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1 Developing the Research Problem KNES 510 Research Methods in Kinesiology.

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1 1 Developing the Research Problem KNES 510 Research Methods in Kinesiology

2 2 Finding a Topic  Be aware of research being done in your department by the research faculty (website)  Be alert for controversial issues in your area of interest  Read a review paper primary source – firsthand source of data in research; the original study primary source – firsthand source of data in research; the original study secondary source – source of data in research in which an author has evaluated and summarized previous research secondary source – source of data in research in which an author has evaluated and summarized previous research

3 3 Criteria in Selecting a Research Problem  Is the problem in the realm of research?  Does it interest you?  Is it worthwhile?  Is it feasible?  Is it timely?  Can you attack the problem without prejudice?  Are you prepared in the techniques to address the problem?

4 What’s the Difference?

5 5 Purposes of the Literature Review  Identify the problem  Develop the hypotheses  Develop the methods

6 6 Steps in the Literature Search 1. Write the problem statement 2. Consult secondary sources – Encyclopedias – Research reviews 3. Determine descriptors (CV) 4. Find primary sources using – Indexes and bibliographies – Computer searches 5. Read and record the literature 6. Write the literature review

7 7 Step 1 – The Problem Statement  Specify the research question you are asking  Be complete but concise

8 8 Step 2 – Consult Secondary Sources  This step is necessary only if you have very limited knowledge of your subject Encyclopedias – Dated info but provides basic terms, appropriate journals, etc. Encyclopedias – Dated info but provides basic terms, appropriate journals, etc. Research reviews – written by experts, summarizes current research, provides suggestions for future research Research reviews – written by experts, summarizes current research, provides suggestions for future research

9 9 Step 3 – Determine Descriptors  Critical Variables  Terms to help locate sources  Too broad – too many results  Too narrow – too few results

10 Where do I Look?  Textbook  Recent articles are best (search reference lists)  Internet  PubMed (Medline)  CSUF Library Research and information services Research and information services Online databases Online databases CINAHL CINAHL SPORTDiscus SPORTDiscus

11 How do I Look?  Peer reviewed journals  No popular magazines  Keywords (and, or, “”)  Authors  Ideas  Professional meetings Posters, orals and symposia Posters, orals and symposia

12 12 Step 4 – Find Primary Sources  See example using CSUF library website via portal

13 Search the Lit cont…  cgi cgi cgi

14 14 Step 5 – Read and Record the Literature (what they did, found & meaning) Dalton, P. A. and M. J. Stokes. Acoustic myography reflects force changes during dynamic concentric and eccentric contractions of the human biceps brachii muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 63: , Biceps brachiiEMG and PMG amplitude Lifted different wall pulley weights, 0 to 8.5 kg iAMG and iEMG both increased linearly with force during concentric and eccentric contractions, with slopes of concentric regression lines significantly different than eccentric regression lines Dalton, P. A. and M. J. Stokes. Frequency of acoustic myography during isometric contraction of fresh and fatigued muscle and during dynamic contractions. Muscle Nerve. 16: Isometric: Rectus femoris AMG MPFIsometric muscle actions of rectus femoris at 10, 25, 50, 60, 75, and 100% MVC; rectus femoris was measured under both “fresh” and “fatigued” conditions. For rectus femoris, AMG MPF increased quadratically under both fresh and fatigued conditions, with no significant difference between conditions. During concentric contractions of biceps brachii the MPF increased with force, but decreased at the heavier loads. The MPF of eccentric contractions of biceps brachii did not significantly alter with force. Concentric and Eccentric: Biceps brachii Concentric and eccentric muscle actions of biceps brachii with 0.0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.5 kg

15 Methods

16 Instruments

17 17 Step 6 – Write the Literature Review  Three components: 1. Introduction (1-2 pages) 2. Body (10-15 pages) 3. Summary and Conclusion (1 page)

18 18 Citing Your References  For this class, use either American Psychological Association (APA) 5 th edition guidelines or AMA journal style (talk to your chair)  Example: Khamoui AV, Brown LE, Nguyen D, Uribe BP, Coburn JW, Noffal, GJ, Tran TT. Relationship between force- time and velocity-time characteristics of dynamic and isometric muscle actions. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 25(1): , 2011.

19 19 Reference List  Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last names.  Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work.  Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title. 1. Celes R, Brown LE, Pereira MCC, Schwartz FP, Junior VAR, Bottaro M. Gender muscle recovery during isokinetic exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 31(12): , Khamoui AV, Brown LE, Nguyen D, Uribe BP, Coburn JW, Noffal, GJ, Tran TT. Relationship between force-time and velocity-time characteristics of dynamic and isometric muscle actions. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 25(1): , 2011.

20 Information for Authors  jscr/Pages/InstructionsforAuthors.aspx jscr/Pages/InstructionsforAuthors.aspx jscr/Pages/InstructionsforAuthors.aspx 20

21 Next Class  Chapter 18  No abstract due 21


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