Presentation on theme: "TOKEN ECONOMY PROGRAMME. STEP 1: IDENTIFY THE BEHAVIOUR THAT NEEDS TO BE CHANGED The behaviours must be outlined clearly and everyone involved in the."— Presentation transcript:
STEP 1: IDENTIFY THE BEHAVIOUR THAT NEEDS TO BE CHANGED The behaviours must be outlined clearly and everyone involved in the programme must understand them. All instructions should be asking people to do something in a positive way.
STEP 2: SELECT THE TOKENS AND DECIDE WHAT THEY CAN BE EXCHANGED FOR Decide how to give them out if they are tokens and where they should be kept
STEP 3: MAKE SURE THAT THE TOKEN/POINTS ‘BUY’ SIGNIFICANT REWARDS. It is important that the rewards have meaning for the individual concerned and that they are worthwhile. Individuals could maybe help to make a list of what they would like. If what the token/points aren’t significant or rewarding enough, there will be no motivation to perform the behaviour. For example: Children could be rewarded with crayons to colour in a A3 sheet of a picture they like. Once all crayons have been collect so the picture can be completely coloured in, they can receive their reward.
STEP 4: SET GOALS THAT ARE ACHIEVABLE The individuals involved need to know what they have to do to earn the tokens/points. The goals should be achievable, but not necessarily easy. They can be adjusted as the behaviour improves. Knowing what is to be rewarded is not difficult if it is a particular behaviour, but if it is a percentage improvement then this must be clear to everyone.
STEP 5: EXPLAIN THE WHOLE PROGRAMME It must be clear to the individuals so that they know what the tokens are for and can repeat the behaviour to gain more tokens/points. If they are not clear on what the desired behaviour or goal is, the programme is not likely to work.
STEP 6: FEEDBACK ON PROGRESS Individuals need feedback on how they are doing, or if they are doing the correct thing to earn the token – they need guidance. There can be some element of punishment, such as a response cost - tokens are either withheld or taken away for undesirable behaviour. It is recommended that this only happens after a few weeks of the programme. Response cost can also be used it part of a goal has not been met, rather then just if undesirable behaviour is shown.
STEP 7: PROVIDE THE REWARD At some point the tokens/points have to be exchanged for the reward. If no tokens/points are gained there should be no negative comments, the individual should simply be informed.
STEP 8: REVIEWING As the individual makes progress, their goal can be reviewed & more tokens/points can be given at this time. There should be praise throughout the programme if there is a positive reaction. If there is no further progress an earlier goal can be returned to.
THE GEORGE FAMILY – NANNY 911 THE GEORGE FAMILY – NANNY 911 ABA SKILLS TRAINING: TOKEN ECONOMY
STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES STRENGTHS: It has been found to work at schools; this is possibly because the rewards are immediate and powerful The programme can be aimed at individuals; therefore, it is likely to be successful because it will focus on their goals and the rewards can be tailored around individual needs and preferences. WEAKNESSES: There are practical difficulties; for example the programme is time- consuming and all staff have to work together cohesively, which is not easy to achieve. The behaviour may not generalise to a situation outside where the programme is run, which limits the application of the therapy.