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Make Presentations That Students Will Lve Lynne Pelletier

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2 Make Presentations That Students Will Lve Lynne Pelletier

3 Powerpointless? PowerPoint is a tool that can be used well or poorly. More often than not, we unwittingly choose the latter.

4 A small caveat… While PowerPoint has been around since 1989, the concept of studying PowerPoint’s effectiveness in the classroom is surprisingly new. The research is kind of thin and is based mostly on student perceptions and performance in large, undergraduate lecture classes. HUGESo, take everything I am about to tell you with a HUGE grain of salt. Before we begin…

5 One other caveat… The suggestions that I offer in this presentation… I am not going to follow …

6 Our PowerPoint evolution We all start the same way: We learn how to create simple presentations, ones in which the message is more important than the medium. –These presentations are usually black text on a (default) white background with a mess of bullet points. –Remember?

7 Our PowerPoint evolution But, as our skills with PowerPoint improve, our focus shifts from the message to “gilding the lily.” –Content takes a back seat to the new goal of entertaining the audience. –We spend HOURS looking for the right sounds, pictures, or backgrounds to beautify our presentations.

8 Fixing the blame Part of the blame for this “lily gilding” focus lies with ourselves. –PowerPoint’s bells and whistles are downright sexy. –We (mistakenly) assume that bells and whistles improve our presentations—our presentations look better, so they must be better teaching tools.

9 Fixing the blame Along the way, we forget that the primary goal of any classroom PowerPoint presentation isn’t to entertain but rather to teach. And there is a HUGE difference between a business PowerPoint presentation and a classroom PowerPoint presentation.

10 The problem with PowerPoint PowerPoint was originally designed for business communication, not teaching. Business communication is all about entertaining. There’s practically no teaching involved. Microsoft added those fancy backgrounds, animations, builds, transitions, etc. to PowerPoint not for you and me but for the business community.

11 The problem with PowerPoint Why? Because by using PowerPoint’s fancy backgrounds, animations, builds, transitions, etc. a businessperson can –Impress you. –Close the sale. –Obscure the facts. But somewhere along the way we became convinced that we needed to use PowerPoint’s special effects as well.

12 Time to be honest… When you create a PowerPoint presentation, do you spend more time on the content or on the bells and whistles?

13 Fixing the blame So, part of the blame lies with us. But, part of the blame also lies with the trainers and marketeers. –A four year old can create a basic PowerPoint presentation. –To create an “advanced” presentation, however, requires training or even special software (both at a price).

14 What is Good Design?

15 Would you rather look at this?


17 Or this?


19 Simple Design = Easier to Understand

20 How do we create engaging Content?

21 Drip-feed text

22 Too much writing Common Problem:

23 & writing Too small It was one of those summery days when the air is heavy and warm and nobody wants to do very much. Jonathan and Robbit were resting on top of one of Moley's hummocks, relaxing and watching the rest of the world go by. Jonathan could feel the sun's warmth through his shell and it was making him feel comfortable and drowsy. He wriggled contentedly. Last night, before he'd gone to bed, Jonathan had taken off his shell and given it a special polish, and this morning it gleamed in the sunlight. Beside him on the soft warm molehill, Robbit lay on his back, his paws behind his head, gazing up at the clear blue sky, thinking about things in his own rabbity way. "Why do nettles have stings?" He asked suddenly Jonathan had just begun to doze off, and woke with a start "Why do nettles have what?" He asked, not quite awake. "Stings," Robbit scratched one of his ears in a comfortable, absent-minded sort of way. Jonathan pondered, his head tilted to one side as he thought. "I suppose," He said eventually, "They have stings so nobody will eat them." "That's silly," Said Robbit, "Nobody'd want to eat a rotten old nettle, anyway: they're all tough and stringy."

24 Common Mistake: People tend to put every word they are going to say on their PowerPoint slides. Although this eliminates the need to memorize your talk, ultimately this makes your slides crowded, wordy, and boring. You will lose your audience's attention before you even reach the bottom of your....

25 [Continued] first slide.

26 Common Mistakes: Many people do not run speel cheek before showing their presentation - BIG MISTAK!!! Nothing makes you look stupider then spelling erors.

27 Common Mistakes Avoid Excessive Bullet-pointing. Only Bullet Your Key Points. Too Many Bullet-points And Your Key Messages Will NOT Stand Out. In-fact The Term Bullet-point Comes From People Firing At Annoying Presenters. Guns


29 We’ve all seen… HORRIBLE PowerPoint presentations, ones that actually impede or inhibit learning. For example…

30 Lorem Ipsum Dolor “Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit…” Leslie Harpold – Round 2

31 Lorem Ipsum Dolor Curabitur sed Nullam pretium Mauris metus Curabitur sed

32 Lorem Ipsum Dolor Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Nam erat justo, sagittis vitae, commodo ut, rhoncus lacus mit nonummy, ante. Duis ligula augue, aliquam sit amet, rutrum a, gravida quis, lacus. Mauris quam. Phasellus a felis quis ipsum tincidunt vehicula. Morbi elementum dapibus est.

33 Lorem Ispum Dolor! “Nam erat justo, sagittis vitae, commodo ut, rhoncus nonummy, ante. Duis ligula augue, aliquam sit amet, rutrum a, gravida quis, lacus. Mauris quam. Phasellus a felis”

34 What’s the point? Awful, isn’t it? How many times have you had to sit through PowerPoint presentations that look (and sound) like that? The point I am trying to make is this: The fancier the PowerPoint presentation, the less valuable the ideas being presented. (Lovelace, 2001)

35 Student perception What do your students feel about you using PowerPoint to teach?

36 Student perception Even with the endless steam of bad PowerPoint presentations we inflict on our students, students still prefer PowerPoint presentations to presentations from transparencies (Cassady, 1998; Perry & Perry, 1998; Susskind & Gurien, 1999; West, 1977) or even from a blackboard or whiteboard. (Frey & Birnbaum, 2002) Why?

37 Student perception One reason is that students believe PowerPoint has a positive effect on lectures, especially in helping them take notes and study for exams. (Frey & Birnbaum) More specifically, students perceive professors who deliver PowerPoint lectures as being more organized. (Frey & Birnbaum) Now, let’s rain on your parade.

38 Student performance Does student perception equal reality?

39 Three types of presentations Before we can answer that, let’s agree on some common definitions. According to Bartsch & Cobern (2003), there are three types of teacher-created “multimedia” presentations used in most classrooms: –Transparencies –Basic PowerPoint, which only includes text information –Expanded PowerPoint, which includes pictures, sounds, movies, transitions, builds, etc.

40 Ready for a shock? There is no significant difference in scores on quizzes that come from transparencies and basic PowerPoint lectures. (Bartsch & Cobern) Students do 10% worse on quizzes that come from expanded PowerPoint lectures. (Bartsch & Cobern)

41 Let’s talk about design.

42 The contrast problem Many of PowerPoint’s built-in templates use light text (like a white or yellow) on a dark background (like blue or red). The problem is that when light text is placed on a dark background, the text may seem to “glow” (or “halate”), making the text harder to read. (AT&T, 1989) Ambient light also tends to wash out PowerPoint presentations with dark backgrounds, totally throwing the contrast (and legibility) out of whack.

43 Suggested contrast combinations Instead of light text on a dark background, try dark text on a light background. –If your projector is “too hot” or the room is too bright, you’ll lose the background (the frills) but the text will still be legible. Three decent color combinations: –Green text on a yellow background –Black text on a yellow background –Black text on a white background

44 Which font should you use? The US State Department recently banned the use of Courier New 12 in all official correspondence. Beginning February 1, 2004, all State Department correspondence must be in Times New Roman 14. So, should we follow the lead of our friends at State and use Times New Roman in all of our PowerPoint presentations?


46 Subjective test results In subjective tests measuring how people judge the screen readability of different typefaces (from 0 to 5, I think), most people prefer Verdana. (Hoffman, 2004)

47 Screen v. print font Verdana, Trebuchet, Georgia, Geneva, and New York are all examples of screen display fonts, fonts specifically designed to look good on a computer screen. Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica are actually print display fonts, fonts specifically designed to look good on paper. People strongly and consistently judge screen display fonts to be easier to read than print display fonts. (Hoffman)

48 Subjective v. objective Is there a difference between screen display and print display fonts when it comes to reading speed or accuracy? Nope! (Hoffman) The difference in reading speed of screen presentations that use Verdana, Trebuchet, Arial, Times, or Helvetica is statistically non-significant. (Hoffman) And there is no difference at all in reading accuracy between those five type faces. (Hoffman)

49 In English… The font you use in your PowerPoint presentation will probably have no impact on your student’s reading speed or accuracy. But, people THINK Verdana and Trebuchet are easier to read. So try to use Verdana or Trebuchet (or some other sans-serif screen display font).

50 Serif v. sans-serif On paper, people prefer reading serif fonts—fonts with a “tail” (like Times New Roman. ) On screens, however, prefer sans-serif fonts—fonts without a tail (like Verdana). So, use serif fonts (like Times New Roman) for your handouts and a sans- serif font (like Verdana or Arial) for your on-screen presentation.

51 Comic Sans: threat or menace? Comic sans is a both a screen display font and a sans-serif font, so you should use it liberally, right? WRONG! Unless you are creating presentations for VERY small children, you should avoid comic sans like the plague. Not only does comic sans look unprofessional, it “was NOT designed as a typeface… [and] [t]here was no intention to include the font in other applications other than those designed for children.” (Connare)

52 Friends don’t let friends use comic sans!

53 Oh sure, it LOOKS good... Even if you use a screen display font, reading from a computer screen [or projector] is still about 25% slower than reading from paper. (Nielsen, 1997) And if you change the contrast between the text and the background, reading from a computer screen becomes even slower than that.

54 Wait, there’s more! Does adding pictures to your presentations have a positive effect on students’ enjoyment or learning of the material? NOPE! (Bartsch & Cobern)

55 Interference … 15 yards Having related pictures in your PowerPoint presentation is neither beneficial nor harmful to the students’ enjoyment or learning of the material. (Bartsch & Cobern) Unrelated pictures in a presentation, however, have a negative effect on students’ enjoyment and the learning of the material. (Bartsch & Cobern) A picture may be worth a thousand words, but when you use an unrelated picture those thousand words drown out what you are trying to say.

56 For example PowerPoint 1.0 was actually derived from a product called “Presenter” that was developed by Forethought Inc. in early 1987. Microsoft purchased Presenter in August of 1987 for $14 million. Image source:

57 Notice the interference? That picture, while humorous, had nothing to do with the real content of the slide. But, I’d be willing to bet that an hour from now you’ll remember the “Howard Dean kitten” picture but completely forget how much Microsoft paid for PowerPoint in 1987. The slide entertains, but fails to teach. Why? Well…

58 Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning Students place relevant words into auditory working memory and relevant images into visual working memory. (Mayer, 2001) Students then organize information separately in auditory and visual memory and finally integrate these representations with prior knowledge. (Mayer)

59 The problem with pictures The on-screen text in PowerPoint is processed in visual memory because it is seen, viewed with the eyes. (Bartsch & Cobern) Relevant pictures do not help because they are also stored in visual memory along with the text— no new information is added over a different channel. (Bartsch & Cobern)

60 Are pictures necessary? You may not need any pictures in your PowerPoint presentations. –Students are usually able to understand the facts without the help of a picture. –Besides, the facts are what’s going to be on your test, not the pictures. However—and this is an important point— when the material is more complicated or the students do not know much about the information, pictures may be beneficial. (Bartsch & Cobern)

61 In short, only use pictures to teach, not to decorate or entertain.

62 Images are Powerful



65 What is a good way to Deliver this?

66 Teacher, meet Presenter

67 You already do this.

68 Lets also do this Presenting Teacher Engaged Student

69 Present interactively

70 Here are some ways to interact with your students…

71 Ask Questions!

72 Which TV show’s theme is this? EastendersThe X-Files The BillThe Outer Limits



75 In PowerPoint, a hyperlink can be a connection from one slide to another slide in the same presentation, or to a slide in another presentation, an e-mail address, a Web page, or a file. You can create a hyperlink from text or from an object, such as a picture, graph, shape, or WordArt

76 To Another Presentation: Note If you add a link to a presentation from your main presentation, and then copy your main presentation to a laptop, be sure to copy the linked presentation to the same folder as your main presentation. If you don't copy the linked presentation — or if you rename, move, or delete it — the linked presentation will not be available when you click the hyperlink to it from the main presentation. In Normal view, select the text or the object that you want to use as a hyperlink. On the Insert tab, in the Links group, click Hyperlink. Under Link to, click Existing File or Web Page. Locate the presentation that contains the slide that you want to link to. Click Bookmark, and then click the title of the slide that you want to link to.

77 To a Web Page or File: In Normal view, select the text or the object that you want to use as a hyperlink. On the Insert tab, in the Links group, click Hyperlink. Under Link to, click Existing File or Web Page, and then click Browse the Web. Locate and select the page or file that you want to link to, and then click OK.

78 A slide in the same presentation In Normal view, select the text or the object that you want to use as a hyperlink. On the Insert tab, in the Links group, click Hyperlink. Under Link to, click Place in This Document. Do one of the following: – Link to a custom show in the current presentation: Under Select a place in this document, click the custom show that you want to use as the hyperlink destination. Select the Show and return check box. – Link to a slide in the current presentation: Under Select a place in this document, click the slide that you want to use as the hyperlink destination

79 83 -161 AD Claudius Ptolemy 83 -161 AD Claudius Ptolemy 1473 -1543 Nicolaus Copernicus 1473 -1543 Nicolaus Copernicus 1564-1642 Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 Galileo Galilei 1571-1630 Johannes Kepler 1571-1630 Johannes Kepler 1625-1712 Giovanni Cassini 1625-1712 Giovanni Cassini 1629-1695 Christiaan Huygens 1629-1695 Christiaan Huygens 1656 - 1742 Edmund Halley 1656 - 1742 Edmund Halley 1730 - 1817 Charles Messier 1730 - 1817 Charles Messier 1738 - 1822 William Herschel 1738 - 1822 William Herschel 1868 - 1938 George Hale 1868 - 1938 George Hale 1889-1953 Edwin Hubble 1889-1953 Edwin Hubble 1914 - 2006 James Van Allen 1914 - 2006 James Van Allen 1935 - 1996 Carl Sagan 1935 - 1996 Carl Sagan

80 Time line




84 PowerPoint + Questions = Formative Assessment

85 What is the slope-intercept form of the equation of the line whose y-intercept is 5 and whose slope is 5?

86 Which bar on the graph represents 45 feet? Feet

87 Determine whether the ordered pair is a solution of 2x + y = 1 (-3, 7) (3, -7) (1/2, 0) 2(-3) + 7 = 1 -6 + 7 = 1 1 = 1 2(3) + (-7) = 1 6 + (-7) = 1 -1 ≠ 1 2(1/2) + 0 = 1 1 + 0 = 1 1 = 1 Plug in and check!

88 What is the meaning of this sign? 1.Icy Road Ahead 2.Steep Road Ahead 3.Curvy Road Ahead 4.Trucks Entering Highway Ahead

89 How about for the kinesthetic learners?

90 Play games!

91 Rules for Review Golf Choose a team captain. This person will be responsible for giving the final answer for your team. Choose a team name (make it a type of cereal). Teams will take turn choosing the question to answer. All teams will complete the problem and will be asked to submit a final answer. If your team has a correct answer, one player from the team will have the opportunity to earn extra points by putting the ball.

92 Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 Team 5 Team 6

93 Scoring  Each Correct Answer- 1 point  Hole in One- 3 points  Two Putts- 1 point If you haven’t sunk the ball in two putts then you will receive no extra points. Unlike real golf, you are trying to score the most points!

94 Question Choices 4 1 2 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 5 3

95 Question 1 A store sells a book for $20. The profit (in $) on the sale is given by the expression 20 – x. Which of the following could x represent in this situation? A.The number of books sold B.The amount for which the store sells the book C.The amount the store pays for the book D.The tax on the price of the book

96 Question 2 Fourteen mice range in weight from 12.3 ounces to 13.1 ounces. Which is the best way to estimate their total weight? A.Multiply 14 by 12.7 B.Multiply 14 by 12.3 C.Subtract 12.3 from 13.1 and multiply the result by 14 D.Add 12.3 to 13.1 and multiply the result by 14

97 BOX-WAD-OF-PAPER EXPONENTS Get a piece of paper and form it into a ball. When you answer a question correctly, you are allowed one shot into the basket. Each basket is worth two points. The person with the most points at the end will be declared… THE WINNER!

98 BOX-WAD-OF-PAPER 1 2 3 4 7 8 6 5 10 12 11 9 16 15 14 13 20 19 18 17 23 22 21 24 27 26 25 28 30 29

99 1

100 2

101 3

102 Do you know chapter 2?


104 Linda Lou Mello Mell Brainy Bob


106 Round 1 Linda Lou Final Challenge Mello Mell Brainy Bob

107 Scores Segment Bisectors Angle Bisectors Vertical Angles If-Then Statements Deductive Reasoning $100$100$100$100$100$100 $200 $300 $400 $500$500$500$500$500$500 $200$200$200$200$200 $300$300$300$300$300 $400$400$400$400$400 Final Properties of Equality and Congruence Complementary and Supplementary Angles

108 $100 A segment, ray, line, or plane that intersects a segment at its midpoint.

109 $100 What is a segment bisector. Scores

110 $200 M is the midpoint of. Find AM and MB. M is the midpoint of. Find AM and MB. AMB 26

111 $200 What is AM = 13 MB = 13 What is AM = 13 MB = 13 Scores

112 $300 The line l is a segment bisector of Find the value of x. The line l is a segment bisector of Find the value of x. 5x35

113 $300 What is x = 7 What is x = 7 Scores

114 Once you are at and have logged in you have access to thousands of short or long videos to insert in your powerpoint Use these videos wisely…

115 Download selected video Click on insert Click on video Find video on your computer That’s it!

116 PowerPoint and student notes

117 Do your students need help? Do students need help taking notes? In a word, YES! (Potts, 1993) According to Kiewra (1985), even the most successful students are missing many of the important points in your lectures. –The best (college-level) note-takers include less than three quarters of critical ideas in their notes. –First year college students fare far worse: their notes contain only 11% of critical lecture ideas.

118 Is note-taking even necessary? Does student note-taking, however badly the students may do it, improve performance on fact-based tests? Of course! (Kiewra, Potts) But whose notes should the students review when it comes time to prepare for a test: theirs or yours?

119 Notes and student performance Not surprisingly, students who only review the instructor’s notes perform better on fact-based tests of the lecture material than do students who only review their own notes. (Kiewra, Potts) Even less surprisingly, students who don’t even show up for the lecture but who review the instructor's notes score higher than students who attend the lecture and take and review their own notes. (Kiewra, Potts)

120 Giving students your notes So, to increase student performance, should you tell your students not to take notes at all and instead give your students printed copies of your PowerPoint presentations? Not exactly. The problem is that students remember a greater proportion of the information in their own notes than in provided notes. (Kiewra, Potts)

121 Giving students your notes Wait. There’s more. Students who take the same amount of time reviewing both their notes and the instructor's notes perform best of all on fact-based tests. (Kiewra, Potts) BUT, if the test requires higher-order learning (e.g., analysis and synthesis of ideas), having the instructor's notes is of no benefit whatsoever. (Kiewra, Potts)

122 The happy medium So, to maximize student performance on fact-based tests, what we need is a way to combine student note-taking during your PowerPoint presentations with word- for-word copies of your presentations (and lecture notes) afterward. There are two ways to do this.

123 The happy medium The first way is what we described on the last slide: –Have your students take their own notes during your PowerPoint presentation. –Give your students a copy (or handout) of your presentation after class but before the test. That’s exactly what I’m doing in this presentation: you can download (or print) this presentation later and combine it with the notes you’re taking right now. And I’ll give you the test the next time I see you.

124 The 11% problem The “notes during/handouts after” solution is pretty successful, but I’m not sure if it solves what I consider to be the real problem. Remember how I said that the notes of first year college students contain only 11% of critical lecture ideas? That bugs me.

125 Solving the 11% problem The problem is that we aren’t teaching students how to take notes, a critical skill students need in order to succeed in higher education. Instead of “notes during/handouts after” you might want to try “skeletal outline before/notes during/handouts after.”

126 Solving the 11% problem In fact, –Skeletal notes lead to better recall than either the student's own notes or the instructor's notes. (Hartley & Davies, 1986) –The best recall occurs when students receive skeletal notes before the lecture and the instructor's detailed notes afterward. (Hartley & Davies)

127 What is a skeletal outline? What the heck IS a skeletal outline? Well, in a skeletal outline, you give your students a printed outline of your presentation’s main topics and leave plenty of white space on that outline for your students to write their own notes, definitions, etc. as they listen to your presentation. (Potts) There is a positive correlation between the amount of white space in your skeletal outline and the amount of notes your students will take. (Hartley & Davies)

128 Creating skeletal outlines The easiest way to create a skeletal outline in PowerPoint is to –Save your presentation as an outline –Open the outline in Microsoft Word –Edit the outline to remove a bunch of content and add lots of white space –Print the outline and give it to your students before you presentation

129 To save as an outline [Look! A picture!] In PowerPoint, go to File > Save As… Then, in the “Save as type:” pull- down list choose Outline/RTF (*.rtf)


131 Editing your outline in word Expect to have to completely change the font and positioning. How much you cut out is completely up to you.

132 Why not just print handouts? You could also, in PowerPoint, –go to File > Print, –Choose to print handouts, and –print 3 handouts per slide But that’s not really a skeletal outline, is it?

133 The problem with 3 slide handouts Unless your slides are totally bereft of information, or unless you have obnoxiously detailed slide notes that you’re willing to share with your students after your presentation, a 3 slide handout simply contains too much information for a skeletal outline. Remember: The goal here is not only to foster retention but to also teach the students how to take notes on their own.

134 Does that make sense?

135 The happy medium Remember, to maximize student performance on fact-based tests, we need to combine student note-taking during your PowerPoint presentations with word-for-word copies of your presentations (and lecture notes) afterward. There are two ways to do this: –Notes during/handouts after, or –Skeletal outline before/notes during/handouts after. The latter is a LOT more work on your part, but it teaches the students how to take notes.

136 The attention span problem One other word of advice: In a traditional lecture, students can recall approximately 70% of the content from the first 10 minutes of the lecture but only 20% from the last 10 minutes. (Hartley & Davies, 1986) Solution: front-load your presentation (put your most important facts in your first few slides).

137 References The references that follow are formatted for printing, not for on-screen display.

138 References AT&T. (1989) Open Look: graphical user interface application style guidelines. New York: Sun Microsystems. Bartsch, R. A., & Cobern, K. M. (2003). Effectiveness of PowerPoint presentations in lectures. Computers & Education, 41, 77-86. Bernard, M. (2003) Criteria for optimal web design (designing for usability). Cassady, J. C. (1998). Student and instructor perceptions of the efficacy of computer-aided lectures in undergraduate university courses. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 19, 175–189. Connare, Vincent. Why Comic Sans? Frey, B., & Birnbaum, D. J. (2002). Learners’ Perceptions of the Value of PowerPoint in Lectures. ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED467192 Hartley, J., and Davies, I. K. (1986) Note-taking: A critical review. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 15, 207. Hoffman, Robert. (2004) Text Readability. Kiewra, K.A. (1985). Providing the instructor's notes: An effective addition to student notetaking. Educational Psychologist, 20, 33-39. Lovelace, Herbert W. (2001) The Medium Is More Than The Message. Information Week, July 16, 2001. (Online) Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning, p. 53. New York: Cambridge University Press. Nielsen, Jakob. (1997). Be Succinct! (Writing for the Web). Alertbox, March 15, 1997. Perry, T., & Perry, L. A. (1998). University students’ attitudes towards multimedia presentations. British Journal of Educational Technology, 29, 375–377. Potts, Bonnie. (1993). Improving the quality of student notes. ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ED366645. Russell, I.J., Caris, T.N., Harris, G.D., & Hendricson, W.D. (1983). Effects of three types of lecture notes on medical student achievement. Journal of Medical Education, 58, 627-636. Susskind, J., & Gurien, R. A. (1999, June). Do computer-generated presentations influence psychology students’ learning and motivation to succeed? Poster session presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Society, Denver, CO. West, R. L. (1997). Multimedia presentations in large classes: a field experiment. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Washington, DC.

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