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PRACTISING THE SCHOLARSHIP OF LEARNING & TEACHING in the FIRST YEAR EXPERIENCE Prof Keithia Wilson.

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Presentation on theme: "PRACTISING THE SCHOLARSHIP OF LEARNING & TEACHING in the FIRST YEAR EXPERIENCE Prof Keithia Wilson."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRACTISING THE SCHOLARSHIP OF LEARNING & TEACHING in the FIRST YEAR EXPERIENCE Prof Keithia Wilson

2 SCHOLARLY TEACHERS (Andresen, 2000; Kreber & Cranton, 2000) Well informed & critically reflective about – WHAT we teach – our discipline, field, subject- matter, course content WHAT we teach – our discipline, field, subject- matter, course content What should I do, know or find out here? What should I do, know or find out here? HOW we teach – our pedagogy HOW we teach – our pedagogy How do I know if it works & I’m effective? How do I know if it works & I’m effective? WHY we teach – our personal aims & premises & those of higher education WHY we teach – our personal aims & premises & those of higher education Why does it matter that I do this? Why does it matter that I do this?

3 EVOLVING SCHOLARSHIP OF L&T 1. Content  Disciplinary  WHAT students knowledge learn ? knowledge learn ? 2. Process  Learning  HOW students Processes learn? Processes learn? 3. Meta  Systems  How the LEARNING Process Processes SYSTEM works? Process Processes SYSTEM works?  How the FYE SYSTEM  How the FYE SYSTEM works? works?

4 1 DISCIPLINARYCONTENT-BASEDSCHOLARSHIP

5 DISCIPLINE BASED APPROACH Disciplinary Research which informs the CONTENT of our courses Disciplinary Research which informs the CONTENT of our courses Traditional academic notion of Scholarship Traditional academic notion of Scholarship Classic Teaching–Research nexus Classic Teaching–Research nexus Cornerstone of academic identity Cornerstone of academic identity Fits one conception of research-based learning in Academic Plan 3 Fits one conception of research-based learning in Academic Plan 3 Scholarship Scholarship

6 2 PROCESS-BASED SCHOLARSHIP OF L&T

7 SPOT THE DIFFERENCE… A SCHOLARLY APPROACH TO LEARNING AND TEACHING and The SCHOLARSHIP OF LEARNING AND TEACHING

8 As well as rather than instead of…. The process of critical reflection/reflective practice and improvement as an worthwhile end in itself and The production of generalisable knowledge as a by-product

9 A SCHOLARLY APPROACH TO L&T....what is it?  The process of critical reflection & continuous improvement = reflective practice Based on evaluation of our practice e.g., student evaluations (SEC/SET & qualitative), student feedback, tutor feedback, peer discussion & review, Course Evaluation Reports Based on evaluation of our practice e.g., student evaluations (SEC/SET & qualitative), student feedback, tutor feedback, peer discussion & review, Course Evaluation Reports RP is the cornerstone of effective L&T practice RP is the cornerstone of effective L&T practice RP involves engagement with the L&T literature – reading, reflecting, journaling  practice informed by scholarship (theory + research) RP involves engagement with the L&T literature – reading, reflecting, journaling  practice informed by scholarship (theory + research)  A scholarly approach is a worthwhile end within itself

10 REFLECTIVE PRACTICE …why would we bother? Critically reflecting on our educational practice towards the goal of continuous improvement …….  Single-loop reflection.….improving within my current assumptions and conceptions (e.g., What are better ways to do what I currently do?) (e.g., What are better ways to do what I currently do?)  Best practice  Double-loop reflection …..improving by stretching & challenging my assumptions and conceptions (e.g., What might I do differently with my L&T practice? &/or What is it that we do that might get in the way of students’ learning?) (e.g., What might I do differently with my L&T practice? &/or What is it that we do that might get in the way of students’ learning?)  Best practice plus innovation  Best practice plus innovation

11 SCHOLARSHIP OF L&T….what is it?  The SCHOLARLY PROCESS of critical reflection/reflective practice resulting in PRODUCTS or OUTPUTS about student learning in the public domain which can be peer reviewed  Conference papers  Conference papers  Journal articles  Journal articles  And can potentially influence the practice of others  impact in the field

12 DEFINITION of SoLT (Kreber & Cranton, 2000)  “Academics who practise the scholarship of teaching engage in content, process and premise reflection on research-based and experience-based knowledge in the areas of instruction, pedagogy and curriculum in ways that can be peer reviewed”

13 SCHOLARSHIP OF L&T…. why would we bother?  Contributing to research-based &/or experience- based knowledge in the public domain  Disseminating our ideas & practices in the hope of influencing our peers  Receiving valuable peer feedback which will extend our thinking & understanding  Being recognised for our innovative thinking & practice  Assisting our career development

14 As well as rather than instead of…. The process of critical reflection/reflective practice and improvement is a worthwhile end in itself And forms the bedrock for the production of generalisable knowledge as a by-product (SoLT)

15 Reflective practice…aka….ACTION RESEARCH - ACTION LEARNING - PIRI CYCLE (Kolb, 1984; Kember, 2000) EXPERIENCE REFLECTTHEORISE PLAN/APPLY

16 Reflective Practice as SoLT Two ways of travelling……  Theory to Practice  research-based knowledge  research-based knowledge evidence based practice evidence based practice  Practice to Theory  experience-based knowledge  experience-based knowledge practice based evidence practice based evidence

17 Theory to practice…… 3. EXPERIENCE 4. REFLECT1. THEORISE 2. PLAN/APPLY

18 THEORY TO PRACTICE….. Our initial forays…… Engaging with the literature of L&T to inform our own practice We Discovered……… Concept of approaches to learning (Biggs, 1979) Concept of approaches to learning (Biggs, 1979) Importance of designing learning experiences to encourage the development of deep approaches to learning Importance of designing learning experiences to encourage the development of deep approaches to learning And the conceptual design tool of the ‘3P Model’ (Biggs, 1989) And the conceptual design tool of the ‘3P Model’ (Biggs, 1989)

19 The 3 P model….. an omnibus thinking tool about learning systems PRESAGE Student factors Learning Environment Factors *Course design *Delivery *Assessment *workload PROCESS Approaches to Learning *Deep *Surface *Achieving PRODUCT Learning Outcome factors *Content Learning *Academic (gpa) *Generic Skills *Student satisfaction

20 Theory to practice case study 1 …. Approaches to Learning What did we do?  Looked for themes in the literature on AL to build on e.g., gender differences  Designed a study to collect data in classes What did we find?  Analysis of literature revealed gender diffs only on AL sub-scales, not scales  No gender differences in AL  Convergence between the SPQ & ASI measures of AL

21 Theory to practice case study 1 …. Approaches to Learning What did we change? Nothing in teaching practice Nothing in teaching practice How did we disseminate? 1 Publication – Wilson, Smart & Watson (1996), British Journal of Educational Psychology (Tier 1) good citation rate 1 Publication – Wilson, Smart & Watson (1996), British Journal of Educational Psychology (Tier 1) good citation rate

22 Potential Product Outcomes for the FYE  Retention into year 2 (return to uni)  Academic success can be measured by submission rates on individual assessment items submission rates on individual assessment items individual assessment items (pass/fail, marks or grades) individual assessment items (pass/fail, marks or grades) individual FY courses (P/F, marks/grades) individual FY courses (P/F, marks/grades) semesters 1 &/or 2 semesters 1 &/or 2 Year 1 (GPA or course grades) Year 1 (GPA or course grades) Generic skill acquisition Generic skill acquisition Behavioural skill acquisition (communication skills) Behavioural skill acquisition (communication skills) Deep/surface learning (learning motivation & strategies) Deep/surface learning (learning motivation & strategies) Student satisfaction Student satisfaction

23 Theory to practice case study 2…. Learning System What did we do? Used the 3P model to design a series of studies examining how our students experienced their learning across disciplines What did we find? Relevance  Deep learning  Generic skills Good teaching Student Appropriate Workload satisfaction

24 Theory to practice case study 2…. Learning System What did we change? Emphasis on front-end context setting and meaning making Emphasis on front-end context setting and meaning making Reaffirmation of teacher engagement with students Reaffirmation of teacher engagement with students Use of deep learning strategies for generic skills development Use of deep learning strategies for generic skills development How did we disseminate? Seminars Seminars 4 Publications – (e.g., Wilson, Lizzio, & Ramsden (1997) & Lizzio, Wilson et al., (2002), Studies in Higher Education) high citation rates 4 Publications – (e.g., Wilson, Lizzio, & Ramsden (1997) & Lizzio, Wilson et al., (2002), Studies in Higher Education) high citation rates

25 Theory to practice case study 3…. FYE System What were we interested in? Used the 3 P Model & Senses of Success Model to investigate what makes a difference to commencing students’ experience and outcomes, specifically, what student and university factors predict:  Early student satisfaction  Students’ Semester 1 GPA  Students’ Attrition/Retention into year 2 How did we approach this?  survey (weeks 6-8) & feedback process  2006 cohort (n = 2,587) of commencing students tracked for 3 years ( )

26 The ‘Five-Senses’ of Student Success Lizzio (2006) Sense of Academic Culture Sense of Connectedness Sense of Capability Sense of Purpose Sense of Resourcefulness

27 What predicts commencing students’ satisfaction with their degree program? Sense of Purpose Sense of Capability Good Teaching Sense of Connection Perceived Effectiveness of Orientation Strongly Enhances Enhances Time on Task Enhances Commencing Student Satisfaction

28 What predicts commencing students’ academic outcomes? Semester 1 GPA Academic Capital Low SES First in Family ESL Competing Demands Time in employment Time as carer Prior Academic Achievement Entry OP Task Uni Attendance at Orientation Intended time on study Strongly Enhances Enhances Reduces

29 What predicts commencing students’ retention? Semester 1 GPA Academic Capital - Competing Demands - Prior Academic Achievement + Task Uni + Sense of Purpose Student Satisfaction + Student Retention

30 Theory to practice case study 3…. What did we change? We identified 3 priorities for strategic action 1. Strategic and assertive orientation to facilitate ‘conditions for success’ including a lifecycle approach to orientation 2. Systematic purpose-building interventions in co-curricular & curricular modes at the course and program levels. 3. An integrated whole-of-school or program approach (curricular and co-curricular) to student transition as a meta-goal of the first- university How did we disseminate? Seminars at Griffith + other universities Seminars at Griffith + other universities Conference presentation (FYHE National Conference) Conference presentation (FYHE National Conference) Publications in preparation Publications in preparation

31 Practice to theory…… 1. EXPERIENCE 2. REFLECT3. THEORISE 4. PLAN/APPLY

32 PRACTICE TO THEORY PRACTICE TO THEORY Reflecting on our practice with the aim of better understanding & replicating good practice  Bottom-up theory building  Multiple reflective cycles at either macro or micro levels of practice  Developing Conscious competence

33 Practice to theory case study 1….. Action Learning What did we do? We applied the AL/AR/PIRI cycle starting with Practice at a whole of course level (macro) Firstly, used student feedback and critical theory to refine our course design based on action learning principles over time Secondly, conducted a quasi-experimental study to compare students experience of this refined course with other courses What did we find? Project work  Deep learning  Generic skills Project work  Deep learning  Generic skills Action learning drives surface learners to adopt deep learning strategies but not deep motives Action learning drives surface learners to adopt deep learning strategies but not deep motives Replicated and robust findings over 3 years Replicated and robust findings over 3 years

34 Practice to Theory case study 1.….Action Learning What did we change? We generalised these findings to our other courses e.g., action learning projects & principles We generalised these findings to our other courses e.g., action learning projects & principles Providing empirical rationale/evidence-base to students in week 1, regarding the value and effectiveness of the course Providing empirical rationale/evidence-base to students in week 1, regarding the value and effectiveness of the course How did we disseminate? Seminars Seminars Publications – (e.g., Wilson et al. (2005) Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education) citations Publications – (e.g., Wilson et al. (2005) Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education) citations

35 Practice to Theory 1….WORK IN PROGRESS Student feedback……something else is going on here! (e.g., Has changed my world view etc…) (e.g., Has changed my world view etc…) Suggesting a new and expanded reflective lens is required …….Transformational learning Resulting in another series of reflective practice cycles & engagement with the Transformational Learning Literature (Mezirow, 2000)

36 Practice to Theory case study 2…. Beginning Groups What did we do? We used multiple reflective practice cycles to develop both our understanding (conceptual model) and our practice We used multiple reflective practice cycles to develop both our understanding (conceptual model) and our practice What did we find? A hierarchy of human needs that people bring into every new group situation A hierarchy of human needs that people bring into every new group situation A new, effective & robust design model for conceptualising those needs - PELPOPS A new, effective & robust design model for conceptualising those needs - PELPOPS

37 Practice to Theory case study 2….. Beginning Groups What did we change? Developed a coherent framework for designing effective group beginnings applicable to a wide range of practice contexts – field + higher ed Developed a coherent framework for designing effective group beginnings applicable to a wide range of practice contexts – field + higher ed Influenced the practice of many practitioners Influenced the practice of many practitioners How did we disseminate? Training & development contexts – field & universities Training & development contexts – field & universities Publications – (Lizzio & Wilson (2001a & b) Group Work) Publications – (Lizzio & Wilson (2001a & b) Group Work) Include the papers as a class handout Include the papers as a class handout

38 Practice to theory case study 3… Student Feedback on Assessment What did we do? Investigated students’ perceptions of helpful & unhelpful written assignment feedback Investigated students’ perceptions of helpful & unhelpful written assignment feedback Firstly content analysed students’ descriptions of helpful & unhelpful feedback (study 1) Firstly content analysed students’ descriptions of helpful & unhelpful feedback (study 1) Then investigated the dimensions underlying their conceptions of effective feedback using factor analysis (study 2) Then investigated the dimensions underlying their conceptions of effective feedback using factor analysis (study 2) What did we find? Students identified 3 dimensions of effective marker feedback – developmental (task), encouraging (socio-emotional), fair (justice) Students identified 3 dimensions of effective marker feedback – developmental (task), encouraging (socio-emotional), fair (justice) Developmental feedback was most strongly associated with students’ perceptions of effective assessment feedback Developmental feedback was most strongly associated with students’ perceptions of effective assessment feedback

39 Practice to theory case study 3… Student Feedback on Assessment What did we change? Ensure in our courses that staff feedback protocols on assignments reflect the 3 criteria Ensure in our courses that staff feedback protocols on assignments reflect the 3 criteria Make these criteria explicit to students in our courses as aspirational goals for staff & invite feedback on our process (transparency) Make these criteria explicit to students in our courses as aspirational goals for staff & invite feedback on our process (transparency) How did we disseminate? Incorporated findings into assessment protocols for new tutors in our annual tutor training program Incorporated findings into assessment protocols for new tutors in our annual tutor training program Publication – (Lizzio & Wilson (2008) Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education) Publication – (Lizzio & Wilson (2008) Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education)

40 3 META-PROCESS BASED SCHOLARSHIP OF L&T

41 LEARNING SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT AS SoLT Focus on the development & evaluation of educational systems ‘beyond the classroom’ …at the Program or School level …..to enhance L&T Two examples A whole-of-School approach to First Year Orientation & Engagement A whole-of-School approach to First Year Orientation & Engagement A whole-of-School approach to training & development of sessional staff A whole-of-School approach to training & development of sessional staff

42 Systems level case study …. First Year O&E What did we do? Consulted the literature to identify “best practice” principles Consulted the literature to identify “best practice” principles Local cycles of implementation, evaluation & improvement Local cycles of implementation, evaluation & improvement What did we find? Students need coordination, coherence and consistency Students need coordination, coherence and consistency Purposeful redundancy of key messages is required Purposeful redundancy of key messages is required Identified 12 complementary intervention strategies ranging from primary prevention for all students to targeted interventions for at- risk students Identified 12 complementary intervention strategies ranging from primary prevention for all students to targeted interventions for at- risk students Just-in-time or lifecycle appropriate services are most effective and sustainable Just-in-time or lifecycle appropriate services are most effective and sustainable Importance of co-curricular & curricular interventions Importance of co-curricular & curricular interventions

43 Systems level case study …. First Year O&E What did we change? Implemented a ‘wrap-around’, whole of School, student lifecycle model How did we disseminate? University seminars (Griffith & 10 other Universities) University seminars (Griffith & 10 other Universities) FYHE Conferences FYHE Conferences Papers submitted & in preparation for publication Papers submitted & in preparation for publication Griffith L&T grant ($50,000) (further exploration & dissemination across Health Group) Griffith L&T grant ($50,000) (further exploration & dissemination across Health Group) ALTC Grant ($170,000) (First Year Assessment) ALTC Grant ($170,000) (First Year Assessment) ALTC National Fellowship ($350,000) ALTC National Fellowship ($350,000)

44 FINAL CONCLUSIONS….take away messages  Reflective Practice is the core of both practice improvement & scholarship  Theoretical Frameworks enhance practice & lead to better SOLT, therefore, engage with the Literature of L&T  Career Path in L&T requires scholarship in the form of both reflective practice & publication  Having publications in L&T is also a career advantage for an all-rounder profile ( )  Research Methodologies are important & will vary across disciplines

45 Evidence-based practice The gap between what we know and what we don’t know is much less than the gap between what we know and what we do. Don Berwick Don Berwick

46 Trust me I’m a doctor…. If we want students to engage with us in challenging learning experiences…..we need to be able to say to them…….don’t just take my word for it………here is the evidence.


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