Models of Work Motivation Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Ph.D. Middle Tennessee State University
Elements of Motivation F What energizes human behavior (energetic forces), F What directs or channels such behavior (goal orientation), and F How this behavior is maintained or sustained (a systems orientation).
The Content Theories of Motivation Focus on What motivates people Focus on Factors Identification of important internal elements Elements my be prioritized within the individual
The Process Theories of Motivation Focus on How people are motivated Focus on the Psychological Process Function of the individual’s decision systems
Early Psychological Approaches Hedonism Seek pleasure and avoid pain Bentham (1789) coined the term: Hedonic calculus The process by which people calculate the pros and cons of various acts of behavior
Instinct Theories Instinct and Unconscious Motivation McDougall (1908) defined an instinct as an inherited or innate psychological disposition Automatic predispositions Freud (1915) argued that individuals are not always aware of all their desires and needs. Dreams, slips of the tongue, the hedonistic principle appears at an unconscious level List of instincts continued to grow
The Content Theories of Motivation 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 2. Alderfer’s Existence, Related, Growth (ERG) Theory 3. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory 4. McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Self-Esteem Social, Belongingness Safety and Security Physiological
Your Needs Same Order Same Importance Same Shape, Over Time
Two Categories Growth Needs: Self-Esteem and Self- Actualization Deficiency Needs: Physiological, Safety and Security, and Belongingness
Evaluation: Porter (1961) Upper-level managers have more challenging and autonomous jobs and are in a better position to pursue their growth needs than their lower level counterparts.
Wahba & Bridwell (1976) The theory is widely accepted, but there is little research evidence to support it. 5 Distinct categories? Hierarchy? Deficiency vs. Growth? Unsatisfied need is important? Satisfaction of lower-level needs leads to the importance of next higher-level needs?
Tang & West (1997) The Importance of Human Needs During Peacetime, Retrospective Peacetime, and the Persian Gulf War International Journal of Stress Management, 4 (1), 47-62. Prestige Factor: 15.64 Ranking: 867/1468 Percentile: 41
Main Purpose The effect of War on human needs The importance of needs The satisfaction of needs Peacetime vs. Wartime The US vs. Middle East January of 1990 vs. January of 1991 Peacetime in 1993-1994 (Study 1)
Design of This Study The US Middle East Peace War I S I S I = Importance; S = Satisfaction
Study 1 Participants: 137 Employees in the US in 1993 and 1994 Age = 34.48 Education = 15.37 Income = US$23,900 Organizational Tenure = 71.0 months
Measures of Needs Porter’s (1961) Need Satisfaction Questionnaire NSQ does not have items related to physiological needs and safety needs. 13-item, 5-point Likert Scale
The Need Scale The availability of Water, Food, and Basic Physiological Needs; The security and safety of My Own Life, My Family, and My Country;
The Need Scale Develop close friendships, Give help and offer support to other people; Feeling of self-esteem, The prestige and regard received from others; The feeling of worthwhile accomplishment, Self-Fulfillment, Personal growth and development.
Factors of Needs During Peacetime The Importance of Needs Principal Components Factor Analysis Eigenvalues greater than 1 Varimax Rotation Scree test We identified 2 Factors
Lower-Order Needs (Peacetime) Item Factor Loading Water.91 Food.89 Basic physiological needs.78 Security and safety of my family.67 My own life.66 My country.62.
Higher-Order Needs (Peacetime) Item Factor Loading Worthwhile accomplishment.87 Self-Fulfillment.83 Personal growth.75 Self-Esteem.74 Close friendship.59 Give help and offer support.54 Prestige and regard.40.
Study 2 War-related stress began on August 2, 1990 when Kuwait was occupied by Iraq. The Persian Gulf War started on January 16, 1991. Data were collected between January 16 and April 30, 1991. The Retrospective Peacetime in 1990 The Persian Gulf War in 1991
Participants Psychology students in the Middle Tennessee: MTSU, APSU, Fort Campbell N = 564, Male = 184, Female = 360 Age = 23.52 Education = 14.64 Caucasians = 441, African-Americans = 52, Hispanics = 6, Asians = 14, American Indians = 3 Married = 91, Single = 406, Divorced = 16
Participants Spouse/Relatives in the war? Yes = 86, No = 441 Close friends in the war? Yes = 280, No = 247.
Importance of Lower-Order Needs Peacetime, 1990 Item Factor Loading Water.88 Food.87 Security and safety of My country.74 Basic physiological needs.70 My own life.65 Security and safety of my family.62.
Importance of Higher-Order Needs Peacetime, 1990 Item Factor Loading Worthwhile accomplishment.82 Self-Fulfillment.76 Personal growth.74 Give help and offer support.72 Close friendship.71 Self-Esteem.70 Prestige and regard.63.
Importance of Needs Wartime, 1991 Item Factor Loading Security and safety of my family.87 Personal growth.85 Self-Fulfillment.85 Worthwhile accomplishment.84 Self-Esteem.83 Give help and offer support.80 My own life.80 Basic physiological needs.80 Security and safety of My country.79 Close friendship.78 Water.73 Food.72 Prestige and regard.63.
Importance of Needs Wartime F All Equally Important
Peacetime vs. Wartime Peacetime Wartime t Own life3.884.16 -5.84* Family3.964.25 -6.49* Country3.534.22 -11.92* The Most Important Need Friendship 4.00Growth 4.33 The Least Important Need Water 3.54Prestige 3.85
With vs. Without Spouse, Relatives, & Friends Importance With Without F Basic needs 4.22 4.024.12* Family 4.40 4.184.59* Give help 4.25 4.044.86* Friendship 4.39 4.138.23* Strain 8.12 9.894.08* Stress26.8925.367.11*.
Tang & Ibrahim (1998) Importance of Human Needs During Retrospective Peacetime and the Persian Gulf War: Mideastern Employees International Journal of Stress Management, 5 (1), 25-37.
Mideastern Culture Saudi Arabia: Much of the country consists of vast deserts where few people live and little or nothing grows. Traditional, outer-directed values: tribalistic, conformist, sociocentric Modern, inner-directed values: egocentric, manipulative, and existential
Participants Large government organizations: police officers, military personnel, Large universities: faculty, staff, clerical workers N = 378 Male = 240, Female = 126 Age = 34.04 Income = US$3,259.77
Importance of Needs Item PeacetimeWartime The Most Important WaterBasic Needs The Least Important FriendshipsFulfillment
Importance of Needs, Peacetime Factor 1Factor Loading Self-esteem.76 Prestige.70 My own life.65 Food.61 Accomplishment.59 Self-Fulfillment.56 Water.47.
Peacetime Factor 2Factor Loading Basic needs.70 My country.70 My family.69 Factor 3 Factor Loading Friendships.82 Personal growth.70 Give help.54.
Importance of Needs,Wartime Factor 1Factor Loading Fulfillment.81 My own life.79 Accomplishment.73 My country.57 Friendships.56.
Wartime Factor 2Factor Loading My family.79 Basic needs.73 Personal growth.62 Give help.58 Water.49 Factor 3 Factor Loading Prestige.78 Food.69 Self-esteem.63
Tang, Ibrahim, & West Effects of War-Related Stress on the Satisfaction of Human Needs: The United States vs. the Middle East International Journal of Management Theory and Practices, 2002, in press
Satisfaction of Needs, The US Needs Peacetime Wartime t Country3.733.37 5.87* Friendships3.633.82-3.59* The Most Satisfied Water 4.19 Water 4.15 The Least Satisfied Self-Esteem 3.29 Country 3.37.
Satisfaction of Needs, Middle East Needs Peacetime Wartime t Food3.753.52 2.71* Own Life3.953.50 5.17* Family4.073.77 4.37* Country3.583.40 2.63* Friendships3.783.51 3.32* The Most Satisfied Water 4.00 Water 3.87 The Least Satisfied Self-Esteem 3.55 Fulfillment 3.37.
Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, The US Factor 1Higher-Order Factor Loading Fulfillment.83 Accomplishment.81 Self-Esteem.77 Personal Growth.74 Prestige and regard.67 Give help.66 Friendships.59.
Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, The US Factor 2Lower-Order Factor Loading Water.86 Food.86 My family.68 Basic needs.66 My own life.66 My country.60.
Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, The US Factor 1Higher-Order Factor Loading Accomplishment.81 Fulfillment.81 Self-Esteem.80 Prestige and regard.72 Personal Growth.70 Friendships.61 Give help.59.
Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, The US Factor 2Physiological Factor Loading Food.87 Water.86 Basic needs.55; Factor 3Safety Factor Loading My country.85 My family.67 My own life.64.
Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, The Middle East Factor 1 Factor Loading My country.75 Food.65 Self-Esteem.64 Prestige and regard.56 Fulfillment.54 Give help.52.
Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, The Middle East Factor 2 Factor Loading Friendship.81 Personal growth.72 Water.53 Basic needs.82; Factor 3 Factor Loading My family.77 Accomplishment.48 My own life.43.
Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, The Middle East Factor 1 Factor Loading Food.82 Fulfillment.79 Self-Esteem.75 My own life.74 Personal growth.71 My country.71 Prestige and regard.70 Friendships.52.
Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, The Middle East F Factor 2 Factor Loading F My family.81 F Give help.74 F Basic needs.70 F Accomplishment.67 F Water.60
Summary-1 The Importance of Needs, Peacetime, in the US 1993-1994 data: 2 levels 1990 data: 2 levels Factor 1: Growth Needs--Social, Self- Esteem, and Self-Actualization Factor 2: Survival Needs--Physiological, Safety
Summary-2 The Importance of Needs, Wartime, in the US 1991 data: 1 level All needs are important for students in the US during the Persian Gulf War
Summary-3 The Importance of Needs, Peacetime, in the Middle East 1991 data: 3 levels Factor 1: Self-Sufficient Needs Factor 2: Other-Oriented needs Factor 3: Social Needs
Summary-4 The Importance of Needs, Wartime, in the Middle East 1991 data: 3 levels Factor 1: Fulfillment and Safety Factor 2: Survival and Safety for Others Factor 3: Self-Esteem
Summary-5 The Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, in the US 1991 data: 2 levels Factor 1: Growth Needs--Social, Self- Esteem, and Self-Actualization Factor 2: Survival Needs--Physiological, Safety
Summary-6 The Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, in the US 1991 data: 3 levels Factor 1: Growth Needs--Social, Self- Esteem, and Self-Actualization Factor 2: Physiological Needs Factor 3: Safety Needs
Summary-7 The Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, in the Middle East 1991 data: 3 levels Factor 1: Overall Self-Sufficient Needs, Factor 2: Social Needs, Factor 3: Personal Needs for Self and Family
Summary-8 The Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, in the Middle East 1991 data: 2 levels Factor 1: Self-Centered Needs, Factor 2: Other-Centered Needs
Summary-9 The USThe Middle East Importance Peacetime 2 3 Importance Wartime 1313 Satisfaction Peacetime 2323 Satisfaction Wartime 3232
Summary-10 Needs are different across cultures. Needs do change from peacetime to wartime. During peacetime, the pattern for the importance and the satisfaction of needs is the same. During wartime, the patterns for the importance and the satisfaction of needs change. The patterns change differently across cultures.
Summary-11 Human needs are different and dynamic. Human needs do change over time. Managers need to understand the needs of people and manage the diversity of the workforce in a global economy effectively and efficiently.
Nevis, E. C. (1983) Using an American perspective in understanding another culture: Toward a hierarchy of needs for the People’s Republic of China Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 19 (3), 249-264.
Cultural Assumptions: PRC 1. The nation has priority over everything; loyalty to the country is of the utmost importance 2. Consideration for the family is very important 3. Personnel selection is based upon exploits or ideological contribution 4. One should have great respect for age
Chinese Management 5. Equity is more important than wealth 6. Saving and conserving (money, resources) is to be valued 7. It is considered unhealthy for individuals to stand out or take personal credit for their accomplishments
Chinese Management 8. Every decision must take ideology into account 9. Communal property is more important than private possessions; collectivism is the best economic mechanism
Chinese Management 10. Emphasis focuses upon group forces for motivational purposes 11. Emphasis focuses on central planning and the powerful state
American Management 1. People believe that they can influence the future 2. Freedom of expression and opinion is generally valued; individualism is encouraged 3. To get ahead is taken for granted
American Management 4. Independent enterprises are the most effective instruments, competition is the most effective mechanism 5. Emphasis focuses on private property, a limited state 6. Personnel selection is based on merit
American Management 7. Decisions must be based on objective analysis 8. One makes a continual quest for improvement 9. High value is placed on specialization in all fields
American Management 10. One views the country as having virtually unlimited resources; the “streets-paved-with-gold” myth persists. 11. Fairness is the guiding principle for the integration of the individual and group needs.
Chinese Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization in the Service of Society Safety Physiology Belonging Tends to be defined in terms of Superordinate Goals: Moral Imperative, Social Confluence
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and the nature of man. Cleveland: World Publishing Co.
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory Herzberg, F. (1968, January-February). One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review. (1987, September-October). Harvard Business Review, 109-120. HBR Classic
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory Has sold more than 1.2 million reprints (1987). By some 300,000 copies over the runner-up, that is the largest sale of any of the thousands of articles that have ever appeared between HBR’s covers.
Frederick Herzberg Frederick Herzberg, Distinguished Professor of management at the University of Utah, was head of the department of psychology at Case Western Reserve University when he wrote this article.
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory 200 Accountants and Engineers Pittsburgh, PA Use Semi-structured interview Obtain Critical Incidents:
Interview Question(s): Recall a time when they had felt exceptionally good about their jobs. How long did it last? Recall a time when they had felt exceptionally bad about their jobs. How long did it last?
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory Motivators:Hygiene Factors: AchievementCo. Policy and Adm. RecognitionSupervision-Tech. Work ItselfSalary ResponsibilityInterpersonal Relations AdvancementWorking Conditions.
Traditional Belief Dissatisfaction ---------- Satisfaction
Herzberg’s Theory Two-dimensional need structure Motivator: No Job Satisfaction ------ Job Satisfaction Hygiene Factor: Dissatisfaction --------- No Dissatisfaction
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory Motivators: No Job Satisfaction ------ Job Satisfaction Emptiness---------------------------Fulfillment Hygiene Factors: Dissatisfaction --------- No Dissatisfaction Pain-------------------------------Relief of Pain
Herzberg’s Hygiene Factor-- Money Money is a Hygiene Factor Movement vs. Motivation Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Money: The more you have, the more you want. Satisfaction of money goes back to zero and the zero point escalates.
Herzberg’s Retrospective Commentary F Movement is a function of fear of punishment or failure to get extrinsic rewards. F Movement requires constant reinforcement and stresses short-term results.
Herzberg’s Retrospective Commentary F Motivation is a function of growth from getting intrinsic rewards out of interesting and challenging work. F Motivation is based on growth needs. F The ultimate reward in motivation is personal growth, people don’t need to be rewarded incrementally.
Herzberg’s Retrospective Commentary F Job enrichment grows out of knowing your product and your client with feeling, not just intellectually. F Motivation encompasses passion; movement is sterile (incapable of producing others of its kind).
KITA Acronym (kick in the ass) 1. -- Physical KITA 2. -- Psychological KITA 3. + Psychological KITA will generate Movement, not Motivation
Across Cultures F Japan F India F South Africa F Zambia F Italy F Israel
Criticism F Research Methodology—Critical Incident F Attribution Theory F Provide Self-Serving attribution for Satisfaction F Blame others (Co. policy, Supervision, Pay, etc.) for Dissatisfaction F No consideration for individual differences