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©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 8 Safety Management.

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1 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 8 Safety Management

2 Terms to Know unintentional injury – an unexpected or unplanned event that may result in physical harm or injury. risk management –measures taken to avoid an event such as an injury or illness implies the ability to anticipate circumstances and behaviors. Supervision –watching carefully over the behaviors and actions of children and others.

3 Terms (continued) incidental learning –learning that occurs in addition to the primary intent or goals of instruction. Liability –legal responsibility or obligation for one's actions owed to another individual. Negligence –failure to practice or perform one's duties according to certain standards; carelessness.

4 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Unintentional Injury Facts Unintentional injuries are the primary cause of death among children under 14 years of age. (Table 8-1). Each year, more than 200,000 children under 14 yrs. are treated in U. S. emergency departments for playground- related injuries.

5 Common causes of death due to unintentional injury include: Motor vehicles Drowning Burns Suffocation Falls Poisoning ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

6 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Unintentional Injury Facts Approximately 68% of deaths due to injury-related causes occur among children and adolescents aged 5-19 years

7 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Unintentional Injury Young children are at especially high risk for unintentional injury due to their: –Limited understanding of cause and effect –Immature motor skills –Inexperience –Exuberance

8 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Risk Management Requires continuous awareness and implementation of safety practices. Requires that adults be aware of their own well-being and circumstances that might make them less effective in monitoring children’s safety. Requires adults to be positive role models.

9 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Risk Management (continued) Effective risk management is based on four principles: #1). Advanced planning and thoughtful selection of toys, play equipment, and activities - Is based on knowledge of children’s age, interests, and developmental abilities.

10 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmental Risks In what way do children’s developmental characteristics influence the type of injuries they are likely to sustain? What are some of the potential sources of risk for: –Infants –Mobile toddlers –Preschoolers –School-age children

11 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Risk Management (continued) #1 Advanced planning and thoughtful selection of toys, play equipment, and activities (continued) –Learning experiences and activities: Must be planned from beginning to end and supervised closely Should take into account children’s interests and developmental skills Should be designed to promote learning (and reduce misuse)

12 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Risk Management (continued) #2). Establishing and consistently enforcing rules -Rules are based on knowledge of children’s age, interests, and developmental abilities -Adults’ supervisory skills and the number of children in a group must also be taken into consideration -Rules must be appropriate for a given activity

13 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Risk Management (continued) #3 Providing quality supervision - In group settings, the majority of unintentional injuries occur during outdoor play - The amount of supervision required depends on the type of activity and children’s developmental abilities and limitations - Teachers should know first aid and be familiar with a program’s emergency policies and procedures.

14 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Risk Management (continued) #4 Safety education - Should be ongoing. - Should take advantage of formal and spontaneous learning opportunities. - Should gradually help children develop self-protection skills.

15 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Safety and Toys How to select toys and play equipment –Not all manufacturer’s age recommendations are appropriate. Know your children’s abilities and limitations. –Consider construction (non-toxic) and safety features (Table 8-6) –Avoid toys with small parts (choking hazard), sharp edges, projectiles, loud noises, and long strings or cords (strangulation hazard).

16 Safety and Toys (continued) ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

17 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Safety and Toys (continued) –Avoid toys and activities that may be too challenging or too far below children’s skill level. – Be alert to product recalls and recommendations (www.cpsc.org)www.cpsc.org

18 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Additional Safety Considerations Only provide art materials that pose no safety risks Take special precautions to ensure that field trips are safe for children. –Thoughtful planning, emergency preparations, and notification procedures must be addressed.

19 ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Additional Safety Considerations Establish feeding and care guidelines for classroom pets –Make sure children have no allergies to animals –Children and adults should always wash their hands after handling any animal.

20 Sun Safety Exposure to too much sun over a lifetime can have harmful health consequences. Children's skin—even that of dark-skinned children—is especially sensitive to the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays and tends to burn quickly and easily. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

21 Sun Safety Steps Avoid going outdoors between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when the sun's rays are the strongest and most damaging. Encourage children to play in the shade whenever possible. Dress in protective clothing that is cool and loose fitting. – Keep as much skin surface covered as possible. –Children should be discouraged from wearing tank or halter tops. –A hat with a brim provides shade protection for the face and eyes.

22 Sun Safety Steps (continued) Apply sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15 or higher 30 minutes before going outdoors. –Reapply every 2 hours or more often if children are swimming, perspiring, or drying themselves with a towel. –Sunburn occurs more quickly when the skin is wet. Wear sunglasses to protect eyes from UV radiation. – Light-colored eyes (blue, gray) are particularly sensitive to sunlight and are more susceptible to damage. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

23 Resources for Sun Safety Become a “SunWise” school by registering at skin_ap.htmlhttp://www.nickjr.com/kids-health/child-safety/sun/protect-their- skin_ap.html school.pdfhttp://www.sunsafetyalliance.org/pdfactivities/Activities_for_Pre school.pdf ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

24 Safety Management: Case Study Teachers at the Wee Ones Child Care Center, located in an inner-city neighborhood, know that field trips can be an important part of the curriculum. They have discussed organizing a trip to the local city zoo as part of a learning unit on animals. However, the teachers also realize the challenges involved in taking a group of twenty 3- and 4-year-olds on such an excursion, but believe the experience is especially valuable for these children. Since the zoo is located on the other side of town, the teachers have made arrangements to ride the city bus. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

25 Case Study Questions 1.What criteria can teachers use to determine if a field trip is a worthwhile experience? 2.What types of planning are necessary to ensure a safe and successful field trip? 3.What are the advantages/disadvantages of using public transportation? 4.What safety precautions must teachers take before leaving the premises? 5.How might visiting a site ahead of time help teachers better plan for a field trip? 6.What problems should teachers anticipate when taking children on field trips? 7.What information should families be given? 8.Are off-premises field trips typically covered by school liability insurance policies?


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