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PM Dr. Patricia Anthony Computer Science Program School of Engineering and Information Technology Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

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Presentation on theme: "PM Dr. Patricia Anthony Computer Science Program School of Engineering and Information Technology Universiti Malaysia Sabah."— Presentation transcript:

1 PM Dr. Patricia Anthony Computer Science Program School of Engineering and Information Technology Universiti Malaysia Sabah

2  The Master Thesis is the first official document the gets you in the status of being a researcher  The thesis shall contribute to knowledge with a new and unique piece of science  The thesis proves your ability to work independently and to solve a scientific problem by your own (of course with some help from your supervisor/s)  The thesis is the starting point for your career after your MSc course

3  The distinguishing mark of graduate research is an original contribution to knowledge.  a written record of the work that has been undertaken by a candidate  constitutes objective evidence of the author’s knowledge and capabilities in the field of interest and is therefore a fair means to gauge them  your thesis must show two important things:  you have identified a worthwhile problem or question which has not been previously answered  you have solved the problem or answered the question.

4  thesis is usually associated with a PhD(doctoral) or M.Phil. Degree  dissertation is the more common term for the research project required for a Master/PhD by coursework  Western countries use the terms interchangeably

5  It should be contestable, proposing an arguable point with which people could reasonably disagree. A strong thesis is provocative; it takes a stand and justifies the discussion you will present.  It tackles a subject that could be adequately covered in the format of the project assigned.  It is specific and focused.  It clearly asserts your own conclusion based on evidence.

6  It provides the reader with a map to guide him/her through your work.  It anticipates and refutes the counter- arguments  It avoids vague language (like "it seems").  It avoids the first person.  It should pass the So What or Who Cares test. Specific topic + Attitude/Angle/Argument = Thesis What you plan to argue + How you plan to argue it = Thesis

7  Does the thesis inspire a reasonable reader to ask, "How?" or Why?“  Would a reasonable reader NOT respond with "Duh!" or "So what?" or "Gee, no kidding!" or "Who cares?“  Does the thesis avoid general phrasing and/or sweeping words such as "all" or "none" or "every"?  Does the thesis lead the reader toward the topic sentences (the subtopics needed to prove the thesis)?  Can the thesis be adequately developed in the required length of the paper or project?

8  you must present a thorough review of the existing literature on the subject, and on closely related subjects.  make direct reference to your literature review  you must demonstrate that your question  has not been previously answered  is worth answering

9  the examiners read your thesis to find the answers to the following questions:  what is this student's research question?  is it a good question? (has it been answered before? is it a useful question to work on?)  did the student convince me that the question was adequately answered?  has the student made an adequate contribution to knowledge?

10  preparation for writing your thesis begins as soon as you start your research  keep a diary or series of short 'papers' explaining your work  try to anticipate what you will need to produce as the final written account, and organise your records accordingly  prepare and continually update a table of contents of your thesis  Analyse the data thoroughly and think actively about the interpretation of information as you proceed with your research  start to do some writing as your research progresses

11  Make sure that you had training on the methodology to be applied in your thesis. If you have not achieved experience from prior modules, ask to get appropriate training (laboratory practical etc.).  Make an outline of the proposed thesis  Discuss the outline with your supervisor(s)  Produce a revised outline with a preliminary timetable and check again with your supervisor(s)  Keep nagging your supervisor(s) during the thesis work

12  Read before you write  You may find out that your work has already been done (so you have to find something else)  You will get the necessary theoretical background  You will get an idea about the specific methodology required for your work and about the potential time demand to apply the methodology  You will get the background information that is required to compare your results with previous results obtained by other scientists  You will train reading and understanding of scientific publications

13  Timetable and Milestones  Experience tells us (the supervisors) that thesis work always takes longer than expected by the students

14  Begin writing with sections you know the best  Rewrite your proposal into thesis sections  Make your writing clear and unambiguous  Review other dissertations before you begin to write  Introduce table, present the table and describe it  Use similar parallel wording whenever possible

15  Let your table of content helps you improve your manuscript  Write real conclusions and implications – don’t just restate your findings  Make suggestions for further research meaningful  Chapter one should be written last

16  A thesis is a hypothesis or conjecture  A PhD/Master dissertation is a lengthy, formal document that argues in defense of a particular thesis.  Two important adjectives used to describe a dissertation are original and substantial (original contribution)  The scientific method means starting with a hypothesis and then collecting evidence to support or deny it (organizing the evidence and associated discussions into a coherent form)  Each statement in a dissertation must be correct and defensible in a logical and scientific sense

17  The essence of a dissertation is critical thinking, not experimental data (Analysis and concepts form the heart of the work).  A dissertation concentrates on principles: it states the lessons learned, and not merely the facts behind them.  Every statement in a dissertation must be supported either by a reference to published scientific literature or by original work.  Each sentence in a dissertation must be complete and correct in a grammatical sense. The words must convey exactly the meaning intended, nothing more and nothing less.

18  All scientists need to communicate discoveries; the PhD/Master dissertation provides training for communication with other scientists.  Writing a dissertation requires a student to think deeply, to organize technical discussion, to muster arguments that will convince other scientists, and to follow rules for rigorous, formal presentation of the arguments and discussion.  Good writing is essential in a dissertation!!!

19  Each technical term used in a dissertation must be defined either by a reference to a previously published definition or by a precise, unambiguous definition that appears before the term is used  Each term should be used in one and only one way throughout the dissertation  The easiest way to avoid a long series of definitions is to include a statement: “the terminology used throughout this document follows that given in [CITATION].'' Then, only define exceptions.  The introductory chapter can give the intuition (i.e., informal definitions) of terms provided they are defined more precisely later.

20  jokes or puns  bad, good, nice, terrible, stupid  Perfect – nothing is !!  would seem to show – what matters is the fact  Different – different than what?  lots of, kind of, just about – vague and colloquial  The use of I, you, we – third person  Can/may

21  Use active constructions. For example, say the operating system starts the device instead of the device is started by the operating system  Write in the present tense.  Focus on results and not the people/circumstances in which they were obtained  Be careful to only draw conclusions that the evidence supports

22  Introduction  general introduction to what the thesis is all about  Briefly summarize the question, some of the reasons why it is a worthwhile question, and perhaps give an overview of your main results.  a birds-eye view of the answers to the main questions answered in the thesis  Background Information (optional)  A brief section giving background information may be necessary, especially if your work spans two or more traditional fields

23  Review of the State of the Art  to present (critical analysis comes a little bit later) the major ideas in the state of the art right up to, but not including, your own personal brilliant ideas.  You organize this section by idea, and not by author or by publication  Research Question or Problem Statement  a concise statement of the question that your thesis tackles  justification, by direct reference to literature review that your question is previously unanswered  discussion of why it is worthwhile to answer this question.

24  Describing How You Solved the Problem or Answered the Question  to convince the examiners that you answered the question or solved the problem that you set for yourself  show what you did that is relevant to answering the question or solving the problem  Conclusions  Conclusions (short, concise statements of the inferences that you have made because of your work)  Summary of Contributions (new knowledge that your thesis makes)  Future Research

25  References  Most examiners scan your list of references looking for the important works in the field  most examiners also look for their own publications if they are in the topic area of the thesis  Appendices  program listings  immense tables of data  lengthy mathematical proofs or derivations

26  References  Most examiners scan your list of references looking for the important works in the field  most examiners also look for their own publications if they are in the topic area of the thesis  Appendices  program listings  immense tables of data  lengthy mathematical proofs or derivations

27  prepare an extended outline  begin by making up the Table of Contents, listing each section and subsection that you propose to include  For each section and subsection, write a brief point-form description of the contents of that section (2 – 5 pages)  our thesis supervisor should carefully review this outline

28  Longer than you think!!  it is wise to allow at least one complete term for writing the thesis  writing the thesis requires the complete organization of your arguments and results  fixing those weaknesses that takes time  supervisors are sometimes not quick at reviewing and returning drafts Bottom line: leave yourself enough time. A rush job has painful consequences at the defence.

29  Consult your supervisor(s) regularly as you start the writing phase to discuss the overall structure of the thesis, and your proposed strategy for writing it.  try to maintain regular contact with your supervisor(s)  You should show sections, or preferably complete chapters with a reference list, of your thesis to your supervisor(s) at regular intervals  At the end of each discussion with you supervisor, make an appointment for your next meeting.

30  Always keep the reader's backgrounds in mind. Who is your audience?  Don't make the readers work too hard!  it's impossible to be too clear! Spell things out carefully, highlight important parts by appropriate titles etc.  a thesis is not a story: it usually doesn't follow the chronology of things that you tried  Avoid red flags, claims (like "software is the most important part of a computer system") that are really only your personal opinion and not substantiated by the literature or the solution you have presented

31 Online auction is the process of buying and selling goods by offering them up for bid, taking bids and then selling the item to the winning bidder [3]. There are four single-object auction types: the ascending price auction (English auction), the descending price auction (Dutch auction), the first sealed-bid price auction and the second sealed-bid price auction (Vickrey auction) [7]. In any given auction, the sellers may decide whether to sell using a no-reserve price auction, private reserve price auction, public reserve price auction and buy it now price auction [5]. Superficially, all auction activity comes from bidders submitting offers, while sellers offer the items for bids. In addition, auction can be held in different selling format in which each format imposed different rules of games.

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33 This project will be suitable to assist the police department, fire and rescue department and hospital ambulances in managing emergency event from emergency control centre or command centre. Therefore, a command center will be needed to centralize all emergency actions. There are many advantages that can be achieved through this system. By using the EMSS the identification of location can be done by GIS and navigation of emergency vehicle is monitor using GPS.

34 This project will be suitable to assist the police department, fire and rescue department and hospital ambulances in managing emergency event from emergency control centre or command centre. SUITABLE IN WHAT SENSE? Therefore, a command center will be needed to centralize all emergency actions. There are many advantages that can be achieved through this system. WHAT ARE THEY?? By using the EMSS the identification of location can be done by GIS and navigation of emergency vehicle is monitored using GPS.

35  Doctoral thesis necessarily requires a more difficult problem to be solved, and consequently more substantial contributions.  The contribution to knowledge of a Master's thesis can be in the nature of an incremental improvement in an area of knowledge, or the application of known techniques in a new area  The Ph.D. must be a substantial and innovative contribution to knowledge

36  Title Page  Author’s Declaration  Confirmation  Acknowledgement  Abstract  Table of Contents  List of Tables  List of Figures  List of Symbols  Text  References  Appendices  Glossary

37  Abstract  explains in one line why the paper is important  give a summary of your major results  A good abstract is concise, readable, and quantitative  Can answer these questions: What did you do? Why did you do it? What question were you trying to answer? How did you do it? State methods. What did you learn? State major results. Why does it matter? Point out at least one significant implication.

38  For detail explanation on the sections and format please refer to: “GARIS PANDUAN GAYA PENULISAN PASCASISWAZAH”

39  Based on APA Style (American Psychological Association)  References items are listed alphabetically at the end of the thesis  These same items are referred to in the body of the paper using In-Text style.

40 Reference: Komisar, L The new feminism. New York: Franklin Watts. In-Text: (Komisar, 1991)

41 Reference: Strunk, W. Jr., White, E. B The elements of style (3 rd Ed.). New York: Macmillan In-Text: (Strunk & White, 1979) (Strunk, White, & Smith, 1979) (Strunk et al., 1979)

42 Reference: Roll, W. P ESP and memory. In J.M.O. Wheatley & H.L. Edge (Eds.), Philosophical dimensions of parapsychology (pp ). Springfield, IL American Psychiatric Press. In-Text: (Roll, 1976)

43 Reference:Maki, R. H Categorization effects which occur in comparative judgment tasks. Memory & Cognition, 10, In-Text: (Maki, 1982)

44 Reference:Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R.M The control of short- term memory. Scientific American, 225, In-Text: (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1971) (Smith, Zappella, Rosen, Gustman, & Rock, 1994) (Smith et al., 1994)

45 Reference:Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R.M The control of short- term memory. Scientific American, 225, In-Text: (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1971) (Smith, Zappella, Rosen, Gustman, & Rock, 1994) (Smith et al., 1994)

46  After great pain, a formal feeling comes. -- Emily Dickinson  A man may write at any time, if he will set himself doggedly to it. -- Samuel Johnson  Keep right on to the end of the road. -- Harry Lauder  The average Ph.D. thesis is nothing but the transference of bones from one graveyard to another. -- Frank J. Dobie


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