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What is Project-Based Instruction? Jennifer Wilhelm University of Kentucky

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A project-enhanced unit is designed to foster common content learning (via benchmark lessons) by all students in the class, and to help students gain a deeper conceptual understanding of a sub-set of the larger content unit (via group project research). Project-enhanced Units

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Features for a project classroom: Driving Research Question ( Krajcik, J. and Blumenfeld, P., 2006) Sub-driving Research Questions Benchmark Lessons and Innovative Technologies to scaffold understanding ( Singer, J., Marx, R., and Krajcik, J., 2000) Milestones ( Polman, 2000) Project-based Framework

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What is a Driving Question?

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Characteristics of driving questions Feasible: Students can design and perform investigations to answer the questions. Feasible: Students can design and perform investigations to answer the questions. Worthwhile: They contain rich science and/or mathematics content, relate to what scientists or mathematicians really do, and can be broken down into smaller questions. Worthwhile: They contain rich science and/or mathematics content, relate to what scientists or mathematicians really do, and can be broken down into smaller questions. Contextualized: They are pertinent to the world, nontrivial, and important. Contextualized: They are pertinent to the world, nontrivial, and important. Meaningful: They are interesting and exciting to learners. Meaningful: They are interesting and exciting to learners. Sustainable: They lead to the pursuit of detailed answers over time. Sustainable: They lead to the pursuit of detailed answers over time.

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PBI with the REAL Unit ( Realistic Explorations in Astronomical Learning ) The unit and driving question should be guided by standards. Students who demonstrate understanding can (Disciplinary Corse Ideas from NGSS): Students who demonstrate understanding can (Disciplinary Corse Ideas from NGSS): MS-ESS1-1.Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases. MS-ESS1-1.Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases. MS-ESS1-3.Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system. MS-ESS1-3.Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system. An example driving question : o Why does the Moon’s appearance always seem to change?

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Literary Review for REAL Unit Research has shown students have difficulty understanding the cause of lunar phases (Abell, Martini, & George, 2001; Lightman & Sadler, 1993; Trundle, Atwood, & Christopher, 2002; Zeilik & Bisard, 2000). Research has shown students have difficulty understanding the cause of lunar phases (Abell, Martini, & George, 2001; Lightman & Sadler, 1993; Trundle, Atwood, & Christopher, 2002; Zeilik & Bisard, 2000). Schoon (1992) - (1,200 students) 48.1% explained phases due to Earth’s shadow and 69.5% of college level students accepted this notion (p. 210). Schoon (1992) - (1,200 students) 48.1% explained phases due to Earth’s shadow and 69.5% of college level students accepted this notion (p. 210). Trumper (2001) study with future teachers found that 16% explained phases due to Earth’s shadow and of 29% believed phases were caused by the Sun’s shadow. Trumper (2001) study with future teachers found that 16% explained phases due to Earth’s shadow and of 29% believed phases were caused by the Sun’s shadow.

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Next Generation Science Standards Framework

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Comparing the Practices Mathematical PracticesScientific & Engineering Practices 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them 1. Asking questions and defining problems. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively2. Developing and using models 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others 3. Planning and carrying out investigations 4. Model with mathematics4. Analyzing and interpreting data 5. Use appropriate tools strategically5. Using mathematics and computational thinking 6. Attend to precision6. Constructing explanations and designing solutions 7. Look for and make use of structure7. Engaging in argument from evidence 8. Look for and express regularity and repeated reasoning 8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.

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Comparing the Practices Mathematical PracticesScientific & Engineering Practices 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them 1. Asking questions and defining problems. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively2. Developing and using models 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others 3. Planning and carrying out investigations 4. Model with mathematics4. Analyzing and interpreting data 5. Use appropriate tools strategically5. Using mathematics and computational thinking 6. Attend to precision6. Constructing explanations and designing solutions 7. Look for and make use of structure7. Engaging in argument from evidence 8. Look for and express regularity and repeated reasoning 8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information.

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How do you ensure that students have the opportunity to learn specific content material in a project classroom?

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Benchmark Lessons & Project Work 1.Moon journaling (both nature and Stellarium) 2.Earth/Moon/Mars NASA scaling lesson 3.Moon Hoax Investigation (mini-project) 4.What can we learn by examining the Moon's surface and what affects a crater’s size? 5.How can I say where I am on the Earth? 6.2 and 3-dimensional modeling of Earth/Moon/Sun geometry 7.Asynchronous Internet blogging with Australian students 8.Geometers’ Sketchpad benchmark lesson

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GroupsSub-Driving Research Questions & Follow-up questions OrbitersWhat path is swept out by the Moon as it orbits the Earth as the Earth and Moon orbit the Sun? How is our moon’s path similar to other moons? AnglersHow does my Earthly location affect my lunar observations? Why do people in the Northern Hemisphere see the moon lit on the right with people in the Southern Hemisphere see it lit on the left? StargazersHow does light pollution (including moonlight pollution) affect my night sky observations? Are stars in the same location each night, or do they change position? Craters What can we learn by examining a lunar or planetary surface? What factors determine the distribution of impact craters in Earth’s hemispheres?

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Components of the Project Sub-driving Research Question (student- generated question) Sub-driving Research Question (student- generated question) Methods of Investigation and Data Collection Methods of Investigation and Data Collection Analysis of Data Analysis of Data Data Representation Data Representation Graphs/Charts/ Models and/or Technology- generated Visuals Graphs/Charts/ Models and/or Technology- generated Visuals Results and Conclusions Results and Conclusions Follow-up Question Follow-up Question

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Assessments in Project- enhanced Classrooms Concept Maps Concept Maps Rubrics Rubrics Rubrics Pre/post surveys Pre/post surveys Journaling Journaling

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Project Rubric

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Orbiters

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Anglers

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Stargazers

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Craters Earth Impact Database - http://www.passc.net/EarthImpactDatabase/NorthAmerica.html

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Thank you! Jennifer.wilhelm@uky.edu REAL Curriculum Website http://www.uky.edu/~jwi229/access/REAL/

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