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Gender, Ethnicity and Technology Team Go Getters Edward Park Hong Chiu Mane Aslanian Matthew Moreno.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender, Ethnicity and Technology Team Go Getters Edward Park Hong Chiu Mane Aslanian Matthew Moreno."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender, Ethnicity and Technology Team Go Getters Edward Park Hong Chiu Mane Aslanian Matthew Moreno

2 1 st Generation Vacuum Tube years (1940-1956) The first generation computers were huge, slow, expensive, and often undependable. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly built the ENIAC electronic computer which used vacuum tubes instead of the mechanical switches like the Mark I. Vacuum tubes purpose was to act like an amplifier and a switch. Edward Park

3 2 nd Generation The Era of the Transistor (1956-1963) In 1947, John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain invented the Transistor The transistor was faster, more reliable, smaller, and much cheaper to build than a vacuum tube. Transistors were found to conduct electricity faster and better than vacuum tubes. Edward Park

4 3 rd Generation Integrated Circuits - Miniaturizing the Computer (1964-1971) Robert Noyce and Jack Kilby independently discovered the amazing attributes of integrated circuits. The integrated circuit packs a huge number of transistors onto a single wafer of silicon. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. Edward Park

5 4 th Generation Microprocessors (1971- Present) Thousands of integrated circuits are built onto a single silicon chip. Ted Hoff invented the microprocessor, which is a small chip that could do all the computing and logic work of a computer The microprocessor was initially made to be used in calculators, not computers. Edward Park

6 5 th Generation Artificial Intelligence (Present-Future) Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. A.I. includes game playing, expert systems, natural language, neural networks and robotics. Edward Park

7 What pioneering role did women have in terms of their contributions to computer technology? I-Hardware and machine design II-Software and Language Design III-Innovative Applications IV-Artificial Intelligence HONG CHIU

8 Hardware Margaret Butler: Helped develop one of the first digital computers of science Evelyn Berezin: helped design, develop and manufacture word processing systems HONG CHIU

9 Software and Language Design  Betty Snyder Holberton: Collaborated with others in the original programming of the first stored-program computer  Adele Mildred Coss: Created an Editing Generator, used to build an editing routine. programming knowledge. HONG CHIU

10 Software and Language Design(cont)  Margaret Harper: contributed to the development of tested programs  Garhart (“Casey”) Stone: Invented an interactive videodisk to teach independent thinking to hearing impaired children. HONG CHIU

11 Applications Joyce Wrenn: invented the application customizer. Janet Marie Dearholt Esty: Invented data management which in her words was “taking care of all the paper work and reporting requirements for government contracts”. Dr. Rosamond Gianutsos: Created a series of computer programs to help diagnose and treat brain-injured people. HONG CHIU

12 Artificial Intelligence Wendy Lehnert: won a presidential young investigator award for her work in artificial intelligence for trying to make computers think like humans. Karen Sparck-Jones: introduced the concept of inverse document frequency, it is used in most search engines today. Thelma Estrin: “Provided computer support for a variety of research projects”, expert in the application of computers to medical research and treatment HONG CHIU

13 What was UNIVAC? The UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) was the first commercial computer produced in the United States.United States It was designed for business and administrative use. This commercial computer weighted 29,000 pounds. It was designed principally by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, the inventors of the ENIAC.J. Presper EckertJohn MauchlyENIAC Mane Aslanian

14 Who were the women of ENIAC?ENIAC The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was the first general-purpose electronic computer. computer ENIAC was programmed by six women known as the "Rosies": Betty Snyder Holberton, Jean Jennings Bartik, Kathleen McNulty Mauchly Antonelli, Marlyn Wescoff Meltzer, Ruth Lichterman Teitelbaum and Frances Bilas."Rosies" The women had been recruited from their jobs calculating weapons trajectories during WWII. Mane Aslanian

15 Who was Ada, the Countess of Lovelace?Ada, the Countess of Lovelace Ada Lovelace was an Analyst, Metaphysician, and a Founder of Scientific Computing. Her understanding of mathematics was tied with imagination, and described in metaphors. She is known by some, as the world’s first computer programmer. Mane Aslanian

16 What were her contributions to computer science? When she was 17 she met a scientist named Charles Babbage, who recruited her as a translator for a new kind of calculating machine he was building. Her Notes on this project anticipated future developments, including computer-generated music. Her greatest contribution to computer science was known to be programming. Mane Aslanian

17 Rear Admiral Grace Hopper Born December 9, 1906 in New York Died January 1, 1992 in Virginia at age 85 Came from Family with Military Traditions Oldest of three children Matthew Moreno

18 Rear Admiral Grace Hopper cont. Attended Vassar College Graduated in 1928 with B.A. Worked under Oystein Ore at Yale Married Vincent Hopper 1930 Began Teaching in 1934 Associate Professor in 1941 Matthew Moreno

19 Rear Admiral Grace Hopper cont. Joined WAVES in December 1943 Commissioned a Lieutenant in July 1944 Graduated head of her class at the Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School at Smiths College in 1944 Served in the Navy from 1943 - 1986 Matthew Moreno

20 Rear Admiral Grace Hopper cont. Bureau of Ordinance Project at Harvard 1944 1949 joined the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation Invented the Compiler Received many recognitions Matthew Moreno

21 How are women still underrepresented in areas such as video games? Females makes less money on average than males.($ 64,643- $ 74,459) 1 in 5 workers in the video game industry are women and 3% of all game programmers are women. Historically more males have played video games compared to females. Hence the reason, more boys grow up and aspire to work in the video game industry while fewer women think of it as a career. HONG CHIU

22 Quiz What was the microprocessor initially made for? Who contributed to the development of one of the first digital computers? Who was known as the world’s first computer programmer? What is the name of the first digital computer Grace Hopper worked on?

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