2Overview Path-Goal Theory Perspective Conditions of Leadership MotivationLeader Behaviors & SubordinateCharacteristicsTask CharacteristicsHow Does the PGT Approach Work?
3Path-Goal Theory (House, 1971) Description DefinitionPath-goal theory centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goalsEmphasizes the relationship betweenthe leaders stylethe characteristics of the subordinatesthe work setting
4Path-Goal Theory (House, 1971) Description PerspectiveGoal - To enhance employee performance and satisfaction by focusing on employee motivationMotivational Principles (based on Expectancy Theory) - Subordinates will be motivated if they believe:they are capable of performing their workthat their efforts will result in a certain outcomethat the payoffs for doing their work are worthwhile
5Challenge to LeaderUse a Leadership Style that best meets subordinates motivational needschoose behaviors that complement or supplement what is missing in the work settingenhance goal attainment by providing information or rewardsprovide subordinates with the elements they need to reach their goals
6Conditions of Leadership Motivation Leadership generates motivation when:It increases the number and kinds of payoffs subordinates receive from their workMakes the path to the goal clear and easy to travel through with coaching and directionRemoves obstacles and roadblocks to attaining the goalMakes the work itself more personally satisfying
9Major Components of Path-Goal Theory Path-Goal Theory Suggests:Each type of leader behavior has a different kind of impact on subordinates motivationWhether or not a particular leader behavior is motivating is contingent onsubordinate characteristicstask characteristics
10Leader Behaviors Directive Leadership Leader who gives subordinates task instruction including:What is expected of themHow task is to be doneTimeline for task completionLeader -sets clear standards of performancemakes rules & regulations clear to subordinates
11Leader Behaviors Supportive Leadership Refers to being friendly and approachable as a leader and includes:Attending to well-being & human needs of subordinates’Using supportive behavior to make work environment pleasantTreating subordinates as equals & give them respect for their status
12Leader Behaviors Participative Leadership Leader who invites subordinates to share in the decision-makingA participative leader:Consults with subordinatesSeeks their ideas & opinionsIntegrates their input into group/organizational decisions
13Leader Behaviors Achievement Oriented Leadership Leader who challenges subordinates to perform work at the highest level possibleAn achievement oriented leader:Establishes a high standard of excellence for subordinatesSeeks continuous improvementDemonstrates a high degree of confidence in subordinates’ ability to establish & achieve challenging goals
14Subordinate Characteristics Determine how a leader’s behavior will be interpreted by subordinates in a given work contextResearchers focus on subordinates’Need for affiliationPreferences for structure (less uncertainty)Desires for control (Locus of Control)Self-perceived level of task ability
15Subordinate Characteristics Strong need for affiliationFriendly and concerned leadership is a source of satisfactionSupportive LeadershipPreference for StructureDogmatic & authoritarianLeadership provides psychological structure, task clarity & greater sense of certainty in work settingDirective Leadership
16Subordinate Characteristics Desire for ControlInternal locus of controlLeadership that allows subordinates to feel in charge of their work & makes them an integral part of the decision-making processParticipative LeadershipExternal locus of controlLeadership that parallels subordinates feelings that outside forces control their circumstancesDirective Leadership
17Subordinate Characteristics Perception of their own ability – specific taskAs perception of ability and competence goes up need for highly directive leadership goes down.Directive leadership may become redundant – possibly excessively controlling
18Task Characteristics Task Characteristics: Components Design of subordinates’ taskOrganization’s formal authority systemPrimary work group of subordinates
19Task Situations Requiring Leader Involvement Task CharacteristicsTask Situations Requiring Leader InvolvementUnclear and ambiguous - Leader needs to provide structureHighly repetitive - Leader needs to provide support to maintain subordinate motivationWeak formal authority - If formal authority system is weak, the leader needs to assist subordinates by making rules and work requirements clearNonsupportive/weak group norms - Leader needs to help build cohesiveness and role responsibility
20Task Characteristics Obstacles Anything in the work setting that gets in the way of subordinatesThey create excessive uncertainties, frustrations, or threats for subordinatesLeaders responsibility is to help subordinates by –Removing the obstaclesHelping subordinates around themAssisting with obstacles will increaseSubordinates’ expectations to complete the taskTheir sense of job satisfaction
21How Does the Path-Goal Theory Approach Work? Focus of Path-Goal TheoryStrengthsCriticismsApplication
22How Does Path-Goal Theory Work? The leader’s job is to help subordinates reach their goals by directing, guiding, and coaching them along the wayLeaders must evaluate task and subordinate characteristics and adapt leadership style to theseThe theory suggests which style is most appropriate for specific characteristics
23Path-Goal Theory Approach FocusOverall ScopePath-goal theory is a complex but also pragmatic approachLeaders should choose a leadership style that best fits the needs of subordinates and their workPath-goal theory provides a set of assumptions about how different leadership styles will interact with subordinate characteristics and the work situation to affect employee motivation
25StrengthsUseful theoretical framework. Path-goal theory is a useful theoretical framework for understanding how various leadership behaviors affect the satisfaction of subordinates and their work performance.Integrates motivation. Path-goal theory attempts to integrate the motivation principles of expectancy theory into a theory of leadership.Practical model. Path-goal theory provides a practical model that underscores and highlights the important ways leaders help subordinates.
26CriticismsInterpreting the meaning of the theory can be confusing because it is so complex and incorporates so many different aspects of leadership; consequently, it is difficult to implement.Empirical research studies have demonstrated only partial support for path-goal theory.It fails to adequately explain the relationship between leadership behavior and worker motivation.The path-goal theory approach treats leadership as a one-way event in which the leader affects the subordinate.
27ApplicationPGT offers valuable insights that can be applied in ongoing settings to improve one’s leadership.Informs leaders about when to be directive, supportive, participative, or achievement orientedThe principles of PGT can be employed by leaders at all organizational levels and for all types of tasks