Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Time Value of Money"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 4: Time Value of Money ObjectiveExplain the concept of compoundingand discounting and to provideexamples of real lifeapplications
2Chapter 4 Contents Compounding Frequency of Compounding Present Value and DiscountingAlternative Discounted Cash Flow Decision RulesMultiple Cash FlowsAnnuitiesPerpetual AnnuitiesLoan AmortizationExchange Rates and Time Value of MoneyInflation and Discounted Cash Flow AnalysisTaxes and Investment Decisions
3Financial Decisions Costs and benefits being spread out over time The values of sums of money at different datesThe same amounts of money at different dates have different values.
4Time Value of MoneyInterestPurchasing powerUncertainty
5Compounding Present value (PV) Future value (FV) Simple interest: the interest on the original principalCompound interest: the interest on the interestFuture value factor
6Value of Investing $1 at an Interest Rate of 10% Continuing in this manner you will find that the following amounts will be earned:
7Value of $5 InvestedMore generally, with an investment of $5 at 10% we obtain
8Value of $5 InvestedIf we can earn 10% interest on the principal $5, then after 4 years
10Example: Future Value of a Lump Sum Your bank offers a CD (Certificate of Deposit) with an interest rate of 3% for a 5 year investments.You wish to invest $1,500 for 5 years, how much will your investment be worth?
11Example: Reinvesting at a Different Rate You have $10,000 to invest for two years.Two years CDs and one year CDs are paying 7% and 6% per year respectively.What should you do?Reinvestment rate?You are sure the interest rate on one-year CDs will be 8% next year.With the two-year CDWith the sequence of two one-year CDs
12Frequency of Compounding Annual percentage rate (APR)Effective annual rate (EFF)Suppose you invest $1 in a CD, earning interest at a stated APR of 6% per year compounded monthly.General formula
19Example: Interest Rate on a Lump Sum Investment If you invest $15,000 for ten years, you receive $30,000.What is your annual return?
20Solving Lump Sum Cash Flow for Number of Periods
21NPV (Net Present Value) Rule NPV rule: Accept a project if its NPV is positive.Opportunity cost of capital: The rate (of return) we could earn somewhere else if we did not invest in the project under evaluation.Yield to maturity or Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
22Example: Evaluate a Project A five-year savings bond with face value $100 is selling for a price of $75.Your next-best alternative for investing is an 8% bank account.Is the savings bond a good project?
24Example: Borrowing You need to borrow $5,000 to buy a car. A bank can offer you a loan at an interest rate of 12%.A friend says he will lend the $5,000 if you pay him $9,000 in four years.Should you borrow from the bank or the friend?
26Example: Buying an Annuity You are 65 years old and expect to live until age 80.For a cost of $10,000, an insurance company will pay you $1,000 per year for the rest of your life.You can earn 8% per year on your money in a bank account.Does it pay to buy the insurance policy?
27Perpetual Annuities / Perpetuities Recall the annuity formula:Let n -> ∞ with i > 0:
28Loan AmortizationHome mortgage loans or car loans are repaid in equal periodic installments.Part of each payment is interest on the outstanding balance of the loan.Part is repayment of principal.The portion of the payment that goes toward the payment of interest is lower than the previous period’s interest payment.The portion that goes toward repayment of principal is greater than the previous period’s.
31Example: Exchange Rates Investing $10,000 in dollar-denominated bonds offering an interest rate of 10% per yearInvesting in yen-denominated bonds offering an interest rate of 3% per yearThe exchange rate for the yen is now $0.01 per yen.Which is the better investment for the next year?
37Switch to a Gas Heat ?You currently heat your house with oil and your annual heating bill is $2,000.By converting to gas heat, you estimate that this year you could cut your heating bill by $500.You think the cost differential between gas and oil is likely to remain the same for many years.The cost of installing a gas heating system is $10,000.Your alternative use of the money is to leave it in a bank account earning an interest rate of 8% per year.Is the conversion worthwhile?
38Switch to a Gas Heat ?Assume that the $500 cost differential will remain forever.The investment in switch of heating is a perpetuity, i.e. paying $10,000 now for getting $500 per year forever.If the $500 cost differential will increase over time with the general rate of inflation, then the 5% rate of return is a real rate of return.The conversion is not worthwhile unless the rate of inflation is greater than 2.875% per year.
40Taking Advantage of a Tax Loophole You are in a 40% tax bracket and currently have $100,000 invested in municipal bonds earning a tax-exempt rate of interest of 6% per year.Now you buy a house at a cost of $100,000.A bank offers a loan for you at an interest rate of 8% per year.Does it pays for you to borrow?