near/close – at a distance private/individual – public/general subjective - objective action – prerequisites/consequences actor/subject – object to be observed everyday actions - experiments qualitative – quantitative to understand – to explain culture – structure contextuality - generalizations explorative – verifying/confirming Inductive– abductive – deductive Polyphony – The Truth EITHER - OR
near/close – at a distance private/individual – public/general subjective - objective action – prerequisites/consequences actor/subject – object to be observed everyday actions - experiments qualitative – quantitative to understand – to explain culture – structure contextuality - generalizations explorative – verifying/confirming Inductive– abductive – deductive Polyphony – The Truth BOTH AND knowledge-in/on-action, reflection-in/on-action tacit knowledge
New knowledge Change of praxis Examination Trustworthiness Form Communication Relevance Autonomy Integrity Analysis Reflection An empirical field Life experiences Inquiry Inquiry culture Perspective Critical approach Theory Theory-praxis Method Empowerment Ethics Solidarity Science Action research Praxis-related research: Serving two masters? Requirements of academic report and aspects of praxis-related research Mattsson & Kemmis 2007
ACTION RESEARCH is a form of collective self- reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own social or educational practices, as well as their understanding of those practices and the situations in which the practices are carried out. The approach is only action research when it is collaborative, though it is important to realise that action research of the group is achieved through the critically examined action of individual group members. Kemmis and McTaggart 1988, 5-6
ACTION RESEARCH can only be made intelligible as a mode of inquiry that aspires to create and nurture dialogical communities [.. ] form of inquiry that recognized that practical knowledge and understanding can only be developed and advanced by practitioners engaging in the kind of dialogue and conversation through which the tradition-embedded nature of the assumptions in their practice can be made explicit and their collective understanding of praxis can be transformed. Carr 2006, 433
ACTION RESEARCH Participatory, democratic process concerned with developing practical knowing in the pursuit of worthwhile human purposes, grounded in a participatory worldview which we believe is emerging at this historical moment. It seeks to bring together action and reflection, theory and practice, in participation with others, in the pursuit of practical solutions to issues of pressing concern to people, and more generally the flourishing of individual persons and their communities. Reason & Bradbury 2006, 1
.. refers to a practical way of looking at your own work to check that it is as you would like it to be. Because action research is done by you, the practitioner, it is often referred to as practitioner based research; and because it involves you thinking about and reflecting on your work, it can also be called a form of self-reflective practice. The idea of self reflection is central. In traditional forms of research – empirical research – researchers do research on other people. In action research, researchers do research on themselves. Empirical researchers enquire into other people’s lives. Action researchers enquire into their own. McNiff 2002 ACTION RESEARCH
Karin Rönnerman (2004, 13) Practice/action as a basis/starting point The researcher & the practitioner in collaboration Research aiming at change Arja Kuula (1999, 10) Problembased and oriented towards practice The involvement of those to be ”researched” Research oriented towards change
‘Action research is not a ‘method’ or a ‘procedure’ for research but a series of commitments to observe and problematize through practice a series of principles for conducting social enquiry’. The notion of a spiral may be a useful teaching device – but it is all too easily to slip into using it as the template for practice McTaggart 1996, 249 Action research express explicitly both the aim and the method. It is about changing peoples ways of thinking and acting or changing the social and material conditions. Tiller 1999, 53
RESEARCH LEARNING ACTION Intentional, continuous collegial process of learning and reflection in order to improve actions and affect the contexts of the actions Systematic, analytical and pragmatic inquiry with the members of a community or organization in order to improve actions and affect the contexts of the actions Critical distance engaged immediacy Easy bedfellows
ACTION RESEARCH collaborative participatory inquiry science Co-operative inquiry Communicative research Community adult education Popular education Folk enlightenment Study circles Research circles Self-reflectice inquiry Community work/development learning Community-based Emancipatory Critical Practical Teacher research Classroom research Teacher-as-researcher Social work Praxis-related/close research Social movements interactive
FOLK ENLIGHTENMENT – STUDY CIRCLES THE ENLIGHTENING DISPORTS (knowlegde + experience, engagement, affection) SOCIOCULTURAL, -CONSTRUCTIVIST, -COGNITIVE configuration of learning and knowlegde Liberte, equalite, fraternite!
BILDUNG A humanist conception and construction of human being(s) Growing as a human being Becoming a citizen Developing as an engaged worker Folk enlightenment Study circles Collaborative knowledge construction for social change Welfare state Democracy, generality, equality, accessability, Civil society participation, engagement, networks, associations Collaborative, experiential, informal learning deliberation – communication - action Research circles Collaboration and partnerships between researchers and practitioners Working life labour unions, social work Participatory Action Research University AR encompassing the personal, the political and the professional Critical-emancipatory/Practical Theoretical perspective Technical perspective
ACTION RESEARCH As human development, as adult learning Systematic and conscious deliberative negotiations about what it means to be a human being and finding out meaningsful ways of becoming more human in a certain social practice.