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Chapter 16 Control MGMT3 Chuck Williams

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1 Chapter 16 Control MGMT3 Chuck Williams
Designed & Prepared by B-books, Ltd.

2 Basics of Control describe the basic control process.
After reading this section, you should be able to: describe the basic control process. Control is a regulatory process to establish standards to achieve organizational goals, comparing actual performance to those standards, and taking corrective action when necessary to restore performance to those standards. Control is achieved when behavior and work procedures conform to standards and company goals are accomplished. Control is not just an after-the-fact process, and preventive measures are also a form of control.

3 But… control isn’t always worthwhile or possible
The Control Process Begins by establishing clear standards of performance Involves comparing actual performance to desired performance Takes corrective action to repair performance deficiencies Is a dynamic, cybernetic process Consists of feedback control, concurrent control, feedforward control But… control isn’t always worthwhile or possible The control process begins when managers set goals. Companies then specify the performance standards that must be met to accomplish these goals. Standards are a basis of comparison for measuring the extent to which organizational performance is satisfactory or unsatisfactory. The next step in the control process is to compare actual performance to performance standards. While this sounds straightforward, the quality of the comparison largely depends on the measurement and information systems a company uses to keep track of performance. The better the system, the easier it is for a company to track performance and identify problems that need to be fixed. The next step in the control process is to identify performance deviations, analyze those deviations, and then develop and implement programs to correct them. Control is a continuous, dynamic process. It begins with actual performance and measures of that performance. Managers then compare performance to the pre-established standards. There are three basic control methods: feedback control, concurrent control, and feedforward control, which are discussed on a subsequent slide. However, as much as managers would like, control isn’t always worthwhile or possible. 1

4 Setting Standards A good standard must enable goal achievement
Listening to customers or observing competitors Benchmarking other companies Determine what to benchmark. Identify the companies against which to benchmark. Collect data to determine other companies’ performance standards. The first criterion for a good standard is that it must enable goal achievement. Companies determine standards by listening to customers, observing competitors, or benchmarking other companies. When setting standards by benchmarking, the first step is to determine what to benchmark. Companies can benchmark anything, from cycle time (how fast) to quality (how well) to price (how much). The next step is to identify the companies against which to benchmark your standards. The last step is to collect data to determine other companies’ performance standards. 1.1

5 Corrective Action Identify performance deviations
Analyze those deviations Develop and implement programs to correct them Control Process Correct Identify Analyze The next step in the control process is corrective action. 1.3

6 Dynamic, Cybernetic Process
Develop & Implement Program for Corrective Action Set Standards Measure Performance Compare with Standards Identify Deviations Analyze Deviations Source: H. Koontz and R.W. Bradspies, “Managing Through Feedforward Control: A Future Directed View,” Business Horizons, June 1972, As shown in Exhibit 16.1, control is a continuous, dynamic process. It begins by setting standards and then measuring performance and comparing performance to the standards. If the performance deviates from the standards, managers and employees analyze the deviations and develop and implement corrective action programs that achieve the desired performance by meeting the standards. Managers must repeat the entire process again and again in an endless feedback loop (a continuous process). The control process is cybernetic because constant attention to the feedback loop is necessary to keep the company’s activities on course. Cybernetic takes its meaning from the Greek word kubernetes, meaning “steersman,” one who steers or keeps on course. 1.4

7 Feedback, Concurrent, and Feedforward Control
Feedback Control Gather information about performance deficiencies after they occur Concurrent Control Gather information about performance deficiencies as they occur Feedforward Control Monitor performance inputs rather than outputs to prevent or minimize performance deficiencies before they occur Feedback control is a mechanism for gathering information about performance deficiencies after they occur. This information is then used to correct or prevent performance deficiencies. Study after study has clearly shown that feedback improves both individual and organizational performance. In most instances, any feedback is better than no feedback. However, if there is a downside to feedback, it is that it sometimes occurs too late. Sometimes it comes after big mistakes have been made. Concurrent control addresses the problems inherent in feedback control by gathering information about performance deficiencies as they occur. Concurrent control is an improvement over feedback because it attempts to eliminate or shorten the delay between performance and feedback about the performance. Feedforward control is a mechanism for gathering information about performance deficiencies before they occur. In contrast to feedback and concurrent control, which provide feedback on the basis of outcomes and results, feedforward control provides information about performance deficiencies by monitoring inputs, not outputs. Thus, feedforward seeks to prevent or minimize performance deficiencies before they occur. 1.5

8 Guidelines for Using Feedforward Control
Plan and analyze thoroughly. Be discriminating as you select input variables. Keep the feedforward system dynamic. Don’t let it become a matter of habit. Develop a model of the control system. Collect data on input variables regularly. Assess data on input variables regularly. Take action on what you learn. This slide lists guidelines that companies can follow to get the most out of feedforward control. 1.5

9 Control Loss Is control worthwhile? Maybe, maybe not. Managers must
assess the regulation costs and the cybernetic feasibility. Control loss occurs when behavior and work procedures don’t conform to standards. To determine whether control is worthwhile, managers need to carefully assess regulation costs, or costs associated with implementing or maintaining control. If a control process costs more than an organization gains from its benefits, it may not be worthwhile.

10 Control Methods After reading these sections, you should be able to: discuss the various methods that managers can use to maintain control. describe the behaviors, processes, and outcomes that today’s managers are choosing to control their organizations.

11 Control Methods 2 Normative Concertive Self-Control Bureaucratic
Objective Managers can use five different methods to achieve control in their organizations: bureaucratic, objective, normative, concertive, and self-control. These methods are discussed on the next slides. 2

12 Bureaucratic Control Top-down control
Use rewards and punishment to influence employee behaviors Use policies and rules to control employees Often inefficient and highly resistant to change Bureaucratic control is top-down control, in which managers try to influence employee behavior by rewarding or punishing employees for compliance or noncompliance with organizational policies, rules, and procedures. Ironically, bureaucratic management and control were created to prevent just this type of managerial behavior. By encouraging managers to apply well-thought-out rules, policies, and procedures in an impartial, consistent manner to everyone in the organization, bureaucratic control is supposed to make companies more efficient, effective, and fair. Ironically, it frequently has just the opposite effect. Managers who use bureaucratic control often put following the rules above all else. Another characteristic of bureaucratically controlled companies is that due to their rule- and policy-driven decision making, they are highly resistant to change and slow to respond to customers and competitors. 2.1

13 Adding Control from the Top
Beyond the Book Adding Control from the Top When current CEO Paul Hanrahan first joined energy provider AES, an executive told him, “We don’t have procedures…use your common sense.” For years, the decentralized structure and entrepreneurial atmosphere helped drive AES to rapid growth and success. In 2002, however, a liquidity crisis involving short term debt and lax accounting standards almost sunk the company. While much of the freedom and experimentation remains, Hanrahan has added some structure as well. New finance, human resources, and business development divisions were established. And in 2008, AES’s accounting practices were finally brought into compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Source: M. Gunther, “A Powerful Comeback”, Fortune, 26 October

14 Objective Control Objective Control Behavior Control Output Control
Use of observable measures of worker behavior or outputs to assess performance and influence behavior Behavior Control Regulation of the behaviors and actions that workers perform on the job Output Control Regulation of workers’ results or outputs through rewards and incentives In many companies, bureaucratic control has evolved into objective control, which is the use of observable measures of employee behavior or outputs to assess performance and influence behavior. Whereas bureaucratic control focuses on whether policies and rules are followed, objective control focuses on the observation or measurement of worker behavior or outputs. Behavior control is regulating behaviors and actions that workers perform on the job. The basic assumption of behavior control is that if you do the right things (i.e., the right behaviors) every day, then those things should lead to goal achievement. However, behavior control is still management-based, which means that managers are responsible for monitoring, rewarding, and punishing workers for exhibiting desired or undesired behaviors. Instead of measuring what managers and workers do, output control measures the results of their efforts. Whereas behavior control regulates, guides, and measures how workers behave on the job, output control gives managers and workers the freedom to behave as they see fit as long as it leads to the accomplishment of pre-specified, measurable results. Output control is often coupled with rewards and incentives. However, three things must occur for output control and rewards to lead to improved business results. First, output control measures must be reliable, fair, and accurate. Second, employees and managers must believe that they can produce the desired results. Third, the rewards or incentives tied to outcome control measures must truly be dependent on achieving established standards of performance. 2.2

15 Effective Output Control
Output control measures must be reliable, fair, and accurate. Employees and managers must believe that they can produce the desired results. The rewards or incentives tied to outcome control measure must be dependent on achieving established standards of performance. 2.2

16 Normative Control Created by: careful selection of employees
observing experienced employees & listening to stories about the company Normative Control Rather than monitoring rules, behavior, or outputs, another way to control what goes on in organizations is to shape the beliefs and values of the people who work there through normative control. With normative controls, a company’s widely-shared values and beliefs guide workers’ behavior and decisions. Normative controls are created in two ways. First, companies that use normative controls are very careful about whom they hire. While many companies screen potential applicants on the basis of their abilities, normatively controlled companies are just as likely to screen potential applicants based on their attitudes and values. Second, with normative controls, managers and employees learn what they should and should not do by observing experienced employees and by listening to the stories they tell about the company. Nordstrom is a classic example of normative control. The company’s entire employee handbook is on one 3 x 5 index card. 2.3

17 Concertive Control Autonomous work groups operate without managers
Regulation of workers’ behavior and decisions through work group values and beliefs Autonomous work groups operate without managers group members control processes, output, and behaviors Whereas normative controls are based on the strongly-held, widely-shared beliefs throughout a company, concertive controls are based on beliefs that are shaped and negotiated by work groups. So while normative controls are driven by strong organizational cultures, concertive controls usually arise when companies give autonomous work groups complete responsibility for task completion. Autonomous work groups are groups that operate without managers and are completely responsible for controlling work group processes, outputs, and behavior. These groups do their own hiring, firing, worker discipline, work schedules, materials ordering, budget making and meeting, and decision making. Concertive control is not established overnight. Autonomous work groups evolve through two phases as they develop concertive control. In phase one, autonomous work group members learn to work with each other, supervise each other’s work, and develop the values and beliefs that will guide and control their behavior. And because they develop these values and beliefs themselves, work group members feel strongly about following them. The second phase in the development of concertive control is the emergence and formalization of objective rules to guide and control behavior. The beliefs and values developed in phase one usually develop into more objective rules as new members join teams. The clearer those rules, the easier it becomes for new members to figure out how and how not to behave. 2.4

18 Self-Control Also known as self-management
Employees control their own behavior Employees make decisions within well-established boundaries Managers teach others the skills they need to maximize work effectiveness Employees set goals and monitor their own progress Self-control, also known as self-management, is a control system in which managers and workers control their own behavior. However, self-control is not anarchy in which everyone gets to do whatever they want. In self-control or self-management, leaders and managers provide workers with clear boundaries within which they may guide and control their own goals and behaviors. Leaders and managers also contribute to self-control by teaching others the skills they need to maximize and monitor their own work effectiveness. In turn, individuals who manage and lead themselves establish self‑control by setting their own goals, monitoring their own progress, rewarding or punishing themselves for achieving or for not achieving their self-set goals, and constructing positive thought patterns that remind them of the importance of their goals and their ability to accomplish them. 2.5

19 What to Control? 3 Customer Defections Quality Waste and Pollution
Balanced Scorecard Budgets, Cash Flow, EVA 3

20 The Balanced Scorecard
Customer Perspective Internal Perspective Innovation and Learning Perspective Financial Perspective The balanced scorecard encourages managers to look beyond traditional financial measures to four different perspectives on company performance: How do customers see us (the customer perspective)? At what must we excel (the internal perspective)? Can we continue to improve and create value (the innovation and learning perspective)? How do we look to shareholders (the financial perspective)? 3.1

21 Advantages of the Balanced Scorecard
Forces managers to set goals and measure performance in each of the four areas Minimizes the chances of suboptimization performance improves in one area at the expense of others The balanced scorecard has several advantages over traditional control processes that rely solely on financial measures. First, it forces managers at each level of the company to set specific goals and measure performance in each of the four areas. The second major advantage of the balanced scorecard approach to control is that it minimizes the chances of suboptimization, which occurs when performance improves in one area at the expense of decreased performance in others. 3.1

22 The Balanced Scorecard: Southwest Airlines
© Image100/Jupiterimages 3.1 Sources: G. Anthes, “ROI Guide: Balanced Scorecard,” Computer World, 17 February 2003, available online at [accessed 5 September 2008].

23 The Financial Perspective
Cash flow analysis Predicts how changes in a business will affect its ability to take in more cash than it pays out Balance sheets Provide a snapshot of a company’s financial position at a particular time Income statements Show what has happened to an organization’s income, expenses, and net profit over a period of time Financial ratios Used to track liquidity, efficiency, and profitability over time compared to other businesses in its industry The traditional approach to controlling financial performance focuses on accounting tools such as cash flow analysis, balance sheets, income statements, financial ratios, and budgets. 3.2

24 Basic Accounting Tools
Beyond the Book Basic Accounting Tools Steps for a Basic Cash Flow Analysis Forecast sales Project changes in anticipated cash flows Project anticipated cash outflows Project net cash flows by combining anticipated cash inflows and outflows

25 Basic Accounting Tools
Beyond the Book Basic Accounting Tools Parts of a Basic Balance Sheet Assets Current assets Fixed assets Liabilities Current liabilities Long-term liabilities Owner’s equity Stock Additional paid in capital Retained earnings

26 Basic Accounting Tools
Beyond the Book Basic Accounting Tools Basic Income Statement SALES REVENUE - sales returns and allowances + other income = NET REVENUE - cost of goods sold = GROSS PROFIT - total operating expenses = INCOME FROM OPERATIONS - interest expense = PRETAX INCOME - income tax = NET INCOME

27 Financial Ratios Beyond the Book LIQUIDITY RATIOS Current Ratio
Quick (Acid Test) Ratio LEVERAGE RATIOS Debt to Equity Debt Coverage EFFICIENCY RATIOS Inventory Turnover Average Collections Period PROFITABILITY RATIOS Gross Profit Margin Return on Equity Financial ratios are typically used to track a business’s liquidity (cash), efficiency, and profitability over time compared to other businesses in its industry. The supplemental student review card lists a few of the most common financial ratios, and explains how they are calculated, what they mean, and when to use them.

28 Common Kinds of Budgets
Beyond the Book Common Kinds of Budgets Cash Budgets Used to forecast the cash a company will have for expenses Expense Budgets Used to determine spending on supplies, projects, or activities Profit Budgets Used by profit centers, which have “profit and loss” responsibility Revenue Budgets Used to project or forecast future sales Variable Budgets Used to project costs across varying levels of sales/revenues Capital Expenditure Budgets Used to forecast large, long-lasting investments Finally, budgets are used to project costs and revenues, prioritize and control spending, and ensure that expenses don’t exceed available funds and revenues. This slide reviews the different kinds of budgets managers can use to track and control company finances. Revenue Budgets – used to project or forecast future sales. ·Accuracy of projection depends on economy, competitors, sales force estimates, etc. ·Determined by estimating future sales volume and sales prices for all products and services.  Expense Budgets – used within departments and divisions to determine how much will be spent on various supplies, projects, or activities. ·One of the first places that companies look for cuts when trying to lower expenses.  Profit Budgets – used by profit centers which have “profit and loss” responsibility. ·Profit budgets combine revenue and expense budgets into one budget. ·Typically used in large businesses with multiple plants and divisions.  Cash Budgets – used to forecast how much cash a company will have on hand to meet expenses. ·Similar to cash flow analyses. Used to identify cash shortfalls, which much be covered to pay bills, or cash excesses, which should be invested for a higher return. Capital Expenditure Budgets – used to forecast large, long-lasting investments in equipment, buildings, and property. ·Helps managers identify funding it will take to pay for future expansion or strategic moves designed to increase competitive advantage.  Variable Budgets – used to project costs across varying levels of sales and revenues. ·Important because it is difficult to accurately predict sales revenue and volume. ·Leads to more accurate budgeting with respect to labor, materials, and administrative expenses, which vary with sales volume and revenues. Builds flexibility into the budgeting process. 3.2

29 Economic Value Added (EVA)
The amount by which company profits exceed the cost of capital in a given year Common Costs of Capital Long-term bank loans Interest paid to bondholders Dividends and growth in stock value that accrue to shareholders Conceptually, economic value added (EVA) is not the same thing as profits. It is the amount by which profits exceed the cost of capital in a given year. It is based on the idea that it takes capital to run a business and that capital comes from a cost. 3.2

30 Economic Value Added (EVA)
1. Calculate net operating profit after tax (NOPAT) 2. Identify how much capital the company has invested 3. Determine the cost paid for capital Multiply capital used (step 2) times cost of capital (step 3) 5. Subtract total dollar cost of capital from net profit after taxes $3,500,000 $16,800,000 10% (10% x $16,800,000) = $1,680,000 $3,500,000 net profit -$1,680,000 cost of capital $1,820,000 EVA Exhibit 16.4 shows how to calculate EVA. 3.2

31 Big Results from Little Changes
Beyond the Book Big Results from Little Changes Small changes to a process can have significant results, especially in large companies like Home Depot. In trying to find new ways to cut back on expenses, Home Depot decided to change the brand of the coffee they served at their help desk for professional contractors (note: they didn’t eliminate the coffee entirely). They managed to save $500,000. Several $500,000 changes can really add up. Source: C. Tome, “C-Suite Strategies, The Colvin Interview: Renovating Home Depot”, interview by G. Colvin, Fortune, 31 August

32 Why Is EVA Important? Shows whether a business, division, department, profit center, or product is paying for itself Makes managers at all levels pay closer attention to their segment of the business Encourages managers and workers to be creative in looking for ways to improve EVA performance 3.2

33 Cost-Cutting Guidelines
Beyond the Book Cost-Cutting Guidelines Here are some guidelines for cost-cutting: Instead of implementing one-off cost-cuts, examine the entire process involved in a job and ask how it can be made more efficient. Try bartering with other companies. Exchange low margin cost products for things that you would normally pay cash for. Offer to split the savings with employees. Reducing expenses at the cost of quality can have adverse effects. Leasing as opposed to buying equipment can reduce costs and have tax benefits. Establish contract terms with your distributors that allow you to renegotiate prices annually. Source: T. Meyers, “frugal is back”, Entrepreneur, March

34 The Customer Perspective Controlling Customer Defections
Monitoring customer defections: identify which customers are leaving the company measuring the rate at which they are leaving Obtaining a new customer costs ten times as much as keeping a current one Customers who have left are likely to tell you what you are doing wrong Understanding why a customer leaves can help fix problems and make changes Rather than pouring over customer satisfaction surveys from current customers, studies indicate that companies may do a better job of answering the question “How do customers see us?” by closely monitoring customer defections, that is, by identifying which customers are leaving the company and measuring the rate at which they are leaving. In contrast to customer satisfaction surveys, customer defections and retention have a much greater effect on profits. For example, very few managers realize that it costs ten times as much to obtain a new customer as it does to keep a current one. In fact, the cost of replacing old customers with new ones is so great that most companies could double their profits by increasing the rate of customer retention by just 5 to 10 percent per year. Beyond the clear benefits to the bottom line, the second reason to study customer defections is that customers who have defected to other companies are much more likely than current customers to tell you what you are doing wrong. Finally, companies that understand why customers leave can not only take steps to fix ongoing problems, but can also identify which customers are likely to leave and make changes to prevent them from leaving. 3.3

35 The Internal Perspective Controlling Quality
Excellence Value In contrast to the EVA-oriented financial perspective and the outward-looking customer perspective, the internal perspective asks the question “At what must we excel?” Quality is typically defined and measured in three ways: excellence, value, and conformance to expectations. When the company defines its quality goal as excellence, then managers must try to produce a product or service of unsurpassed performance and features. Value is the customer perception that the product quality is excellent for the price offered. At a higher price, for example, customers may perceive the product to be less of a value. When a company emphasizes value as its quality goal, managers must simultaneously control excellence, price, durability, and any other features of a product or service that customers strongly associate with value. When a company defines its quality goal as conformance to specifications, employees must base decisions and actions on whether services and products measure up to the standards. In contrast to excellence- and value-based definitions of quality, which can be somewhat ambiguous, measuring whether products and services are “in spec” is relatively easy. Furthermore, while conformance to specifications is usually associated with manufacturing, it can be used equally well to control quality in nonmanufacturing jobs. Conformance to Expectations 3.4

36 The Internal Perspective Controlling Quality
Exhibit 16.7 shows the advantages and disadvantages associated with the excellence, value, and conformance to specification definitions of quality. 3.4

37 Controlling Waste and Pollution
Good housekeeping Material/product substitution Process modification The last part of the balance scorecard, the innovation and learning perspective, addresses the question “Can we continue to improve and create value?” There are three strategies for waste prevention and reduction. Good housekeeping—regularly scheduled preventive maintenance for offices, plants, and equipment. Making sure to quickly fix leaky valves, or making sure machines are running properly so they don’t use more fuel than necessary are examples of good housekeeping. Material/product substitution—replacing toxic or hazardous materials with less harmful materials. Process modification—changing steps or procedures to eliminate or reduce waste. 3.5

38 Controlling Waste and Pollution
Waste Disposal Waste Treatment Recycle & Reuse Waste Prevention & Reduction Source: D.R. May and B.L. Flannery, “Cutting Waste with Employee Involvement Teams,” Business Horizons, September-October 1995, The top level is waste prevention and reduction, in which the goals are to prevent waste and pollution before they occur, or to reduce them when they do occur. The second level of the waste minimization is recycle and reuse. At this level, wastes are reduced by reusing materials as long as possible or by collecting materials for on- or off-site recycling. The third level of the waste minimization is waste treatment, where companies use biological, chemical, or other processes to turn potentially harmful waste into harmless compounds or useful by-products. The fourth and last level of the waste minimization is waste disposal. Wastes that cannot be prevented, reduced, recycled, reused, or treated should be safely disposed of in environmentally secure landfills that prevent leakage and damage to soil and underground water supplies. Contrary to common belief, all businesses, not just manufacturing firms, have waste-disposal problems. 3.5

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