” SIZE: Medium to Large HABIT: Pyramidal/elliptical when young Irregular to rounded crown when mature
FOL: Dark green above and grayish below; new leaves are reddish; yellow to red in fall
BARK: soft gray or gray brown with prominent “target facing”
FL. & FR.: Red flowers in dense clusters before leaves (showy) which are male, female or mixed; reddish schizocarp with samaras at a 60 o angle
CULTURE: Tolerates most soils; tolerates air pollution but not a great urban tree; does not tolerate salt well PESTS: chlorosis at high pH due to manganese deficiency
USE: Specimen tree for lawn, street, or park MISC.: Often one of the first trees to color in fall; fall color is inconsistent and a cultivar must be used to assure a red color such as Red Sunset ® (= A. rubrum ‘Franksred’) which is very cold-hardy & commonly used
Acer saccharinum “silver maple” SIZE: Large HABIT: Oval to rounded crown, pendulous branchlets are upturned
FOL: Medium green above and gray-silver below; can be a nice butter-yellow in fall
BARK: similar to A. rubrum when young. At maturity becomes gray with ridges and furrowes.
FL. & FR.: Greenish-yellow (apetalous); open before leaves and before A. rubrum; flowers in dense clusters and are male, female, or mixed; largest schizocarp (4+”) with samaras at 90 o angle
CULTURE: Tolerates most soils; tolerates poor soil; prefers moist soil; very easy to grow PESTS: Many... anthracnose, leaf hopper, cottony maple scale; manganese chlorosis at high pH
USE: Good for fast shade or rugged conditions; becomes a liability with age; roots will buckle sidewalks and clog drains MISC.: Trees break up in ice; weak-wooded
Acer saccharum “sugar maple” SIZE: Large HABIT: Rounded to upright oval; cultivar dependent oval; cultivar dependent
FOL: Medium green (lighter than A. platanoides); yellow and orange in fall (some reds), typically all colors on one tree!
BARK: Extremely variable. Young trees tend to develop smooth gray brown bark that becomes deeply furrowed with age. At maturity some trees have thick plates and ridges where as others will appear scaly.
FL. & FR.: Greenish-yellow; in corymbs before leaves (not showy); schizocarp shaped like a horseshoe
CULTURE: pH tolerant; requires room for roots; tolerates shade; does NOT tolerate air pollution, soil compaction, or salt PESTS: Leaf scorch USE: Excellent shade tree; lawns, parks, golf courses (not as a street tree)
MISC.: Sap boiled in spring yields maple syrup; 40 gallons of sap = 1 gal. of syrup; ‘Newton Sentry’ = very tight, columnar habit; ‘Temple’s Upright’ = columnar habit
BARK: branches armed with stout prickles. Mature trunks are blackish and deeply furrowed.
FL. & FR.: perfect, white in mid-summer; clusters of small flowers in 1” umbels; somewhat showy; fruit = black, globose drupe in early fall
CULTURE: prefers deep, rich, moist soil; full sun PESTS: None USE: Excellent shade tree; lawns, parks, golf courses MISC.: Bees like the flowers and birds love the fruit. Rare in cultivation but a worthwhile plant for large spaces. “septemlobus” means “7-lobed”. Looks like Ricinus communis (“caster bean”) “septemlobus” means “7-lobed”. Looks like Ricinus communis (“caster bean”) Previously named K. pictus
Betula “birch” All birch are monoeciousAll birch are monoecious All birch have staminate (male) and pistillate (female) catkinsAll birch have staminate (male) and pistillate (female) catkins Male catkins are formed in late summer and retained through the winterMale catkins are formed in late summer and retained through the winter Female catkins form in spring, are pollinated, and disperse their winged nutlets in late summer-early fallFemale catkins form in spring, are pollinated, and disperse their winged nutlets in late summer-early fall Related to alders (Alnus)Related to alders (Alnus)
Betula alleghaniensis “yellow birch” SIZE: Large HABIT: Pyramidal when young; rounded with age; in woods forms a central in woods forms a central leader; largest native birch leader; largest native birch
FOL: Dull dark green; excellent medium yellow in fall
BARK: Peeling, light yellowish brown. Stems have the taste of wintergreen.
FL. & FR.: Male catkins pendulous, terminal in 4’s; 1” female catkin is solitary, elliptic and upright on spur shoots
CULTURE: Prefers cool, moist soils and cool summers; does NOT tolerate hot and dry conditions PESTS: None serious; resistant to Japanese beetles, leaf miner and bronze birch borer USE: Nice lawn tree or specimen MISC.: Important lumber tree in Canada for furniture, flooring, and doors; oil of wintergreen not as strong as B. lenta; peeling yellow-brown bark; native
Betula lenta “black birch” SIZE: Medium HABIT: Pyramidal and dense when young; rounded to upright oval when mature
FOL: Lustrous dark green; golden yellow in fall
BARK: Dark brown to black on young trees with prominent lenticels. The bark becomes more scaly at maturity.
FL. & FR.: Male catkins pendulous, terminal in 4’s; 3/4” female catkin is solitary, narrow and upright on spur shoot
CULTURE: Tolerates heavy soils PESTS: None serious; resistant to Japanese beetle, leaf miner, and bronze birch borer USE: Excellent tree for parks and naturalized areas MISC.: Best fall color among the birches; wintergreen oil can be distilled from the bark (high oil content); darkest bark of all birch; “lenta” means “pliable”; native
Betula nigra “river birch” SIZE: Medium to large HABIT: Pyramidal when young; rounded with age; often multiple trunks
FOL: Lustrous, medium green; faded yellow fall color (not very effective in the north), drops quickly
BARK: Peeling creamy salmon, orange brown to cinnamon brown in color. One of the most beautiful birches for winter interest.
FL. & FR.: Male catkins terminal in 3’s; 1” pendulous female catkin
CULTURE: Does best in moist, acid, fertile soils (bottomlands); will tolerate dry conditions and some compact soil; iron chlorosis in high pH; can tolerate warmer climates (Zone 8) PESTS: None USE: Specimen tree for large areas; widely used in the heat of the South MISC.: ‘Heritage’ is a superior cultivar for rapid growth, vigor, darker green foliage and better yellow fall color; incredible peeling reddish-tan bark; native
Betula papyrifera “paper birch” SIZE: Medium to large HABIT: Loosely pyramidal when young; irregular, upright oval when mature; single or multi-trunked
FOL: Dull dark green; very good yellow fall color
Bark: Mature plants have chalky white peeling bark that is easily separated into paper like layers.
FL.& FR.: Male catkin terminal in 2’s or 3’s; 1” pendulous, female catkin
CULTURE: Soil adaptable; prefers moist, acid, sandy or silty loams; does NOT tolerate air pollution PESTS: Leaf miner; resistant to bronze birch borer
USE: Best in large areas MISC.: Place in front of evergreens for winter bark interest; outstanding peeling, white bark; native
Betula pendula “European white birch” SIZE: Medium HABIT: Gracefully pyramidal when young; upright-oval when mature; remains pendulous and graceful
FOL: Glossy, dark green; poor yellow fall color
BARK: Mature bark is white and does not peel or exfoliate. Bark often has diamond shaped areas of black within.
FL. & FR.: Male catkin in 2’s, sometimes singly or in 3’s; 1” pendulous, female catkin
CULTURE: Prefers MWDS; tolerates wet or dry soils; pH tolerant; “bleeds” readily so prune in summer or fall PESTS: Very susceptible to bronze birch borer(Agrilus anxius) and leaf miners; Japanese beetles are not a serious pest
USE: Specimen for lawn or large areas MISC.: Most common birch in N. America. ‘Dalecarlica’ is an elegant cultivar with deeply incised leaves; ‘Purpurea’ is a purple-leaved form; ‘Youngii’ is weeping form, often grafted.
Betula populifolia “gray birch” SIZE: Medium HABIT: Narrow, open, conical crown; tips of branches are pendulous
FOL: Glossy, dark green; nice yellow fall color; one of the first birches to leaf-out
Bark: Chalky white, not as bright as paper birch. Bark does not peel and has distinct black markings below each branch.
FL. & FR.: Very long male catkins borne singly, rarely in 2’s; 1” pendulous, female catkin
CULTURE: Prefers poor, sterile rocky, gravelly or sandy sites; will tolerate heavy soils; tolerates wet or dry conditions; will not tolerate competition or basic soils PESTS: Leaf miner and Japanese beetles can be devastating; slightly resistant to bronze birch borer
USE: Good for naturalizing; good for difficult sites with poor soils MISC.: Short-lived tree (15-20 years); dirty gray bark; native
Catalpa speciosa “northern catalpa” SIZE: Medium HABIT: Open with an irregular- oval crown
FOL: Medium to light green; a poor yellow-brown fall color (not effective)
BARK: Grayish brown at maturity with a ridged and thick look.
FL. & FR.: White tube-shaped corolla, 2” long and wide, purple spot in throat, in May-June in upright terminal panicles 4-8” long; fruit = an 8-20” long, 1/2” wide “pod-like” capsule that persists through winter
CULTURE: Tolerates most soils; tolerates wet, hot, dry or alkaline conditions; full sun to partial shade PESTS: Leaf spots, powdery mildew, aphids and sooty mold USE: Best for difficult areas (roadways); coarse texture difficult to use in the home landscape
MISC.: Wood is very rot resistant and used as railroad ties.
Cercidiphyllum japonicum “katsura tree” SIZE: Medium HABIT: Pyramidal when young; variable habit when mature
FOL: New foliage is reddish-purple; dark blue-green in summer; yellow-apricot in fall
BARK: Mature bark is brown and can be slightly shaggy.
FL. & FR.: Dioecious; flowers are minute; flowers before the leaves yet are not showy; fruit is a pod and not showy
CULTURE: Requires a moist, rich soil; pH adaptable; difficult to transplant (best B & B in early spring) PESTS: None serious; scorch on foliage when dry
USE: Excellent in either a lawn or large area MISC.: A beautiful foliage tree; ‘Pendula’ is a weeping form (usually grafted); “Cercid” refers to “redbud” (Cercis) and “phyllum” refers to the “leaf”
Fagus grandifolia “American beech” SIZE: Medium to large HABIT: Stout trunk; broad, low-spreading limbs; pyramidal low-spreading limbs; pyramidalhabit
FOL: Medium green; golden yellow in fall; persist into winter (tan)
BARK: Appears thin and smooth. Has a clean bluish gray appearance.
FL. & FR.: Monoecious; not showy; nut in a prickly involucre (3/4”); nut is edible
CULTURE: MWDS; does NOT tolerate wet or compacted soils; shallow roots; tolerates shade; tolerates pruning PESTS: Beech scale; aphids; powdery mildew USE: Native tree; for large areas only; attracts wildlife
MISC.: Tolerates heat better than F. sylvatica; will root sucker; difficult to grow grass under; NO cultivar selections. Fagus is from the Greek, “phagein” (= “to eat”), referring to the edible nuts.
Fagus sylvatica “European beech” SIZE: Medium to large HABIT: Stout trunk; branching to the ground; pyramidal
FOL: Lustrous, dark green; golden-bronze in fall; persist into winter (tan)
BARK: Similar to F. grandifolia but generally darker. Very ornamental.
FL. & FR.: Monoecious; not showy; nut in a prickly involucre (1”); nut is edible
CULTURE: Tolerates adverse soil better than F. grandifolia but otherwise the same PESTS: Same as F. grandifolia USE: Specimens for large areas (parks, etc.); attracts wildlife MISC.: The most variable of all ornamental shade trees. The best cultivars:‘Asplenifolia’ = cut-leaf; ‘Fastigiata’ = upright; ‘Pendula’ = weeping; ‘Purpurea’ = dark purple leaf. Small growing cultivars are now available for residential use. The name, “sylvatica” come from the Latin, “silva” meaning “of the woods”
Quercus “oaks” All oaks are monoeciousAll oaks are monoecious All oaks have staminate (male) catkins and pistillate (female) axillary flowersAll oaks have staminate (male) catkins and pistillate (female) axillary flowers Nuts are acorns (edible) with a cup which is an involucre (collection of bracts)Nuts are acorns (edible) with a cup which is an involucre (collection of bracts) Often have tap roots and are difficult to transplantOften have tap roots and are difficult to transplant Often have dense wood & are slow-growingOften have dense wood & are slow-growing 500-600 species of oaks exist500-600 species of oaks exist
“white” oaks vs. “red” oaks White oaks have rounded leaves while red oaks have bristle-tipped foliageWhite oaks have rounded leaves while red oaks have bristle-tipped foliage The inside of the acorn is smooth in white oaks but is hairy in red oaksThe inside of the acorn is smooth in white oaks but is hairy in red oaks White oak seeds take 1 year to mature while red oak seeds take 2 yearsWhite oak seeds take 1 year to mature while red oak seeds take 2 years White oak seeds germinate immediately after they drop to the ground and therefore need to be planted or immediately refrigerated, while red oak seeds only germinate in springWhite oak seeds germinate immediately after they drop to the ground and therefore need to be planted or immediately refrigerated, while red oak seeds only germinate in spring
Quercus alba “white oak” SIZE: Medium to large HABIT: Pyramidal when young; broad- rounded when mature
FOL: Opens gray-pink; blue-green in summer; red-purple in fall (can be nice!); leaves often persist into winter
BARK: Often broken into small blocks and scales. Light gray in color.
CULTURE: Deep, MWDS; mycorrhizal association with roots; production and transplant difficult PESTS: Powdery mildew; leaf galls; etc...
USE: Large areas; naturalizing; attracts wildlife MISC.: Wood used in furniture, flooring, boats, and casks. No other North American oak has so many famous and historic specimens as this species. “alba” refers to the light color of the wood. Native
Quercus bicolor “swamp white oak” SIZE: Medium HABIT: Broad, open, rounded crown
FOL: Lustrous, dark green; yellow in fall; leaves often persist into winter when young
BARK: Grayish brown and often divided into distinct rectangular patterns.
FL. & FR.: Acorn = 1” oval in pairs, usually stalked
CULTURE: Difficult to transplant; not as tolerant of adverse conditions as Q. palustris and Q. rubra; tolerates higher pH than Q. palustris; fast grower PESTS: None USE: Naturalizing, large areas, attracts wildlife MISC.: One of the last oaks to develop fall color… and it is often the best! Rare in commerce and often misidentified! Native
Quercus imbricaria “shingle oak” SIZE: Medium HABIT: Pyramidal in youth; broad-round at maturity broad-round at maturity
FOL: Unfolds reddish; lustrous dark green in summer; yellow-brown-russet in fall (not showy); leaves often persist into winter
BARK: Gray brown with low ridges and some furrows.
CULTURE: Transplants easier than most oaks; tolerates urban conditions; tolerates dry sites; tolerates pruning PESTS: Few problems USE: Naturalizing large areas, attracts wildlife; can be used for hedges MISC.: Wood used for roofing and wall shingles! Gets its name from the Latin, “imbrex” meaning “tile”. Native
Quercus macrocarpa “bur oak” SIZE: Large HABIT: Pyramidal/oval when young; broad-spreading crown when mature
FOL: Lustrous dark green in summer; green-yellow-brown in fall (not showy)
BARK: Mature bark develops deep ridges. Usually dark gray and almost dirty looking.
FL. & FR.: Acorn = 1 - 1 1/2” with deep, frilled cup
CULTURE: Soil adaptable but transplant is difficult; prefers alkaline soils; tolerates city conditions PESTS: Few problems USE: Large areas, naturalizing, attract wildlife MISC.: The name is derived from the Greek, “macro” meaning “large” and “karpos” meaning “fruit”. Rather rare in commerce. Native
Quercus palustris “pin oak” SIZE: Medium to large HABIT: Pyramidal through maturity
FOL: Lustrous dark green in summer; russet in fall (variable); leaves may persist into winter
BARK: Grayish brown, develops shallow ridges with age. Distinctive pins on the branches.
CULTURE: MWDS; easily transplanted; tolerates wet soils; tolerates air pollution and city conditions; does NOT tolerate high pH (chlorosis!) PESTS: Leaf galls, iron chlorosis
USE: Shade tree, lawns, parks; attracts wildlife; naturalizing MISC.: Lower branches will die out and require pruning; very widely used; fast grower. “palustris” is from the Latin meaning “swamps or marshes”. Native
Quercus robur ‘Fastigiata’ “fastigiate English oak” SIZE: Medium to large HABIT: Columnar with wavy, ascending branches wavy, ascending branches
FOL: Dull dark green in summer; NO fall color - leaves fall off green
BARK: Mature bark is deeply furrowed and grayish black.
FL. & FR.: Acorn = 1” elongate, stalked, rare on the cultivar
CULTURE: MWDS; pH tolerant PESTS: Powdery mildew USE: Large areas; attract wildlife MISC.: The species is widely used in Europe but is rare in the U.S. Other cultivars available
Quercus rubra “red oak” SIZE: Medium to large HABIT: Upright elliptic when young; rounded when mature
FOL: Pinkish-red when unfolding; lustrous dark green in summer; russet to bright red in fall
BARK: Mature bark has distinct flat gray areas as well as ridges and furrows.