Presentation on theme: "1. An expressway is a __________-access highway. 2. Vehicles can ______ and ________ expressways only at interchanges. 3. _________Interchange- is used."— Presentation transcript:
1. An expressway is a __________-access highway. 2. Vehicles can ______ and ________ expressways only at interchanges. 3. _________Interchange- is used where a side road forms a T intersection with an expressway. This design is used when there are only two directional choices rather than three from each direction. 4. Although expressways have advantages over other types off road ways, collisions on expressways are often more serious because of the excessive _________. 5. Plan stops for rest, food, and fuel. 6. Once in the ___________ lane, gradually increase your speed to that of expressway traffic. 7. The main factors in determining your speed on an acceleration lane are the amount and _______of traffic in front of you and on the expressway. 8.If you make an error and enter the wrong entrance ramp, continue onto the expressway. Drive to the next exit. Never _________on an entrance ramp or on an expressway. 9. Some ramps have ______ _______ to help space the traffic entering the expressway. Chapter Review 10. Must have a ________ light to enter the expressway. 11. If you see a wrong way or do not enter sign you are entering an exit ramp or driving the _______ _____on the interstate. 12. The regular “______” sign means that the traffic coming from the right is going to need to merge into the existing right hand traffic lane. Drivers on the interstate should be aware and be cautious of this incoming traffic. controlled enter leave Trumpet speeds acceleration speed back up signal lights wrong way merge green
Chapter Review 13. Higher speeds on the expressway, multiple lanes to watch, and heavier volumes of traffic make the identify step of the IPDE process more________. 14. Generally, the _______lane is safer to drive in and the left lane is used to pass. 15. When traffic is heavy in the right lane, especially at entrance ramps during rush hour traffic, use the _______or left lane to avoid conflict in the far right lane. 16. Expressways may have lane ________ ______ that will tell you if the lane is open or closed to traffic. 17. _________speed limit- the slowest you can legally drive and It keeps traffic from moving slow. 18. Stay at least ____seconds behind vehicles in front of you, and increase this space to a minimum of four seconds in bad weather, night driving and on higher speed rural sections of the interstate. 19. Avoid driving beside of, or between two ______ because of their extremely large blind spot areas. 20. Change _____ lane at a time. Signal every lane change. 21. Passing on the expressway is usually ________ than on a two-lane highway because there is little threat of a head-on collision. 22. Passing on the left is common on expressways. However, passing on the ______ is permitted if a slower driver is in the left lane. 23. If you are continually being passed on the right, move to the lane on your______ when it is safe to do so. difficult right center control signals minimum two trucks one safer right
24. Remember: If you miss the exit you want, go on to the _________. Never stop or back up if you go past your exit. 25. Identify exit-ramp ________sign and adjust to posted speed. 26. Highway hypnosis- being lulled into an inattentive, drowsy 27. If an expressway lane is closed, use only lanes that are _______ for traffic. 28.Check rear zones, signal, and pull as far as possible onto the shoulder or median. (All ____ _______ off any traveled highway) 29.Tennessee law requires that motorists yield the lane _______ to any emergency, maintenance or recovery vehicle that is stopped on the shoulder of the roadway. This applies to interstates and any multi-lane highway (with four or more lanes) that has at least two lanes of traffic traveling in the same direction. next exit speed open four wheels closest
Chapter 11 Expressway Driving Chapter 11 discusses steps for entering, driving on, and exiting expressways. You will also learn about special problems encountered on expressways.
11.1 Characteristics of Expressway Driving This section will introduce you to the characteristics of expressway driving. The advantages of expressways as well as the physical characteristics of expressway interchanges are also introduced. Strategies for safe driving on expressways are included. Section 1 Objectives: Following this section, I will be able to: 1.List five reasons why expressways have lower collision rates than other highways. 2.Describe four different types of expressway interchanges. 3. List strategies for low-risk driving on expressways.
Characteristics of Expressway Driving An expressway is a controlled-access highway. Vehicles can enter and leave expressways only at interchanges. Expressways include: interstate highways, freeways, turnpikes, toll roads, parkways, and some beltways.
Advantages of Expressways 1. Cross traffic is eliminated.
Advantages of Expressways 2.Median or barrier between opposing lanes of traffic.
3.Pedestrians, non-motorized vehicles, and SMVs are not permitted on most expressways. Advantages of Expressways
4.Wide shoulders and extra-wide underpasses provide good escape paths. Advantages of Expressways
5.Signs are designed to help drivers anticipate conditions well ahead of time to make a decision. Advantages of Expressways
Expressway Interchanges 1.Cloverleaf Interchange- looks like a four-leaf clover (this allows for left turns) with a diamond (this allows right turns to be made)
2.Diamond interchange- a road with little traffic crosses a busy expressway (think of highways 109 and 100). Cloverleaf is not needed as left turns can be made on less busy road with out too much trouble Expressway Interchanges
3.Trumpet Interchange- is used where a side road forms a T intersection with an expressway. This design is used when there are only two directional choices rather than three from each direction.
Expressway Interchanges 4.All-Directional Interchange- is used in complicated intersections with high-volume traffic. Traffic is channeled in many different directions
Although expressways have advantages over other types of roadways, collisions on expressways are often more serious because of the excessive speeds. Travel at about the same speed as other vehicles without exceeding the speed limit. Driving too fast or too slow can be a traffic hazard. Follow the maximum and minimum posted speed limits. Drive with your headlights on so that you will be more easily seen. Safe Driving Strategies
Have a plan for your trip. Know the name, route, or number for both the entrance and exit you will use. Plan stops for rest, food, and fuel. Use IPDE Process and be aware of conditions in your zones at all times. Keep your vehicle in top condition to guard against mechanical failure. Prepare Yourself and Your Vehicle
Traffic conflicts can develop more rapidly at higher speeds and on multilane expressways. Give full attention to the driving task. Do not become complacent. Expressway driving can present a high degree of risk. Concentrate on the Driving Task
11.2 Entering an Expressway This section focuses on entering expressways. It also addresses possible entrance problems. Section 2 Objectives: Following this section, I will be able to: 1. Explain how to enter and expressway properly. 2. Describe four possible entrance problems. 3. Explain why entering and expressway from the left is more hazardous than entering from the right.
Make sure the entrance is the one you want. Check your front and rear zones, signal, check your rearview mirrors and over your left shoulder to find a gap in the traffic where you can safely merge. Once in the acceleration lane, gradually increase your speed to that of expressway traffic. Continue looking in your rearview mirrors and over your shoulder while determining when it is safe to merge into the gap in traffic. The main factors in determining your speed on an acceleration lane are the amount and speed of traffic in front of you and on the expressway. Steps for Entering an Expressway
Before merging, decide which vehicle you are going to follow in the flow of the expressway traffic. Adjust your speed to match the traffic flow as you enter the merging area. Position your vehicle to merge smoothly. Once onto the expressway, cancel your signal and adjust to the speed of traffic. Maintain a safe space cushion. Steps for Entering an Expressway
Possible Entrance Problems If you make an error and enter the wrong entrance ramp, continue onto the expressway. Drive to the next exit. Never back up on an entrance ramp or on an expressway. Other vehicles on entrance ramp- Short entrance ramp or no acceleration lane- Line of sight restrictions-
Entrance Ramp Signs and Signals Some ramps have signal lights to help space the traffic entering the expressway. Lights are usually red and green. Timing of light is determined electronically by thevolume of traffic. Must have a green light to enter the expressway. If you see a wrong way or do not enter sign you are entering an exit ramp or driving the wrong way on the interstate.
Entrance Ramp Signs and Signals The “lane added” sign means that there is a new right lane added to the interstate/roadway for the incoming traffic. The on- ramp becomes a new lane and the entering traffic does not need to merge immediately. Traffic on the interstate should avoid making lane changes to the right at this location because the entering traffic will not be expecting vehicles to move Into their travel path. The regular “merge” sign means that the traffic coming from the right is going to need to merge into the existing right hand traffic lane. Drivers on the interstate should be aware and be cautious of this incoming traffic.
Acceleration Lane Problems Certain time periods are more difficult to enter an expressway than others. Acceleration lanes may be short making spacing and merging more difficult. You will need a larger gap to enter traffic flow. Try to enter the expressway without stopping. If you must stop: 1. flash your brake lights 2. pull onto the shoulder at the end of the acceleration lane or merge area 4. wait for a large, safe gap. Signal and accelerate quickly to join the flow of traffic.
Merging Area Problems Adjusting your speed is critical to timing a smooth entrance into traffic. A closed front zone may cause you to reduce your speed. Once on the expressway, accelerate as you establish a safe following distance.
Entrance Ramp on Left A few ramps will have you enter traffic from the left. This is more dangerous than entering from the right as you are entering into the fast lane of traffic. Check your rearview mirrors and over your right shoulder for blind spots. Your view may be obstructed due to head restraints and roof supports. It may be more difficult to see a small car or a motorcyclist. Signal, look for a gap, accelerate and merge into the traffic lane.
11.3 Strategies for Driving on Expressways This section focuses on strategies for driving on expressways. Use of the IPDE Process is emphasized. Section 3 Objectives: Following this section, I will be able to: 1. Explain how to use the IPDE Process to achieve a safe path of travel. 2. Describe when following distances should be increased for expressway driving. 3. Tell what actions to take when you are being tailgated. 4. Describe three actions that should be automatic when you are changing lanes on an expressway.
Applying the IPDE Process Higher speeds on the expressway, multiple lanes to watch, and heavier volumes of traffic make the identify step of the IPDE process more difficult.
Lane Choice Decide which lane is the best lane to drive in. Generally, the right lane is safer to drive in and the left lane is used to pass. Center and left lanes are used by faster moving vehicles and drivers who are passing. The right lane may have heavy traffic during rush hours as drivers try to merge onto the expressway.
Lane Selection Each lane of the expressway presents a certain amount of stress for drivers. Driving in the left lane is the most stressful of all lanes. This is where aggressive, competitive tailgaters are most likely to be found. Driving in the right lane has the least amount of stress from rear traffic, but the most stress from vehicles exiting and entering the highway. Because restrictions prevent trucks from driving in the left lane of certain roadways, the middle lane becomes their passing lane. When traffic is heavy in the right lane, especially at entrance ramps during rush hour traffic, use the center or left lane to avoid conflict in the far right lane.
Part of your decision with regard to which lane to use can be determined from expressway signs, signals, and roadway markings. Know your destination, read the signs and roadway markings, and always think ahead. Scan the expressway signs quickly to get the information that you need. Signs, Signals, and Roadway Markings
Signs, Signals, and Roadway Markings Expressways may have lane control signals that will tell you if the lane is open or closed to traffic.
In Tennessee the maximum speed limit for rural areas is 70 mph with a Minimum speed limit of 45. Speed Limits
In Tennessee the maximum speed limit for urban areas is 55 mph with a Minimum speed limit of 45. Minimum speed limit- the slowest you can legally drive and It keeps traffic from moving slow. If no speed limit is posted, follow the basic speed law (drive at a speed that is safe and prudent for the weather and roadway conditions). In Tennessee the minimum speed limit on the interstate is 45 mph. Speed Limits
Common speed- the speed used by most drivers. It will help you blend in better. Resist the temptation to keep up with the faster drivers. Wolf packs- bunches of vehicles being driven together on the expressway. Speed Limits
Stay at least two seconds behind vehicles in front of you, and increase this space to a minimum of four seconds in bad weather, night driving and on higher speed rural sections of the interstate. Following
Increase your following distance when you are: 1. following a large vehicle that is blocking your vision 2. following a motorcyclist 3. driving in bad weather or road conditions 4. driving in heavy traffic 5. being tailgated 6. pulling a trailer 7. operating a motorcycle 8. entering or exiting an expressway Following
Occur in both your right and left-rear zones. Check these often and be alert for other drivers who may be passing you. When behind a vehicle in the next lane, stay back far enough to not be in that driver’s blind spot. Reduce your speed or accelerate in order to stay out of the blind spot. Blind Spots
Avoid driving beside of, or between two trucks because of their extremely large blind spot areas.
Lane Changing Keep lane changing to a minimum as unnecessary weaving may cause a collision. Follow these steps in changing lanes on the expressway: Change one lane at a time. Signal every lane change. Check inside and outside rearview mirrors and the blind spot area in the direction that you want to go. If path is clear, accelerate gently and move to the next lane. Cancel signal after changing lanes.
Passing and Being Passed Passing on the expressway is usually safer than on a two-lane highway because there is little threat of a head-on collision. Passing on the left is common on expressways. However, passing on the right is permitted if a slower driver is in the left lane. If you are continually being passed on the right, move to the lane on your right when it is safe to do so. You are in a potentially dangerous position if you are being passed on both the right and left. Move to the right lane and blend in with the flow of traffic.
11.4: Exiting Expressways This section focuses on exiting expressways properly. It also addresses possible exit problems. Section 4 Objectives: Following this section, I will be able to: 1. Explain how to apply the IPDE Process to exit and expressway. 2. List the steps for exiting an expressway. 3. Describe three possible exiting problems.
Exiting Expressways Leaving an expressway safely requires advanced planning and skill. Remember: If you miss the exit you want, go on to the next exit. Never stop or back up if you go past your exit. Use the IPDE Process to plan your exit.
Steps for Exiting Check front and rear zones at least ½ mile in advance of exit. Signal and move into correct lane for exit. Do not reduce your speed until you are in the deceleration lane. 2. Move into deceleration lane and cancel your signal. 3. Flash brakes lights to warn drivers you are slowing down. Check your rear zones. Slow gradually and keep a safe space cushion ahead and behind you. 4. Identify exit-ramp speed sign and adjust to posted speed. Predict a STOP or YILED sign at the end of the exit ramp
Possible Exiting Problems Ramp overflow- traffic is backed up on the exit ramp onto the expressway (go on to next exit; check your rear zone and flash brake lights; do not pull onto the shoulder. Short deceleration lane- will cause you to slow more quickly (check your rear zone and: judge the lane’s length; identify the exit-ramp speed; check speed while braking; check your traffic in rear zone again).
11.5: Special Expressway Problems This section focuses on problems one might encounter on expressways, including highway hypnosis and vehicle breakdowns. It also discusses factors that affect safe driving on expressways. Section 5 Objectives: Following this section, I will be able to: 1. Describe the cause of highway hypnosis and tell what actions to take to stay alert. 2. Explain what to do if your vehicle becomes disabled. 3. List three key factors that contribute to safe driving on expressways. 4. Explain procedures for stopped emergency vehicles
Driver Condition Driving for long periods of time can affect drivers. Highway hypnosis- being lulled into an inattentive, drowsy state. Fall-asleep collisions- more than 1000,000 collisions are caused by this each year. All drivers are at risk of this happening. Velocitation- condition of unconsciously driving too fast as a result of driving for long periods at high speeds
Roadway Conditions. Expressways through cities- usually have more exit and entrance ramps than rural areas. Use the IPDE Process. 2. Roadway repair- Be alert for repair zones. Watch for signs and speed limit signs. Reduce your speed and follow directions of construction workers. If an expressway lane is closed, use only lanes that are open for traffic. (Fines are often doubled for speeding in construction zones). Rural interstate highways- watch for highway hypnosis and velocitation. Try not to let larger vehicles tailgate you.
Roadway Conditions Tollbooths- you pay a fee (toll) for driving on that expressway. Look for green light to indicate open lane. Three types of toll booths: 1. Automatic- driver deposits exact change (coins) into a machine 2. Attendant operated- for those who need to make change or for larger vehicles 3. Electronically operated- drivers pre-pay and get an electronic device. The electronic device automatically subtracts the toll charge from the prepaid account when driver goes through tollbooth
Disabled Vehicle If you encounter trouble with your vehicle and it becomes disabled, follow these steps: 1. Check rear zones, signal, and pull as far as possible onto the shoulder or median. (All four wheel off any traveled highway) 2. Turn on hazard signals. Get everyone out of the car and away from traffic if the vehicle is not very far off of the road. 3.Raise the hood, tie a while cloth to the antenna or door handle. Call for help if you have a cell phone. 4. Use emergency flares or reflectors if you have them. Set them out 500 feet behind your vehicle. 5. Get back into your vehicle and lock the doors. Never get into a stranger’s vehicle. If someone stops to offer assistance, have them call to get help for you. 6. Do not stand in the expressway to direct traffic.
Move Over Law Tennessee law requires that motorists yield the lane closest to any emergency, maintenance or recovery vehicle that is stopped on the shoulder of the roadway. This applies to interstates and any multi-lane highway (with four or more lanes) that has at least two lanes of traffic traveling in the same direction.