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The Dust Bowl The Dust Bowl States from Texas to the Dakotas suffered a severe drought States from Texas to the Dakotas suffered a severe drought The central.

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Presentation on theme: "The Dust Bowl The Dust Bowl States from Texas to the Dakotas suffered a severe drought States from Texas to the Dakotas suffered a severe drought The central."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Dust Bowl The Dust Bowl States from Texas to the Dakotas suffered a severe drought States from Texas to the Dakotas suffered a severe drought The central Great Plains were hit especially hard The central Great Plains were hit especially hard Topsoil dried out & high winds carried the soil away in blinding dust storms Topsoil dried out & high winds carried the soil away in blinding dust storms This area became known as the Dust Bowl This area became known as the Dust Bowl The Nation in Hard Times

2 Dust storms buried farmhouses, fences, trees over large areas of the plains Dust storms buried farmhouses, fences, trees over large areas of the plains Shutters over doors & windows couldn’t keep it out Shutters over doors & windows couldn’t keep it out The cause: years of overgrazing by cattle/ plowing had destroyed the grasses that once held soil The cause: years of overgrazing by cattle/ plowing had destroyed the grasses that once held soil The drought & high winds did the rest The drought & high winds did the rest Buried Under Dust

3 Hardest hit were poor farmers in Oklahoma & other Great Plains states (known as “Okies”) Hardest hit were poor farmers in Oklahoma & other Great Plains states (known as “Okies”) These families packed all belongings in cars/ trucks & headed west These families packed all belongings in cars/ trucks & headed west They became migrant workers: people who move from one region to another in search of work They became migrant workers: people who move from one region to another in search of work Migrant Workers

4 Once they reached the west coast, they were not welcomed Once they reached the west coast, they were not welcomed Locals feared migrant workers would take away their jobs Locals feared migrant workers would take away their jobs Many were attacked by mobs & sent away Many were attacked by mobs & sent away Those who found jobs were paid very little Those who found jobs were paid very little

5 Homemakers had to stretch family budgets to make ends meet Homemakers had to stretch family budgets to make ends meet Women took in laundry to earn extra $$ Women took in laundry to earn extra $$ Some took in boarders to help pay rent Some took in boarders to help pay rent Women Face the Depression

6 Women realized unemployed husbands needed more nurturing to feel worthwhile Women realized unemployed husbands needed more nurturing to feel worthwhile Working women literally worked to death Working women literally worked to death In order to spread jobs around, federal gov’t refused to hire a woman if her husband had a job In order to spread jobs around, federal gov’t refused to hire a woman if her husband had a job

7 # of married women in the workforce increased by 52% # of married women in the workforce increased by 52% Educated women took jobs as teachers, secretaries, & social workers Educated women took jobs as teachers, secretaries, & social workers Other jobs: maids, factory workers, seamstresses Other jobs: maids, factory workers, seamstresses Women in the Workplace

8 An Active First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt acted as the President’s eyes & ears, touring the country Visited farms & traveled deep into coal mines Studied the condition of homemakers & lives of every day people Used her position to speak out for women’s rights & social injustices

9 Af. Ams were usually the first to lose their jobs when the depression hit Af. Ams were usually the first to lose their jobs when the depression hit 1934 – blacks were suffering a 50% unemployment rate (more than twice the national average) 1934 – blacks were suffering a 50% unemployment rate (more than twice the national average) Denied public works jobs Denied public works jobs FDR tried to help them by providing jobs for them via the CCC FDR tried to help them by providing jobs for them via the CCC African Americans

10 The President invited black leaders to the White House to advise him – these unofficial advisers became known as the Black Cabinet The President invited black leaders to the White House to advise him – these unofficial advisers became known as the Black Cabinet He followed their wishes BUT denied an anti-lynching law as he feared that by doing so he’d lose the support of the southerners in Congress for his New Deal program He followed their wishes BUT denied an anti-lynching law as he feared that by doing so he’d lose the support of the southerners in Congress for his New Deal program

11 African Americans Many black leaders called on Af. Ams to unite and obtain their civil rights: rights due to all citizens Blacks voted & used those numbers to keep up pressure for equal treatment

12 Fear & insecurity caused by the depression caused violence & discrimination to spread Fear & insecurity caused by the depression caused violence & discrimination to spread Other Americans Face the Depression

13 Mexican Americans MA’s worked in many cities around the country Many were farmers in the West & SW They faced discrimination in education & jobs Many Americans wanted Mexicans to be sent back (400,000 sent back to Mexico)

14 Asian Americans Americans resented Chinese, Japanese & Filipino workers who competed with them for scarce jobs Americans resented Chinese, Japanese & Filipino workers who competed with them for scarce jobs Violence against Asians erupted Violence against Asians erupted The gov’t tried to eliminate violence by reducing the number of Asians in the U.S. The gov’t tried to eliminate violence by reducing the number of Asians in the U.S – FDR signed a law that provided free transportation for Filipinos who agreed to return to the Philippines & not return 1935 – FDR signed a law that provided free transportation for Filipinos who agreed to return to the Philippines & not return

15 1924 – Congress had granted all Nat. Americans citizenship 1924 – Congress had granted all Nat. Americans citizenship Still, most Indians continued to live in deep poverty Still, most Indians continued to live in deep poverty FDR encouraged new policies towards Native Americans FDR encouraged new policies towards Native Americans Native Americans

16 Indian New Deal: laws that gave Native American nations greater control over their own affairs 1934 Congress passes the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA): Protected & expanded the landholdings of Native American reservations FDR also allowed reservations organize corporations & develop their own business projects

17 To provide jobs during the depression, the gov’t set up the Indian Emergency Conservation Work Group: employed Native Americans in programs of soil- erosion control, irrigation & land development


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