Presentation on theme: "Buddy Garfinkle and Nancy Schneeloch, Bridgeway Rehabilitation Services, Elizabeth, New Jersey"— Presentation transcript:
Buddy Garfinkle and Nancy Schneeloch, Bridgeway Rehabilitation Services, Elizabeth, New Jersey
Bridgeway Rehabilitation Services OUR MISSION: Bridgeway provides psychiatric rehabilitation services to adults who have serious mental illnesses to help them live as independently as possible in the community. Bridgeway is on the cutting edge of improving service interventions and expanding resources that have helped individuals receiving mental health services with their journeys toward recovery.
Bridgeway Rehabilitation Services Our Services – Eight counties, 1500 Individuals PACT Supportive Housing Residential Intensive Support Teams PATH: Homeless Outreach Services Justice-Involved Services Career Development Services Community Support Team
Beginning with MI Why start with Motivational interviewing? MI integrates principles, spirit, and methods for working with individuals served All staff have the capacity for learning and using MI methods In an expanding agency, it helped us to integrate a method for speaking a common language Helped staff to focus on a specific skill set Provide clinical interventions based on an individuals stage of change
Beginning with MI Recognition that staff was uncomfortable with person serveds ambivalence or lack of insight. Instilled confidence in staff in areas where they previously experienced frustration Evidence base for Motivational Interviewing SAMSHAs evidence-based practices require MI and CBT interventions. Decision made to focus on MI and CBT before implementing IMR
Senior Management Involvement How was Senior Management Involved with the Process? Executive Director and Program Directors discussed applicability of MI to psychiatric rehabilitation Agreement on all staff to be trained simultaneously Feasibility of agency-wide implementation Developed an MI steering Committee Identified an expert trainer MI Steering Committee members attend additional Integrated Dual Disorder Treatment Trainings
Going Agency wide Supervisory Staff and staff with MI experience were first trained Regional Workgroups were established for group supervision Met every two weeks to practice skills and review sessions with persons served Every staff person needed to identify a person served who demonstrated ambivalence Filled out an MI skills sheet to talk about the session Role play in group supervision
Going Agency wide Identify skills to be practiced Groups met for four months before agency roll out Meetings with program elements to discuss integration of MI into practice Curriculum developed by three agency trainers All staff trained (2 day training) with practice exercises Committees continued to meet monthly for six months
Benefits of Learning about Motivational Interviewing More realistic expectations Greater recognition of small accomplishments Greater success over time Less frustration and burnout Effective across populations and cultures Actively involves the person in his/her own care Improves adherence and retention Instills hope Consistent with Recovery Transformation Source: Retrieved July 18, 2008 from ahec.allconet.org/newrihp/powerpoint/
MI TRAINING GOALS for STAFF To provide an introduction to the spirit of MI To learn about MI principles to use with individuals on behavior change To assess motivation for readiness to change To provide a foundation to build skills
What Is Motivational Interviewing? Directive, person centered counseling style that aims to help people explore and resolve their ambivalence about behavior change Source: Michael Wiles and Cross Country Education, Inc. 2005
Three Components of MI Spirit Collaboration Evocation Autonomy Working in partnership Draw out ideas and solutions from individuals Decision making left to the person
Spirit of MI Motivation to change is elicited from the person, not externally It is the persons task, not the counselors, to articulate and resolve ambivalence Direct persuasion is not an effective method for resolving ambivalence The counselors style is generally a quiet and eliciting one The counselor is directive only in helping the person to examine and resolve ambivalence Readiness to change is a fluctuating product of interpersonal interaction. The therapeutic relationship is more like a partnership or collaboration than expert/recipient role.
Characteristics of Motivational Interviewing Guiding, more than directing Dancing, rather than wrestling Listening, as much as telling Collaborative conversation Evokes from a person what he/she already has Honoring of a persons autonomy Source: S. Rollnick, W. Miller and C. Butler Motivational Interviewing in Health Care, 2008.
What do we know about Motivation? It is fundamental to change It fluctuates It can be modified It is influenced by external factors and social interactions It is very sensitive to interpersonal style There are internal and external sources We want to increase the probability of the person engaging in change behavior Motivating is an inherent part of our job
What is Ambivalence? I want to, but I dont want to Natural phase in the process of change Normal aspect of human nature, not pathological Ambivalence is key issue to resolve for change to occur It is our friend
C hanging Extrinsic to Intrinsic Motivation Changing because I want to Know and explore values Core value discrepancy motivates change Explore life goals; discrepancy between where the person is and where he/she wants to be Choice/Self Determination Reframing the persons negative statements
PRINCIPLES OF MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING… AREDS A- Avoid Arguing R- ROLL WITH RESISTANCE E- EXPRESS EMPATHY D- DEVELOP DISCREPANCY S- SUPPORT SELF EFFICACY
REVIEW RESISTANCE It is normal 4 types: arguing; denying; ignoring; interrupting The more one talks about non-change behaviors, the more a person is likely to do them. It is determined by therapist style May mean the therapist is ahead of the person in the change process Resistance often stems from fear of change
Develop Discrepancy Difference between the persons core values and life goals and their health behavior Difference between where the person is now and where he/she would like to be in the future Elicit client goals & values. Evaluate clients current state with regard to those goals & values. Emphasize the discrepancy between them. Best if the individual makes the argument for change. No discrepancy = No ambivalence…Ambivalence makes change possible.
Assessment Tools… 1. Stage of Change 2. Payoff Matrix 3. ICR Scales 4. Value Cards
CONCEPTDEFINITIONMETHODS OF TX. PRE- CONTEMPLATION Unaware of the problem, hasnt thought about change Engagement skills, develop trust, assertive outreach, accept client where they are at, provide concrete care CONTEMPLATION Thinking about change, in the near future (usually w/in the next 6mos) Instill hope, positive reinforcement for harm reduction, discuss consequences, raise ambivalence, motivational interviewing PREPARATION Making a plan to change plans, setting gradual goals (w/in 1 mo) Assist in developing concrete action, problem solve w/ obstacles, build skills, encourage small steps, tx planning ACTION Specific changes to life style has been made w/in past 6 mos Combat feelings of loss and emphasize long term benefits, enhance coping skills, teach how to use self help, tx. Planning, develop healthy living skills, teach to avoid high risk situations MAINTENANCE Continuation of desirable actions, or repeating periodic recommended step's Assist in coping, reminders, finding alternatives, relapse prevention RELAPSEPART OF THE PROCESS Determine the triggers and plan for future prevention STAGES OF CHANGE
PAYOFF MATRIX about Drinking Drinking as before Abstaining Benefits Helps me relax Enjoy drinking with friends Eases boredom Feel better physically Have more $ Less conflict with family, work Costs Hard on my health Spending too much $ Might lose my job Id miss getting high What to do about friends How to deal with stress
The ICR Scales : IMPORTANCE How important is it for you to change right now? CONFIDENCE If you decide to change, how confident are you that you could do it? READINESS How ready are you to change right now?
Value Cards Sort them into important/not important categories Have person pick out the five most important values and share what it means to him\her dsort.pdf
MI Skills AROSE AFFIRMATIONS REFLECTIVE LISTENING OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS SUMMARIES ELICIT CHANGE TALK
Reflective Listening Allows individual to feel heard Allows you to confirm perceptions Simple declarative statement: -It wasnt your idea to come to see me today -You feel pretty discouraged right now -You have mixed feelings about your drug use
Examples of Reflective Listening It sounds like... It seems as if... What I hear you saying... I get a sense that... It feels as though... Help me to understand. On the one hand you... and on the other hand... Handout exercise 3.4
Strategies To Elicit Change Talk Asking Evocative Questions Using Readiness Rulers Exploring the Decisional Balance Looking Back/Looking Forward Using hypotheticals Key Questions Source: S. Rollnick, W. Miller and C. Butler, Motivational Interviewing in Health Care, 2008.
Training on MI Skills Review the definition Practice the skills right after definition Utilize the OARS worksheet Utilize the MI workbook
MI-Training of Staff Provide training on MI for employees twice a year for core clinical skills Beginner MI – offered for all new employees and anyone who wants\needs a refresher Advanced MI – for those staff wanting to take MI to a deeper level MI for non-clinical staff, i.e.: administrative assistants, finance office, data entry, etc
Supervision with MI Formal supervision with supervisor in session practice Staff required to complete MI Skills form Individual Recovery Plans and Progress Notes templates created to cue staff MI skills as a response to ambivalence In the field, in vivo supervision Observation, supervisor feedback Group supervision focused on MI in every session, utilizing skills checklist Consistent supervisory feedback in teaching moments
Recovery Plan/Progress Note OVERALL REHAB/RECOVERY GOAL #1:_____________________________ STAGES OF CHANGE (PLEASE CHECK THE APPROPRIATE BOX) PRE- CONTEMPLATION CONTEMPLATION PREPARATION ACTION MAINTENANCE STAGES OF TREATMENT (PLEASE CHECK THE APPROPRIATE BOX) PRE-ENGAGEMENT ENGAGEMENT EARLY PERSUASION LATE PERSUASION EARLY ACTIVE TX LATE ACTIVE TX RELAPSE PREVENTION OVERALL REHAB/RECOVERY GOAL #2: ______________________________ STAGES OF CHANGE (PLEASE CHECK THE APPROPRIATE BOX) PRE- CONTEMPLATION CONTEMPLATION PREPARATION ACTION MAINTENANCE STAGES OF TREATMENT (PLEASE CHECK THE APPROPRIATE BOX) PRE-ENGAGEMENT ENGAGEMENT EARLY PERSUASION LATE PERSUASION EARLY ACTIVE TX LATE ACTIVE TX RELAPSE PREVENTION
Progress Note Menu Motivational Interventions (CBT) Cognitive Behavioral Skills (IM/R) Illness Management and Recovery Promote hope & positive expectationsReinforcementRecovery Strategies Connect info and skills with personal goalsRole PlayingReducing Relapses Explore pros and cons of changeShapingPractical Facts about Mental Illness Re-frame experiences in positive lightCognitive RestructuringCoping with Stress Reflection, Affirmation, Open-ended Questions, Summarize ModelingStress Vulnerability Elicit Change TalkRelaxation TrainingCoping w/symptoms & problems Looking Back/Looking ForwardRelapse PreventionSocial Support Developing DiscrepancyMental Health System. Explore ambivalence Medication Education Strengthening commitment to change Substance Abuse Healthy Lifestyles
Path Team and MI Embracing Spirit of MI = engagement of homeless individual Tailor strategies and interventions towards stage of change and readiness Utilize tools of MI, payoff matrix, Importance Confidence Readiness scales Team supervision and Individual supervision Review trainings twice a year
Program Outcomes Success of MI implementation leads to Cognitive Behavioral Interventions method of training and supervision. The change process for persons served is the focus Staff matches intervention/skill to persons stage of change Distinguish process outcomes from persons served outcome measures Integrated Dual Disorder Treatment Implementation Capture number of persons served moving from pre- contemplation/contemplation to action/relapse prevention
Program Outcomes Capture number of persons served completing the Illness Management and Recovery Toolkit Capture number of people completing a readiness assessment for employment and education who followed through on their plans Motivational Interviewing is integral to helping programs meet outcome measures
Training Resources Motivation Interviewing Resources for clinicians, researchers and trainers
Resources B. Borrelli, Using Motivation Interviewing to Promote Patient Behavior Change and Enhance Health S. Rollnick, P. Mason and C. Butler Health Behavior change: A Guide for Practitioners. Churchill Livingstone 1999 S. Rollnick, W. Miller and C. Butler Motivational Interviewing in Health Care. Guilford Press 2008 C. Field, D. Hungerford and C. Dunn Brief Motivational Interventions: An Introduction. J Trauma 2005; 59:S21-S26 M. Wiles Motivational Interviewing: Overcoming Client Resistance to Change Cross Country Education
Q & A Buddy Garfinkle, Associate Executive Director, Bridgeway Rehabilitation Services Nancy Schneeloch, Program Director, Bridgeway Rehabilitation Services Please type your questions into the Chat Box. We will field as many questions as we can. The presentation slides and recording will be available on the HRC and PATH websites within three days.