Media reports have likely made you aware of this problem, but they have neglected the implications. Your brother catches a cold that turns into a sinus infection. His doctor treats him with antibiotics, but the bacteria are resistant to all of them. The infection enters his bloodstream — a condition known as septicemia — and a few days later, your brother dies. (Septicemia is what killed Muppets creator Jim Henson several years ago.) Or instead of a cold, he has an infected cut that won't heal, or any other common bacterial disease, such as an ear or prostate infection. Governments everywhere are at a loss regarding the best policy for regulating the dwindling forest reserves of the world. Few ethical guidelines have been established from which agreement might be reached, and those are based on an insufficient knowledge of ecology. Even if adequate scientific knowledge were available, we would have little basis for the long-term valuation of forests. The economics of sustainable yield is still a primitive art, and the psychological benefits of natural ecosystems are almost wholly unexplored. WHICH HAS A MORE FORMAL TONE? Example A Example B
VOICE (n) Voice is the author's style, the quality that makes his or her writing unique, and which conveys the author's attitude and personality. Voice is made up of syntax, diction, punctuation, character development, and dialogue.
It shows the writer's personality It sounds different from everyone else's It contains feelings and emotions The words come to life It comes from the heart Uses “active” voice where subject is performing the action of the sentence It is vague It is bland and does not have much distinction Descriptions are not colorful and diction is poor There is a lack of emotion It does not seem genuine Uses “passive voice” where the action is being performed to the subject STRONG VS. WEAK Strong Voice Weak voice
The burglar stole the silver. (active voice declarative) Did the burglar steal the silver? (active voice interrogative) Steal the silver! (active voice imperative) The silver was stolen by the burglar. (passive voice declarative) Was the silver stolen by the burglar? (passive voice interrogative) ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE VOICE
CLARITY (n) The quality in writing to be clear and easily understood or visualized.
CLARITY "The 'successful communication' that 'clarity' points to is finally our success in getting someone else to share our view of the world, a view we have composed by perceiving it. And if this is true of perception it must hold true for prose too. To write is to compose a world as well as view one." (Richard Lanham, Analyzing Prose. Continuum, 2003)
WHICH IS CLEARER? Every semester after final exams are over, I'm faced with the problem of what to do with books of lecture notes (new information). They (old) might be useful some day, but they just keep piling up on my bookcase (new). Someday, it (old) will collapse under the weight of information I might never need. Lately, most movies I've seen have been merely second-rate entertainment, but occasionally there are some with worthwhile themes. The rapid disappearance of the Indian culture (new) is the topic of a recent movie (old) I saw.
REVIEW! II NP be ADJ III NP be NP IV NP linking verb (other than be) ADJ V NP linking verb (other than be ) NP
WHICH PATTERN IS IT? “Although as boys, we had been even intimate associates, yet I really knew little of my friend.” p. 2
WHICH PATTERN IS IT? This tastes awfully disgusting!
WHICH PATTERN IS IT? “The general furniture was profuse, comfortless, antique, and tattered.” p. 4
WHICH PATTERN IS IT? “His action was alternately vivacious and sullen.” p. 4 “The room in which I found myself was very large and lofty.” p. 3 “It was perhaps the narrow limits to which he thus confined himself upon the guitar, which gave birth, in great measure, to the fantastic character of his performances.” p. 7
WRITING SUBJECT IDEAS MUST BE SOMETHING WITH GOTHIC CHARACTERISTICS (SCARY!) Edgar Allan Poe The House of Usher Madeline Usher Roderick Usher The short story itself, “The Fall of the House of Usher” The narrator in “The Fall of the House of Usher”