2Ming Foreign Policy Chinese were the most Skilled sailors in the world.Build large sturdy ships calledJunks: Some were more than 400 feet long.Ming emperor financedA fleet that sailed across Indian OceanFleet reached the Arabian PeninsulaChinese had ability to become a great seafaring power.Ming emperors had little interest inSea power or foreign tradeStopped financing expeditions.
3Attitudes toward Trade After defeating Mongols, Ming emperors triedTo rid China of all Mongol influences.Wanted China to be as great as they were during theHan, Tang, and Sung dynasties.Ming emperorsRestore Confucianism as official philosophy of the government.Divides society into four classes.
4Four Classes under Confucianism Scholar-GentryHighly literate class helped staff royal bureaucracy.FarmersProduce food and paid taxes that supported empireArtisansMade beautiful useful objects.MerchantsBottom of social orderSold objects that peasants and artisans produced.In the minds of the emperor, foreign trade:Did not bring enough benefits to China to make it worthwhile.
5Northern Frontier Focused their efforts on the Long northern land frontierTo protect frontier, Ming strengthenedThe Great Wall of ChinaEncouraged soldiers to move to frontier zone by offeringFree land to familiesAlso encouraged peasants and city dwellers to move there.Prevent Nomadic tribes from uniting from the North.Required constantAttentionGreat deal of money
6Founding the Qing Dynasty Located in:Manchuria to northeast of China.Chieftain named:Nurhachi unifies many tribes into single people called ManchuNurhachi son captured eastern Mongolia and KoreaDeclared beginning of the Qing Dynasty.CapturedBeijing and ruled China until 1912.Outsiders capture China again even with Ming efforts.Emperors were notChineseAdopted Chinese culture and ruled with traditional techniques.Husan-Yeh: Qing ruler emperor that adopted techniuqes.Chinese men wore hair tied inQueue (tail)Symbolized submission to Manchu rule.
7Economy Lower Yangtze region became a center for Weaving of cotton cloth.Transported goods alongCanals, coastal waterways, and rivers.Sent goods to Central Asia and Russia such asTea and silk by caravanChinese cities continued to grow.Relied on merchants to supplyClothing, food, and other goods to city dwellers.Farmers grew rice, wheat, and tea but planted new crops:Peanuts, sweet potatoes (poor man’s food), tobacco (introduced by America).
8Popular Culture and Society Wealth of urban people led to popular cultureCity people readNovels and plays in common everyday language.Old tales about bandits and corrupt officials in novels.Portrayed Chinese society and family life.Scholars had studied ancient writings:Phiology: the history of literature and language.Scholars began to organize a manuscript library.Society was based solely on the famly.Each person had a role in life.Ex: Father/head of house. Daughter married/lived with new family.
9Decline of Qing Dynasty Growing population placed increasing pressure in government:Corruption at court and government became widespread.Demanded bribes in return for government services.Farmers found it difficult to support:Their families and themselves.Disastrous floods and famine in parts of ChinaLed to peasant rebellionLeading the rebellion was a White Lotus Society calledWhite Lotus RebellionQing Dynasty survived rebellion, but clearly declined.
11The Portuguese Able to build trade ties with China. Allowed Portuguese to establish trading station in:MacaoArrived on Portuguese shipsJesuit missionaries: used knowledge of astronomy to gain admission. Emperor liked the help of fixing Chinese calendar.Appointed missionaries in official positions.Allowed missionaries to convert officials to Christianity.Jesuit power aroused:Jealousy and concern among Chinese leaders.Qing rulers became suspicious and turned against them.Emperors denounced Christianity as anti-Confucian.
12The British Established a trading post in: Came to China to buy GuangzhouCame to China to buySilk and tea (became the land of tea drinkers).British East India CompanyMonopolized the new trade in Chinese teas.Company agreed to Chinese restrictions.Could only dock at GuangzhouCompany representatives were required to stay in Guangzhou outside city walls.New Ideas about trade and sale of opium damaged trade relations.
13Free Trade Ideas Supporters of free trade argued that government: Should not restrict or interfere with international trade.Traders who did not work for British East India Company resented:Company’s monopoly on the tea trade.British government becomes involved in debate because:Hoped to gain additional overseas markets.British officials ask Chineseto open more ports for their ships.Efforts failed and led to British East India Company’s abolishment.
14Opium Trade Expansion of tea trade British East India Company paid for:Purchases with cotton from India.Chinese demand for cotton=sameBritish demand for tea=kept risingCompany found a drug to exchange for tea calledOpiumProblem?Opium addictions spread throughout ChinaHuge trade imbalance grew, with more silver going out than coming in.Demanded opium trade stopAll opium cargo be turned over to them.
15Opium War When Chinese tried to stop trade: War broke outConflict between China and Britain known as the:Opium WarChinese army and navies no match compared to Britain.Qing officials agree to negotiate with British officials.Treaty of NanjingChina gave island of Hong Kong to British.Opened five ports to British trade (Fixed low tariff).Subjects in ports governed by British laws and courts.ExtraterritorialityForeigners must follow laws of their home country instead of laws of country they live in.
16More Concessions Unequal treaties Chinese signed treaties under the pressure of defeat and fear of further invasion.Benefits went to foreign powers.Gained little from them.Another war, Another British win, another unequal treaty.Opened additional ports along Yangtze RiverChinese had to allow British Embassy in Beijing.Chinese govt. had to protect Christian missionaries and their converts in China.Other countries also opened embassies in Beijing.
17Rebellions Hong Xiuquan Taiping Rebellion Influenced by Christian teachingsSaid he was younger brother of JesusInfluenced a new dynasty and attracted many followers.Taiping RebellionMillions of people were killedCities and farmlands destroyedAll revolts weakened the Qing Dynasty.
19Founding the Tokugawa Shogunate Ashikaga family became involved in dispute over selection of shogun.Leads to 100 years of bitter, widespread, and almost constant warfare in Japan.Oda NobunagaRise to power as:Minor DaimyoThrough conquests and alliancesCaptured city of Kyoto.Strengthened his power in Central Japan.Before defeating his rivals, vassals attacked him leading him toSuicide
20Toyotomi Hideyoshi Successor of Nobunaga Established capital at Edo, which is now the city of TokyoCrushed his defeated rivalsAllowed some to:Keep their private lands.He was prepared to expand or reduce the size of their territories.The Tokugawa family would keep the title of shogun for:More than 250 years.Established a governmentTokugawa shogunate
21Tokugawa Rule Political system was a cross between Feudalism and a central monarchyDaimyo governed as an:Almost absolute rulerLocal peasants paid taxes to support daimyo and supporters:Such as the samuraiMilitary Power: considerable influence over the daimyo.Daimyo had to spend every other year in Edo leaving:Their families as hostagesLed to having two residentsOne in Edo and one in the provinces.Living in Edo drainedFinancial resourcesMade warriors into courtiers.
22Foreign Contact Brought two items new to Japan: The Portuguese in JapanBrought two items new to Japan:Muskets and ChristianitySome samurai did not approve of musket because:Violated traditional fighting ethic (Skill).Jesuits:Concentrated on converting the Daimyo to Christianity.Missionaries converted 300,000 Japanese to Christianity.Closing the CenturyToguns saw Christianity as a threatTaught loyalty to power other than TokugawaMade Portuguese missionaries to leave countryDutch traders accepted trade relationship with Tokugawa.Togugawa banned overseas trade.Prohibited from traveling abroad.
23Social ClassWarrior class filled the same role as scholar-gentry in China.Samurai stood at the top of Japanese social order.Person’s social class was determined by:Birth/son followed occupations of fathers.Samurai stood at top of social orderPeasants, artisans, and merchants followedShoguns established schools to prepare:Samurai for peacetime rolesLow ranking samurai-low rank officialHigh ranking samurai-high rank officialChange in CultureInternal trade expandedSpecialization in certain crops in certain parts of countryCities grew in size
24End of Japan’s Isolation President Fillmore sent CommodoreMatthew Perry and powerful navy force to Japan.Perry was to negotiate treaty that would:Guarantee safety of U.S. sailors and open Japanese ports to US trade.Shogun agreed to negotiate when Perry returned the next year.Treaty of KanagawaOpen two ports that led Americans to obtain:Fuel, shelter, and suppliesLed to trade among the two nations.Within two years, Japan signed similar treaties with:Great Britain, Netherlands, and Russia.Consulates were establishedDiplomatic offices headed by consuls.US and Japan signed new treatyExchange ministersAllowed foreign residence in Edo and Osaka