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“Many organisations promote ideas that ‘our people are our most important asset’ and so on and then consistently fail to live by such values on a daily.

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Presentation on theme: "“Many organisations promote ideas that ‘our people are our most important asset’ and so on and then consistently fail to live by such values on a daily."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Many organisations promote ideas that ‘our people are our most important asset’ and so on and then consistently fail to live by such values on a daily basis“ “Many organisations promote ideas that ‘our people are our most important asset’ and so on and then consistently fail to live by such values on a daily basis“ “Demotivated people do not feel any ownership of their jobs. They simply see themselves as having to do as they are told. They feel that there is little point in doing more than the minimum to get by” Source: John Potter Source: John Potter

2 “Empowerment is a slow process by which both parties develop their way of thinking and behaving so that the balance and relationship between the powerful and the powerless shifts, to their mutual benefit“ Source: John Nicholls Source: John Nicholls

3 Managers and empowered people... Attraction of employees vs Expectation of being as empowered learners in control ……….Manager’s security……….. ……….Manager’s security……….. Wish to avoid hostility vs Attraction of and blame becoming empowered ……….Employee’s security………. ……….Employee’s security……….

4 Three management roles for empowerment: Fully utilise current capabilities Coach to develop potential Coach to develop potential Become a visionary enabler of future talent Become a visionary enabler of future talent Source: John Nicholls Source: John Nicholls

5 “Empowerment is the release of the full potential of every individual” “Empowerment is the release of the full potential of every individual” Source: Max Hand “If managers make all the decisions, employees are not to blame when things go wrong; in addition, more active participation can mean bigger workloads” “If managers make all the decisions, employees are not to blame when things go wrong; in addition, more active participation can mean bigger workloads” Source: Pamela Johnson “Experience shows that employees need guidance and training to help them take on new levels of responsibility” “Experience shows that employees need guidance and training to help them take on new levels of responsibility” Source: Sarah Cook

6 Benefits of empowerment Less risk aversion More flexibility, creativity, innovation Better rapport with colleagues and customers Managers freed up to do other things

7 Four factors that ensure empowered people’s behaviour is self-determined Choice The opportunity to feel you select task activities that make sense to you and to perform them in that seem appropriate. Competence The accomplishment you feel in skilfully performing task activities you have chosen. Meaningfulness The opportunity you feel to pursue a task that is worth your time and energy. Progress The accomplishment you feel in achieving the task purpose. Source: Applebaum and Honeggar Source: Applebaum and Honeggar

8 Fairness An empowerment model Low High Belief Associated Enlightened Miser Fraudulent

9 Four components of empowerment Choice Choice Competence Competence Meaningfulness Meaningfulness Impact Impact Source: Thomas and Velthouse

10 Empowerment levers Clear vision and challenge Clear vision and challenge Openness and teamwork Openness and teamwork Discipline and control Discipline and control Support and a sense of security Support and a sense of security Source: Applebaum, Hebert and Leroux

11 The pros and cons of empowerment: The pros and cons of empowerment: Pros: Pros: Quicker responses to customer needs during service delivery Quicker responses to customer needs during service delivery Quicker responses to dissatisfied customers during service recovery Quicker responses to dissatisfied customers during service recovery Empowered employees can be a great source of service ideas, and word-of-mouth advertising and customer retention Empowered employees can be a great source of service ideas, and word-of-mouth advertising and customer retention Employees feel better about their jobs and themselves Employees feel better about their jobs and themselves Clutterbuck and Kernaghan

12 The pros and cons of empowerment: The pros and cons of empowerment:Cons: Empowered staff generally need more development than those who follow strict procedures Empowered staff cost more to employ Empowered staff may provide slower, or more inconsistent service delivery Empowered staff may violate customers’ perceptions of fair play Clutterbuck and Kernaghan

13 Four types of empowerment: Empowerment through: Empowerment through:Participation Involvement Involvement Commitment Commitment Delayering Delayering Source: Ashness and Lashley Source: Ashness and Lashley

14 Four myths that hinder empowerment We shouldn’t trust the customer We shouldn’t trust the customer We can’t trust front-line employees We can’t trust front-line employees Empowerment diminishes the role of line management Empowerment diminishes the role of line management Make a mistake or wrong decision and you’re in big trouble, so best to play safe Source: John Tschol Source: John Tschol Source: Butz & Goodstein Source: Butz & Goodstein

15 To feel empowered we need to: Find meaning in daily tasks Find meaning in daily tasks Feel a sense of security Feel a sense of security Have a sense of corporate spirit Have a sense of corporate spirit Possess a feeling that work is fun Possess a feeling that work is fun Source: Erstad

16 An empowered person has... Control over how the job is done Awareness of their work context Accountability for quality of work output Shared responsibility for unit performance Equity in rewards based on individual and collective performance

17 Empowered people need: A share in success Accountability for results A sense of organisational belonging Confidence in their management & leadership A sense of excitement in the job Source: John Nicholls

18 Facets of empowerment: Service product complexity Service product complexity Customer needs complexity Customer needs complexity Importance of speed of service Importance of speed of service Customisation Customisation Importance of service quality Importance of service quality Source: Rafiq and Ahmed Source: Rafiq and Ahmed

19 Five things we look for in empowering leaders Urgency Urgency Agreeableness Agreeableness Concientiousness Concientiousness Emotional stability Emotional stability Intellect Intellect Source: Hogan and Horner

20 Five barriers to empowerment ValuesAttitudesBehavioursActionsFeelings Source: Max Hand

21 Five things empowered people seek A chance to be tested, to make it on their own A chance to take part in a social experiment A chance to do something well A chance to do something worthwhile A chance to change the way things are Source: David Berklow

22 Six things empowered people want Doing something that makes them feel good Accomplishing something worthwhile Learning new skills Opportunity to use and develop the new skills Freedom to do their job to their own high standards A chance to do the things they do best Source: Lawler and Renwick Source: Lawler and Renwick

23 Six signs of an empowered person Accepts and welcomes responsibility Wants more responsibility and accountability Sees responsibility as a challenge Does not see responsibility as something imposed as a painful duty Sees responsibility as a free choice Sees responsibility as an opportunity for further personal development Source: Claus Moller Source: Claus Moller

24 Six roles for the empowering manager Articulator of vision Articulator of vision Goal definer Goal definer Creator of challenge Creator of challenge Developer of talent Developer of talent Resource obtainer Resource obtainerLeader Source: Clutterbuck and Kernaghan

25 The MORALE model of The MORALE model ofempowerment Mentoring Mentoring Ownership Ownership Responsibility Responsibility Assessment Assessment Learning Learning Empowerment Empowerment Source: Newton and Wilkinson

26 What gets in the way of empowerment? The threat to values The threat to values The threat to managers The threat to managers Fear of repercussions Fear of repercussions Organisational structures Organisational structures Management distrust and cold feet Management distrust and cold feet Lack of time and resources Lack of time and resources Source: Max Hand Source: Hogan and Horner

27 Empowerment: the old ways and the new Traditional approach vs Empowered approach Traditional approach vs Empowered approach Control vs Freedom to act Control vs Freedom to act Hierarchy vs Democracy Hierarchy vs Democracy Paternalistic vs Entrepreneurial Paternalistic vs Entrepreneurial Rigidity vs Flexibility Rigidity vs Flexibility Internal focus vs Customer focus Internal focus vs Customer focus Source: Sarah Cook

28 Six things empowered people achieve Doing something that makes them feel good about themselves A chance to accomplish something worthwhile The opportunity to learn new skills The chance to gain knowledge The freedom you need to do your job well The chance to focus on the things you do best Lawler and Renwick

29 Six organisational encouragers of empowerment Agreed two way communication A willingness to take risks Acceptance of creative mistakes without penalty Reason rather than rules Will and courage A long term commitment to success Real investment in competence development

30 Six ways to make empowerment work Above all, enlarge power Be sure of what you want to do Differentiate amongst and between employees Support power sharers Build fitting systems Focus on results Source: Russ Forrester

31 Seven elements of empowerment Free flow of information on organisational goals and direction Free flow of information on organisational goals and direction Continuous training and development Continuous training and development Management and leadership by all employees Management and leadership by all employees Managers as coaches, who empower gradually Managers as coaches, who empower gradually Employee control of needed resources Employee control of needed resources Clear structures for performance management Clear structures for performance management Continuous positive feedback and reinforcement of personal performance Continuous positive feedback and reinforcement of personal performance Source: Caudron

32 Seven disempowering leadership behaviours How I see things is correct Keep separate from those you lead Never admit to mistakes or show weakness Be consistent to the point of rigidity Overwork and sacrifice - and expect the same Criticise, manipulate and coerce As leader, pursue power over purpose Adapted from Nixon 1995

33 Seven influences on empowerment Non/routine nature of work Task variety/uncertainty Opportunity for creativity Degree of value added at point of contact Contact time with customer or other party Importance of service recovery Complexity of customer relationship Source: Rafiq and Ahmed

34 The building blocks of empowerment: Information Authority Alignment Leadership Accountability Ability Accountability Ability Support Support Source: Margaret Elstad Source: Margaret Elstad

35 Seven signs of empowerment: The ability of employees to provide information and make decisions The speed of problem resolution An increase in creative new ideas and Improvements Standards are set and maintained by self-discipline not centralised enforcement Staff listen actively to customers showing willingness to see their point of view Greeting with enthusiasm and a positive attitude Evidence of teamwork and a genuine enjoyment in meeting or exceeding the needs of the customer Source: Cook and Macaulay Source: Cook and Macaulay

36 Seven customer judgements of empowerment Employees providing information and making decisions Speed of problem resolution Increase in creative ideas and improvements Self-setting high standards not managerial enforcement Staff that show willing and enjoy customer contact Enthusiasm and attentiveness Teamworking and evidence of colleague support Adapted from: Cook and Macaulay

37 Seven steps to empowerment Create a vision of empowerment that excites people Develop managers in empowering behaviours Create customer-focused roles and job descriptions Monitor the effectiveness of empowerment Keep empowerment alive at every opportunity Recognise contributions to empowerment and reward Celebrate the positive results of empowerment Adapted from Fenman 2004

38 Eight principles of empowerment Protect the dignity of all employees Protect the dignity of all employees Manage perceptions, not just the ‘facts’ Manage perceptions, not just the ‘facts’ Use organisational authority to release rather than inhibit human potential Use organisational authority to release rather than inhibit human potential Use consensus decision making Use consensus decision making Clarify vision, mission, objectives, goals, and job descriptions Clarify vision, mission, objectives, goals, and job descriptions Unshackle the human desire to be of service to others Unshackle the human desire to be of service to others Come from values Come from values Provide the feedback requested by employees Provide the feedback requested by employees Source: William B Harley

39 How to empower: Motivate Provide direct and positive feedback Spend more time with people Relinquish control Encourage decision making Stress innovation Encourage risk taking Support

40 Nine factors that inhibit empowerment Poor managerial credibility Mistrust of managerial motives to empower Middle managers fearful of losing power Historical working patterns that aren’t helpful Traditional bureaucratic hierarchical structure Harsh penalties for innocent or developmental errors Unwillingness to change - preference for the status quo Managers and employee’s goals differ significantly Emphasis on short term results Adapted from: Smith and Mouly

41 Nine conditions for empowerment Clear understanding of organisational mission Focus energy on the mission and purpose Develop and use employee competency Managers as coaches - using real work for learning Value and support all employees Managers who seek opinion and create ownership Building self-esteem via praise and reward Asking more questions, seeking better solutions No miracles expected overnight - on for the long haul Adapted from: Potter 1994

42 Ten facilitators of empowerment Real, demonstrable commitment by management Few hierarchical layers Adequate training in teamwork and communication skills Clear communication of the empowerment message Sufficient meaningful personal feedback A culture of openness, encouragement and trust Awareness and interest in the ‘big picture’ Appropriate, fair rewards, built on individual contribution Mistakes are acknowledged and learned from positively Taking the long term perspective Adapted from: Smith and Mouly

43 What is the case for empowerment?

44 What are the barriers to empowerment?

45 What can be done to overcome the barriers to empowerment?

46 “Empowerment then, is not specific management practices, but rather characteristics reflecting practices, but rather characteristics reflecting personal experiences or beliefs about a role personal experiences or beliefs about a role in the organisation” in the organisation” Source: Steven Applebaum et al

47 “An empowered organisation is one where employees are given the authority and responsibility for serving the customer speedily and efficiency“ “An empowered organisation is one where employees are given the authority and responsibility for serving the customer speedily and efficiency“ Source: Cook and Macaulay Source: Cook and Macaulay

48 “Empowerment means releasing self-motivation of employees such that they have the will to perform and contribute more“ “Empowerment means releasing self-motivation of employees such that they have the will to perform and contribute more“ Source: Henry Coleman Source: Henry Coleman

49 Empowerment means “finding new ways to concentrate power in the hands of the people who need it most to get the job done - putting authority, responsibility, resources and rights at the most appropriate level for each task“ Empowerment means “finding new ways to concentrate power in the hands of the people who need it most to get the job done - putting authority, responsibility, resources and rights at the most appropriate level for each task“ Source: Clutterbuck and Kernaghan Source: Clutterbuck and Kernaghan

50 “Empowerment is the delegation of power which enables people at lower organisational layers to make decisions” “Empowerment is concerned with trust, motivation, decision making and basically, breaking the inner barriers between management and employees as ‘them versus us’ “ Source: Yehuda Baruch Source: Yehuda Baruch


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