Presentation on theme: "Contingencies of Self-Worth and Achievement Goals: Predictors of Friendship Satisfaction Amy K. Till Hanover College."— Presentation transcript:
Contingencies of Self-Worth and Achievement Goals: Predictors of Friendship Satisfaction Amy K. Till Hanover College
Friendship Studies show that friends are similar on several demographic and behavioral characteristics (e.g. Berndt, 1999). Little research has been conducted on whether friends share similar beliefs or whether these similarities predict friendship satisfaction (e.g. Ryan, 2001).
Contingencies of Self-Worth CSW represent domains in which people want to succeed (Crocker et al., 2003). CSW predict the types of activities in which people engage (Crocker, 2002). Example: Sara bases her self-worth on God’s Love and often goes on mission trips.
Contingencies of Self-Worth Approval from Others Physical Appearance School Competency Family Support God’s Love Competition Virtue
Achievement Goals Achievement goals represent a person’s immediate achievement-related focus (Eccles et al., 1998). Achievement goals predict the types of activities in which people engage (Ames, 1992). Example: Bob wants to get an A in his classes, so he studies for many hours every day.
Types of Achievement Goals Work Avoidance Goals Performance Goals Mastery Goals
Friendship Satisfaction Happiness Intimacy Lack of Conflict Example: Katie and Jamie both base their self- worth on physical appearance; therefore, they spend time shopping and grooming together. Their similarity makes them feel happy in their friendship.
Research Questions 1. Do friends share similar beliefs? 2. Do friends with similar beliefs have higher rates of friendship satisfaction than friends with different beliefs? 3. Are some discrepancies in beliefs more important in determining friendship satisfaction than others?
Participants Small, Midwestern Liberal Arts College Participants: 80 Total Males = 18 Females = 62 Friendship Pairs: 40 Total Same-sex = 38 Different-sex = 2 Age Range: years old
Measures CSW: 35-item questionnaire Example: “I feel worthwhile when I have God’s love.” Goals: 15-item questionnaire Example: “I want to feel involved in the process of learning.” Satisfaction: 13-item questionnaire Example: “My friend cares about my feelings.”
Internal Reliability Contingencies of Self-Worth Approval from Othersα =.85α =.87 Physical Appearanceα =.77α =.80 School Competencyα =.92α =.87 Family Supportα =.71α =.82 God’s Loveα =.96 Competitionα =.91α =.86 Virtueα =.92α =.78 Friend AFriend B
Internal Reliability Achievement Goals Performance Goalsα =.75α =.90 Work Avoidanceα =.58α =.57 Mastery Goalsα =.84α =.87 Friendship Satisfaction α =.74α =.70 Friend AFriend B Friend AFriend B
Similarities in Contingencies of Self-Worth Approval: r =.44, p =.004 Virtue: r =.32, p =.04 Appearance: r =.28, p =.07 God’s Love: r =.27, p =.09
Similarities in Achievement Goals Performance Goals: r =.43, p =.01 Work Avoidance: r =.35, p =.03 Mastery Goals: r =.30, p =.06
Similarity and Friendship Duration Will friends be more likely to have similar beliefs the longer they are friends? Created two categories: Short Duration: < 24 months (n = 19) Long Duration: > 24 months (n = 21)
Similarity and Friendship Duration Short Duration: Long Duration: Approval from Others.03.69*** z = -2.38, p =.01
Similarity and Friendship Satisfaction Work Avoidance Goals: r = -.33, p =.04 A possible explanation: Friends who avoid their schoolwork may feel badly about themselves, which could negatively affect their friendship.
Discussion Results indicate that friends share some CSW and some achievement goals. Results do not support the hypothesis that similarity predicts satisfaction. Friends should not be similar in all beliefs and similarities should not always predict satisfaction.
Future Research Measure both the friends’ beliefs and the activities in which they participate in order to get an internal and external view of friendships.