PROPHET MUHAMMAD (pbuh) II. After Hijrah: In Medina
Having arrived Escaping the hostile Mecca, Muhammad went through: 1.Precarious events, was almost caught 2.Exhausting Travel 3.Over a period of two weeks travel Was welcomed in the outskirts of Medina Waited for two weeks for Ali to arrive
Waiting for Ali Ali Arrives: Having walked to Medina on foot Prophet's Family: With Ali Jumu'ah Salat: First time in Freedom The Welcoming Crowd: MuslimsJewsDisbelievers
Total Muslims so far Total Meccans who Had accepted Islam: 400- 450 Over a period of 13 Yrs: Of Arduous work and Despite extreme harassments Muslims leave behind family and business in Mecca Muslims emigrate to Medina Many Families have divided loyalties
The welcoming crowd 1. The Muslims of Medina: Who had recently embraced Islam 2. The Disbelievers still abounding in Medina 3. The Jews consisting of: a.Three major tribes b.Jewish community at large The Songs of Welcome: Celebration
Building Qubaa mosque They lay foundation for Qubaa Mosque Qubaa is a few miles from Medina Mosque completed some time later Salim ibn Hudhayfah Yamani in charge of prayers over there
Effecting status of brotherhood Ansaar and Muhajiroon: One on One Basis Muhammad takes Ali as a Brother Advantages of effecting Brotherhood: StabilityFinancialLearning
Building the Prophet’s Mosque Land Bought from Orphans The Prophet himself Participates in Building Mosque Structure: 100X100 Yards: Dirt Floor Trunk of Palm Trees as Columns Palm leaves for Roof Functionality: Extremely Functional
Replica of the Prophet’s Mosque, at the time of the Prophet
Community stability Effecting Brotherhood Mutual Defense with Major Jewish Tribes: 1.Benu Qainuqaa 2.Benu Nadheer 3.Benu Quraidha
Treaty between Muhammad and Jewish tribes 1. There were three Jewish tribes in Medina, affluent, controlling the area financially, and looked upon as powerful and a local might. 2. The Tribes were: Benu Qainuqaa', Benu Nadheer, and Benu Quraidha. 3. They lived off the local warring Arabic tribes by lending at high interest rate, inciting or subtly encouraging discord. At first the Jewish tribes looked upon the Muslims favorably and signed treaties of mutual defense with them. At first the Jewish tribes looked upon the Muslims favorably and signed treaties of mutual defense with them. Soon after, however, they changed their ways and became adversaries to Muhammad (pbuh) and the Muslims.
Formidable Decisions Muhammad 1. Qubaa Mosque 2. Effecting Brotherhood 3. Prophet’s Mosque 4. Treaty with Jews 5. Challenging Quraish 6. Spreading Islam
Budding Islamic government Surah Al-Baqarah was revealed Establishment of State Affairs Fasting, Zakat, and Haj Community affairs R elation with the local Jews Self Defense: Permission to defend with arms
Challenge to Quraish Deploying Scout Missions Threatening Quraish’s route of Commerce reminder to Quraish of Muslim Presence Attempt to intervene Abu Sufyan's Caravan of Quraish
Problems facing Muhammad at this period Problems facing Muhammad at this period 1. The disbelievers of Mecca (Quraish) and others. 2. The Jewish tribes in Medina and their scheming. 3. The disbelievers of Medina and surrounding area. 4. Directing a fast budding Muslim Ummah: 4. Directing a fast budding Muslim Ummah: 5. Administration, decisions, formatting, and shaping it according to the Islamic Shari'ah 1. The perils facing Muhammad (pbuh) were phenomenal in many ways. 1. The perils facing Muhammad (pbuh) were phenomenal in many ways. 2. Only a person of superhuman power and capability can stand this pressure —and Muhammad (pbuh) did it brilliantly.
Badr encounter 1,000 Meccan Disbelievers Attacking with: Superior arms Superior numbers 313 Defending Muslims with: Superior Faith Superior Prowess Confrontation was During Ramadhan Disbelievers Soundly Defeated
Badr encounterبَدْر Muslims fought on foot Had only two horses Highly enthusiastic Promised Heaven if killed Outnumbered 3 to 1, Muslims victorious Pagans had many horses Face an onslaught from the Muslims Lose a large number of their leaders Dealt an astounding defeat
Prisoners taken during Badr 70 Meccans were Taken as Prisoners To Pay Compensation to be released (those who can afford it) The Literate Meccan Prisoners can: 1.Pay Compensation or 2.Each to Teach 10 Muslims to Read and Write
Happenings after Badr After Badr: 1.Benu Qainuqaa Break Treaty 2.Benu Qainuqaa Banished Al-Hasan is Born Muslims ecstatic, with Self Confidence Islamic Government Progresses
Ohod encounterأُحُد Takes Place one year after Badr Meccan Disbelievers: 3,000 Fighters Muslims: 700 Fighters 300 Hypocrites with the Muslims Withdraw Place 5 Miles from Medina
Highlights of the battle of Ohod Highlights of the battle of Ohod Muhammad Faced the Following: 1.The disbelievers of Mecca (Quraish) and others. 2.The Jewish tribes in Medina and their scheming. 3.The disbelievers of Medina and surrounding area. 1. Disbelievers of Mecca in confrontation to avenge the battle of Badr. 2. Muhammad (pbuh), in order to defend Muslims, agrees to the majority decision of Muslims, though he was of the opinion to fortify Medina to defend it.
Strategy in Ohod Muslims to Protect the Mountain Pass Muslims’ Force on an Elevation Initially Muslims Almost Win, start to Collect Booty Ignoring the specific Instructions, Most Guardians of the Pass Abandon it, rushing for the booties Khalid Ibn al-Walid attacks Muslims from the rear of the Pass
Prophet in danger Attacked by Khalid from the rear and Quraish from the Front, Muslims are in Disarray Prophet, being in Danger, is Protected by: Ali Al-Muqdad and few Others Ali Chases Away four groups of raiders The Prophet (pbuh) gets wounded
Ohod II 1. 50 Muslims to guard the Pass 2. The guards see Muslims winning 3. Guards leave post 4. Khalid’s surprise attacks 5. Hamza Killed 6. Prophet wounded 1. At first Disbelievers retreating, losing 2. Muslims attacked by Khalid from behind 3. Muslims attacked from front 4. Battle draws to a halt 5. 70 Muslims get killed (10%) of the force
Aftermath of Ohod Terrifying Experience: Loss of 70 Muslims Deep Sorrow for Disobeying the Prophet Disbelievers Emboldened, bragging Disbelievers around Medina Attack Muslims frequently Muslims have to Defend themselves often
After Ohod Al-Husain is Born Benu Nadheer Break Treaty with Muslims Benu Nadheer Banished Benu Nadheer go to Khaybar Very Shaky Period for Muslims
The Ditch encounter Fifth year of Hijrah Concept: Salman Al-Farsi Suggestion Carried out Ditch Digging Finished in Time (6 days of very arduous work) Ditch Prevented War and Killing
Highlights of the Ditch encounter Highlights of the Ditch encounter 1. Disbelievers of Mecca and nearby areas, with strategic planning by the Jewish Ben Nadheer tribe mass a force of 10,000 to annihilate the Muslims 2. Al Abbas informs Muhammad (pbuh) they have only 6 days to take action. 3. Salman the Persian gives a brilliant suggestion—dig a ditch. 4. The ditch was essential to separate the disbelievers from the Muslim forces. 5. Amr ibn Abd-Wid, the hero of Quraish, crosses the ditch, challenges the Muslims. Ali takes the challenge. 6. Ali brilliantly finishes off Amr—thus dealing the disbelievers a major psychological blow. 7. Much intrigue behind the Muslims' back: between the disbelievers and the Jewish Benu Nadheer and Benu Quraidha. It was undone. 8. Heavy rains, lightning and thunder scare the disbelievers, they flee.
Ditch confrontation Disbelievers 10,000 strong, as yet the largest force in Arabia Benu Nadheer (Jewish) organizers and supporters of the enemy Leadership by Abu Sufyan Mu’awiya, 28 yr old with his father Abu Sufyan
Amr ibn Abd Wid crosses Ditch between two Mountain elevations Ditch 15 ft wide and 15 ft deep Hero of Quraish, Amr Ibn Abd-Wid Crosses the ditch at its narrow point Amr bragging, challenges Muslims for a duel Amr’s Challenge Taken by Ali Ali soundly kills Amr, Disbelievers horrified
Ditch encounter II Amr as the hero: had killed 1000 challengers Ali, by Killing Amr the Hero of Quraish had: Disbelievers severely Demoralized Disbelievers frightened of Muslims Disbelievers Leave in Disarray, after 3 Weeks of Confrontation Thus, the Ditch had Prevented an Ugly War
Following the Ditch encounter Period of Consolidation for Muslims The Da'wa to the Faith zooms ahead The Haj Attempt: Prevented, but with Treaty Hudaibiya Treaty Proves extremely Beneficial to Muslims
4. Economic factor Components of Planning According to Akram Al-Attar 2. Political factor 3. Functional factor 1. Social factorComponents All above factors are to be considered and weighed for every decision 5. Timing factor
Highlights of Hudaibiya 1. Muhammad with 1500 Muslims go to perform Haj (Without arms). 2. Khalid ibnil Waleed, dispatched by the Meccans, was to foil the Muslims. 3. To avoid confrontation, the Prophet takes a detour route and stays at Hudaibiya, not too far from Mecca. 4. Uthman is sent to Mecca to convince the disbelievers of the Prophet's peaceful intention. 5. Uthman is delayed, Muslims take an oath to fight to death if Uthman was killed by the disbelievers. This is called Pledge of Radhwan. 6. Because of the Pledge of Radhwan, Quraish is scared of its consequences, thus it consents. 7. Treaty of Hudaibiya is concluded, Ali is the scribe. 8. Some Muslims wrongly think Hudaibiya is more to the advantage of the disbelievers. 9. Hudaibiya proves a bonanza to the Muslims.
Hudaibiya treaty Ali was the Scribe Peace between Muslims and Quraish for 10 Years Muslims were not to accept Disbeliever Converts Disbelievers were to Accept Muslim Converts Muslims to have Freehand in Da'wa
(CONFRONTING THE JEWISH FORTS) Khaybar Muslims 1,500, 7 th Yr of Hijrah 3 Weeks Skirmishing Abu Bakr Leads the Muslims but Fails to prevail Omar Leads the Muslims but Fails to prevail Ali is then given Leadership of the Muslims
Khaybar II Ali Storms, followed by the forces Ali Lifts Door as shield Ali Kills Marhab, the Jewish Hero Fierce Fighting, Relentless The Main Fortified Castle Surrenders Other Castles (7 more), soon Surrender
The Spread of Islam Fast Growth In Medina Outside Medina Faraway areas Deputations to Heads of State: Persian Emperor Byzantine Emperor Egyptian Head of State
The first Omrah The first Omrah 1. Muhammad (pbuh) along with 2,000 Muslims perform Omrah. 2. Meccans watch from the top of the hills with envy. 3. The Omrah had unsettling psychological effect on the disbelievers. 4. The Omrah had tremendous psychological boost for Muslims. 5. Khalid ibnil Waleed, embraces Islam not too long after. 6. Other important Meccan personalities embrace Islam soon after, too. Hudaibiya treaty led to tremendous advantages for the Muslims, one of which was the performance of Omrah as agreed upon.
Conquest of Mecca, 8th Yr of Hijrah Meccans Break Treaty with Muslims To the Meccans’ surprise, 10,000 Muslims Surround Mecca Meccans are petrified Reluctantly Abu Sufyan Becomes Muslim Muslims Conquer Mecca without Blood Shed
Conquest of Mecca II Muhammad and Ali Break the 360 Idols on top and around the Ka’ba Bilal Chants the Adhan, Muslims pray in unison Pagan Meccans observe with apprehension Pagan Meccan wonder what would happen to them Pagan Meccans all Forgiven by the Prophet
Al-Tulaqaa' 1. Al-Tulaqaa': People of Mecca who converted to Islam after Mecca was conquered by the Muslims. 2. Al-Tulaqaa' was a term used to belittle and denigrate these persons. 3. Mu'awiya, for one, often referred to himself reprimanding as one of the “Tulaqaa''. Mu'awiya was the son of Abu Sufyan, the leader of the disbelievers to destroy Islam. Later, Mu'awiya played an adversary role in Islamic history.
Hunain Meccans who just Accepted Islam participate The enemy Attacks Muslims in the Dark Taken by surprise, Muslims Flee Muhammad and Al-Abbas Call Muslims back Muslims Return to the battle engagement Muslims win the battle
Ahlul Bayt: Surah 33: Ayah 33. At this period a unique Ayah was revealed: "VERILY, ALLAH HAS DECREED TO PURIFY YOU, O' AHLUL BAYT AND SANCTIFY YOU IN A PERFECT WAY. إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا
Mubaahala Christian Delegation Comes from Near Yemen to Medina: A journey of bout 1,100 Miles Aim was a dialogue with Muhammad Wanted to discuss religion and authenticity of Muhammad’s Call Quranic revelation to challenge the Christians
Revelation says: Surah 3: Ayah 61. "THEN SAY: LET US CALL UPON OUR CHILDREN AND YOUR CHILDREN, OUR LADIES AND YOUR LADIES, OURSELVES AND YOURSELVES, THEN WE PRAY SO THAT ALLAH'S WRATH WILL BE UPON THOSE WHO TELL UNTRUTH" فَمَنْ حَآجَّكَ فِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَمَنْ حَآجَّكَ فِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْاْ نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءنَا وَأَبْنَاءكُمْ وَنِسَاءنَا وَنِسَاءكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَةُ اللّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِين
Mubaahala II Challenging Du'aa to invoke Damnation on the Liar For the Challenge, Prophet Involved: Fatima, (his daughter) Ali, (Second in importance to him) Al-Hasan and Al-Husain (his grandchildren) Christians became Scared, they decline and retreat from challenge. They Agreed to pay Tribute
Farewell Haj 100,000 Muslim Participants Details of Haj Given Farewell Sermon They leave until Ghadeer Khum
Haj Multitude participated at the Farewell Haj For Centuries afterwards 50,000 or more perform the Haj Nowadays, 2-3 Million perform the Haj People hail from all over the world
Ghadeer Khum Mid-way between Mecca and Medina: Stop at Ghadeer Khum Having received Ayah to Declare:بلغ ما أُنزل إِليك Prophet announces to the massive crowd that: Ali is Appointed as the Wali (in charge of the Ummah) after the Prophet Gives a speech, part of which is: من كنت مولاه فهذا عليٌ مولاه اللهم وال من والاه وعاد من عاده وانصر من نصره واخذ من خذله وأدر الحق معه حيثما دار When done, Ayah of Fulfillment was revealed, Allah said in Surah 5: Ayah 3. الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الإِسْلاَمَ دِينًا
Fast Moving Events in Medina 1. Muhammad establishes basis for stability: Effecting Brotherhood 4. Khaybar, then letters to the Roman and Persian emperors and others The Prophet in Medina 6. Farewell Haj: followed by Ghadeer Khum appointing Ali 3. Hudaibiya Treaty with Quraish: Islam spreads fast 2. Against Quraish: Battles of Badr, then Ohod, then the Ditch 5. Conquering Mecca without blood shed: disbelievers forgiven
Death Prophet’s Sickness: for about 2 weeks Matters During Sickness: Prophet wanted to give a will, but was prevented Prophet Dies: The Ummah is in Shock Preparation of the Body by Ali for burial Salat Al-Mayyet then Internment
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