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Eastern Cattle Area (Group #5) *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~ Presented to you by: Jasper, Elson, Dickson, James, Kara, Pamela, Justin, Son, Sharon,

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Presentation on theme: "Eastern Cattle Area (Group #5) *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~ Presented to you by: Jasper, Elson, Dickson, James, Kara, Pamela, Justin, Son, Sharon,"— Presentation transcript:


2 Eastern Cattle Area (Group #5) *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~ Presented to you by: Jasper, Elson, Dickson, James, Kara, Pamela, Justin, Son, Sharon, Hanna, John, Mariana, Marisa, Sean Music80Q


4 ♪Melody♫ *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~ Melody: “A rhythmically organized sequence of single tones so related to one another as to make up phrase or idea; structure with respect to the arrangement of single notes in succession.” Characteristics of African Melodies: -supported by polyrhythm -express human emotion -have source of scale

5 Eastern Cattle Region Among the Somali, Turkana and Masai people of Kenya and the Hima of Uganda melodies have a complicated, flowing quality. They are sung almost in slow tempo. Among the Bantus of Kenya melodies are instrumentally very fast posses flow and rhythm. The taarab melodies from Zanzibar, Tanzania has a fast, danceable tempo. Among Ethiopian people melodies are florid melodies and enriched. Performers often double with another voice or instrument.

6 Examples *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~

7 Rhythm *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~ Movement has implications on rhythm. Melodic patterns are not only patterns of tone but also patterns of rhythm. The peculiar organization of rhythmic motifs gives a very distinctive character to the music of Eastern Africa. Rhythm is often conceived in patterns. Different cultural focus on the use of particular patterns in certain geographical area. For example, there are inherent patterns which sequence of many notes that are played rapidly in Uganda, and which indicate that a comparative study of the use of such standard rhythm patterns might be worthwhile in defining the range of rhythmic resources exploited in Eastern Africa musical practice.

8 A comparative study of both rhythmic and melodic vocabularies within single cultures and groups of cultures is essential. Variations in tempo also exist in Easter African musical styles, and the differences between musical types may be expressed, among other things, in terms of this. There are cultural differences in the choice of tempo, or differences in the use of tempo which suggests that a comparative study might be worthwhile. Instruments are also used to make rhythmic sounds. Melodic instruments such as drums and xylophones. Among the vast array of non melodic, rhythmic idiophones are used; the most common and widespread are probably rattles. But there are many other such as sistrum, stone clapper, wooden bells and clay pots partially water-filled.

9 Rhythm Communication As a Way of The drum is a musical instrument in which it is used to send messages to distant places. A large group of royal drums use drums to announce the death of a member of a royal family but was not that often. The Lwo tribes in Kenya and Uganda, jungle messages were transmitted across the bush simply by uttering a very sharp, high-pitched call in regular rhythms.

10 Calling people to work Common rhythm on the drum - In Buganda Calling people to do communal work - Building village roads - Making footbridges across swamps

11 Warning People of Danger Many ways of rising an alarm - Common to shout while beating or touching the lips - Whistles and other modern imported devices are becoming popular For someone in authority - Use of drums are used to warn people - Special drum rhythm played - Calling people to gather and to defend their village

12 Instruments *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~ Double Bells: These double bells are hand-forged by the best Ewe Blacksmith and are used for all of their traditional music. Double bells are created from an iron that is heated to a blistering temperature, and hammered into the proper size. Dodompe and Tokes: Hand- forged from iron, these bells produce clear, cutting, high- pitched tones. The Tokes is held in the palm and played with a beater. Dodompe is placed on the middle of the finger and struck with an iron ring worn around the thumb. [Double Bells (b), Dodompe (l), and Tokes (r)]

13 Shekeres *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~ Shekeres: Shekeres are gourds covered with a woven, beaded webbing. These are authentic instruments made in Africa; webbing is made of sturdy nylon.

14 Balafon: An "ideophonic" music instrument, built up with tone bars laid across a frame. With calabash resonators below each bar. The resonators have wholes, over which cigarette paper is stretched so as to make a buzzing sound when the bar is struck. The bars are played with mallets. Xylophone and marimba are other members of this instrument family. The balafon has wooden tone bars. Used both as a percussive and a melodic instrument. Balafon (b) and Shekeres (f) *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~

15 Bullroarer: a spatula shaped piece of wood and is swung in the air by a rope. Although it does not create a recognized musical or rhythmic sound, the tone can be changed by altering the speed of the swing. The roaring-howling-whirling sounds are symbolic of the rumbling storm clouds, or a call to the Gods and fellow tribesmen. The Aborigines use the Bullroarer as a form of communication. Bullroarer *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~

16 Thumb Pianos: Sometimes also called gourd pianos, Mbiras, Sansas, and other indigenous names, these metallophones originated in Africa. Each tribe had a distinctive style of instrument. It is plucked with fingers or thumbs; these instruments produce a haunting, liquid percussive music. Since you can play either simultaneously or alternating between two thumbs, lovely harmonic and rhythmic effects are possible. Thumb Pianos *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~

17 Slit Drums: They vary in size from huge tree trunks enclosed in huts and played by several men, to small bamboo instruments used in Malaysia by watchmen. Slit drums are frequently ritual instruments that are regarded as possessing magical attributes and are often associated with water and with death and resurrection. Because of their great carrying power and resonance, they are often also used as signaling instruments, in some places transmitting messages by reproducing the inflections of human speech. They are also used to underscore dance rhythms. Slit Drums *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~

18 Music *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~ Song #1: Nene Nandikwa na Mwinyi (Tanzania) Song #2: Tindiba by Samite (Uganda)

19 Credits *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~

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