# CSC 231 Queues 1 Devon M. Simmonds University of North Carolina, Wilmington TIME: Tuesday/Thursday 11:11:50am in 1012 & Thursday 3:30-5:10pm in 2006. Office.

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CSC 231 Queues 1 Devon M. Simmonds University of North Carolina, Wilmington TIME: Tuesday/Thursday 11:11:50am in 1012 & Thursday 3:30-5:10pm in 2006. Office hours: TR 1-2pm or by appointment. Office location: CI2046. Email: simmondsd[@]uncw.edu

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 2 Objectives After completing this lecture, you will be able to: Describe the behavior of a queue from a user’s perspective Explain how a queue can be used to support a simulation Describe the use of a queue in scheduling processes for computational resources

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 3 Objectives (continued) Explain the difference between a queue and a priority queue Describe a case where a queue would be used rather than a priority queue Analyze the performance trade-offs between an array-based implementation of a queue and a linked implementation of a queue

CSC 231 The Queue ADT A queue is a linear list in which items are added at one end of the queue called its rearand removed from the other end called its front. The Queue ADT (FIFO) ▫Queue S = {s 1 s 2 s 3 … s N } ▫Operations:  enqueue(item) - adds a new item to the rear of the queue.  dequeue():item - removes and return item at the front of the queue.  peek ():item- returns item at the front of the queue, queue is unchanged.  isEmpty() – returns True when the queue is empty.  size() - returns the number of items in the queue. 4

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 5 Overview of Queues

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 6 Overview of Queues (continued) Insertions are restricted to one end (rear) Removals are restricted to one end (front) Queues supports a first-in first-out (FIFO) protocol Fundamental operations: enqueue and dequeue Item dequeued, or served next, is always the item that has been waiting the longest Priority queue: Higher-priority items are dequeued first; equal priority items dequeued in FIFO order Most queues in CS involve scheduling access to shared resources: CPU/Disk/Printer access

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 7 The Queue Interface and Its Use You can use a Python list to emulate a queue ▫Use append to add an element to rear of queue ▫Use pop to remove an element from front of queue ▫Drawback: Queue can be manipulated by all of the other list operations as well  Violate spirit of queue as ADT We define a more restricted interface, or set of operations, for any queue implementation and show how these operations are used

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 8 Two Applications of Queues We now look briefly at two applications of queues: ▫One involving computer simulations ▫The other involving round-robin CPU scheduling

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 9 Simulations Computer simulations are used to study behavior of real- world systems, especially if it is impractical or dangerous to experiment with these systems directly ▫Example: Mimic traffic flow on a busy highway Another example: Manager of supermarket wants to determine number of checkout cashiers to schedule at various times of the day and must consider: ▫Frequency with which new customers arrive ▫Number of checkout cashiers available ▫Number of items in a customer’s shopping cart ▫Period of time considered

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 10 Simulations (continued) Simulations avoid need for formulas by imitating actual situation and collecting pertinent statistics Simple technique to mimic variability: ▫Suppose new customers are expected to arrive on average once every four minutes ▫During each minute of simulated time, a program can generate a random number between 0 and 1 ▫If number is less than 1/4, program adds a new customer to a checkout line; otherwise, it does not  Probability distribution functions produce more realistic results

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 11 Simulations (continued) Examples presented involve service providers and service consumers ▫We associate each service provider with a queue of service consumers Simulations operate by manipulating these queues ▫At each tick of an imaginary clock, add consumer(s) to the queues and give consumers at the head of each queue another unit of service OO methods can be used to implement simulations

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 12 Simulations (continued) Example: Supermarket simulation ▫A Customer object keeps track of when the customer starts standing in line, when service is first received, and how much service is required ▫A Cashier object has a queue of customer objects ▫A simulator object coordinates customer/cashier activities by doing the following at each clock tick:  Generates new customer objects as appropriate  Assigns customers to cashiers  Tells each cashier to provide one unit of service to the customer at the head of the queue

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 13 Round-Robin CPU Scheduling Each process on the ready queue is dequeued in turn and given a slice of CPU time Improvement: Can use a priority queue

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 14 An Array Implementation Array implementation of a queue must access items at the logical beginning and the logical end ▫Doing this in computationally effective manner is complex ▫We approach problem in a sequence of three attempts

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 15 A First Attempt Fixes front of queue at position 0 rear variable points to last item at position n – 1 ▫n is the number of items in queue Analysis: ▫ enqueue is efficient  O(1) ▫ dequeue entails shifting all but first item  O(n) for static arrays

CSC 231 A Python Queue Class (1) 16 # Implementation of a queue ADT class Queue: def __init__(self): self.items = [] def is_empty(self): return self.items == [] def enqueue(self, item): self.items.append(item) def dequeue(self): return self.items.pop(0) def peek(self): return self.items[len(self.items)-1] def size(self): return len(self.items) def getQueue(self): return self.items def main(): s = Queue() print(s.is_empty()) for n in range(7): s.enqueue(n*10) print(s.getQueue()) main() # front is at position 0

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 17 A Second Attempt Fixes rear of queue at position 0 front variable points to last item at position n – 1 ▫n is the number of items in queue Analysis: ▫ dequeue is efficient  O(1) ▫ enqueue entails shifting all but first item  O(n) rear of queue front of queue

CSC 231 A Python Queue Class (1) 18 # Implementation of a queue ADT class Queue: def __init__(self): self.items = [] def is_empty(self): return self.items == [] def enqueue(self, item): self.items.insert(0, item) def dequeue(self): return self.items.pop() def peek(self): return self.items[len(self.items)-1] def size(self): return len(self.items) def getQueue(self): return self.items def main(): s = Queue() print(s.is_empty()) for n in range(7): s.enqueue(n*10) print(s.getQueue()) main() # rear is at position 0

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 19 A Third Attempt Maintain a second index ( front ) that points to item at front of queue ▫Starts at 0 and advances as items are dequeued Analysis: ▫ dequeue is O(1) ▫Maximum running time of enqueue is O(n)

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 20 A Fourth Attempt (non-Python static arrays) Use a circular array implementation ▫ rear starts at –1; front starts at 0 ▫ front chases rear pointer through the array ▫When a pointer is about to run off the end of the array, it is reset to 0 Running times of enqueue and dequeue are O(1)

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 21 A Fourth Attempt (non-Python static arrays) (continued) What happens when the queue becomes full? ▫Maintain a count of the items in the queue ▫When this count equals the size of the array: Resize ▫After resizing, we would like queue to occupy initial segment of array, with front pointer set to 0  If front pointer is less than rear pointer  Copy positions 0 through size-1 in new array  If rear pointer is less than front pointer  Copy positions 0 through size-front and size – front + 1 through size-1 in new array ▫Resizing process is linear

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 22 Deques A dequeue is a double ended queue: ▫It has two ends, front and rear. ▫Items can be added at either end. ▫Items can be removed from either end. The deque ADT  add_front(item) - adds a new item to the front of the queue.  add_rear(item) - adds a new item to the rear of the queue.  remove_front():item - removes and return item at the front of the queue.  remove_rear():item - removes and return item at the rear of the queue.  is_empty() :bool– returns True when the deque is empty.  size():int - returns the number of items in the deque.

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 23 Deque Application: Palindrome Checker A palindrome is a string that reads the same forward and backward. ▫Radar, madam ▫Marge let a moody baby doom a telegram ▫Noel sees Leon A deque may to used validate if a string is a palindrome def pal_checker(a_string): dq = Dequeu() for ch in a_string: dq.add_rear(ch) still_equal = True while (dq.size() > 1 and still_equal): first = dq.remove_front() last = dq.remove_rear() if(first != last): still_equal = False return still_equal print(pal_checker(“noel sees Leon"))

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 24 Priority Queues A priority queue is a specialized type of queue ▫Items added to queue are assigned an order of rank ▫Items of higher priority are removed before those of lower priority ▫Items of equal priority are removed in FIFO order ▫Item A has a higher priority than item B if A < B ▫Objects that recognize the comparison operators can be ordered in priority queues  If not, object can be wrapped with a priority number in another object that does recognize these operators

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 25 Priority Queues (continued)

CSC 231 26

CSC 231 27 Classes A Python class uses variables to store data fields and defines methods to perform actions. Additionally, a class provides a special type method, known as initializer, which is invoked to create a new object. An initializer can perform any action, but initializer is designed to perform initializing actions, such as creating the data fields of objects. class ClassName: initializer methods

CSC 231 28 Constructing Objects Once a class is defined, you can create objects from the class by using the following syntax, called a constructor: className(arguments)

CSC 231 29 Instance Methods Methods are functions defined inside a class. They are invoked by objects to perform actions on the objects. For this reason, the methods are also called instance methods in Python. You probably noticed that all the methods including the constructor have the first parameter self, which refers to the object that invokes the method. You can use any name for this parameter. But by convention, self is used.

CSC 231 30 Accessing Objects After an object is created, you can access its data fields and invoke its methods using the dot operator (.), also known as the object member access operator. For example, the following code accesses the radius data field and invokes the getPerimeter and getArea methods. >>> from Circle import Circle >>> c = Circle(5) >>> c.getPerimeter() 31.41592653589793 >>> c.radius = 10 >>> c.getArea() 314.1592653589793

CSC 231 31 Why self? Note that the first parameter is special. It is used in the implementation of the method, but not used when the method is called. So, what is this parameter self for? Why does Python need it? self is a parameter that represents an object. Using self, you can access instance variables in an object. Instance variables are for storing data fields. Each object is an instance of a class. Instance variables are tied to specific objects. Each object has its own instance variables. You can use the syntax self.x to access the instance variable x for the object self in a method.

CSC 231 Classes & UML Design is an important part of software development. Without proper design, programs tend to be error prone. UML – the Unified Modeling Language, is a graphical language for software design. 32 Student Id:Integer Addr:String graduate(term:String):int A UML class Corresponding Python class class Student (): def __init__(id): self.id = id #integer self.addr = Address() def graduate (term): #code here

CSC 231 33 Example: Defining Classes and Creating Objects

CSC 231 34 The datetime Class from datetime import datetime d = datetime.now() print("Current year is " + str(d.year)) print("Current month is " + str(d.month)) print("Current day of month is " + str(d.day)) print("Current hour is " + str(d.hour)) print("Current minute is " + str(d.minute)) print("Current second is " + str(d.second))

CSC 231 35 Public and Private Class Members To protect data. To make class easy to maintain. 1. To prevent direct modifications of data fields 2. don’t let the client directly access data fields. 3. This is known as data field encapsulation. 4. This can be done by defining private data fields. a. In Python, the private data fields are defined with two leading underscores. 5. You can also define a private method named with two leading underscores.

CSC 231 36 Data Field Encapsulation >>> from CircleWithPrivateRadius import Circle >>> c = Circle(5) >>> c.__radius AttributeError: 'Circle' object has no attribute '__radius' >>> c.getRadius() 5 # Part of the Circle class class Circle(): def __init__(radius): self.__radius = radius #other code here

CSC 231 37 Design Guide If a class is designed for other programs to use, to prevent data from being tampered with and to make the class easy to maintain, define data fields private. If a class is only used internally by your own program, there is no need to encapsulate the data fields.

CSC 231 38 Designing a Loan Class

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 39 Case Study: Simulating a Supermarket Checkout Line Request: ▫Write program that allows user to predict behavior of supermarket checkout line under various conditions Analysis:

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 40 Case Study: Simulating a Supermarket Checkout Line (continued) The Interface: Classes and responsibilities: ▫We divide the system into a main function and several model classes

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 41 Case Study: Simulating a Supermarket Checkout Line (continued)

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 42 Case Study: Simulating a Supermarket Checkout Line (continued)

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 43 Case Study: Simulating a Supermarket Checkout Line (continued)

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 44 Case Study: An Emergency Room Scheduler Request: ▫Write a program that allows a supervisor to schedule treatments for patients coming into emergency room ▫Patients are assigned a priority when admitted  Higher priority patients receive attention first Analysis: ▫Patient priorities: critical, serious, and fair

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 45 Case Study: An Emergency Room Scheduler (continued)

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 46 Case Study: An Emergency Room Scheduler (continued)

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 47 Case Study: An Emergency Room Scheduler (continued) Classes: Design and Implementation: ▫ Patient and Condition classes maintain a patient’s name and condition ▫Patients can be compared (according to their conditions) and viewed as strings

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 48 Case Study: An Emergency Room Scheduler (continued)

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 49 Summary A queue is a linear collection that adds elements to the “rear” and removes them from the “front” Queues are used in applications that manage data items in a first-in, first-out order (FIFO) ▫Example: Scheduling items for processing or access to resources Arrays and singly linked structures support simple implementations of queues Priority queues schedule their elements using a rating scheme as well as a FIFO order

CSC 231 50 ______________________ Devon M. Simmonds Computer Science Department University of North Carolina Wilmington _____________________________________________________________ Qu es ti ons? Reading for next class?

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 51 Priority Queues (continued) Wrapper class used to build a comparable item from one that is not already comparable:

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 52 Priority Queues (continued) During insertions, a priority queue does not know whether it is comparing items in wrappers or just items When a wrapped item is accessed (e.g., with peek or dequeue ), it must be unwrapped with the method getItem before processing Two implementations: Sorted linked list or heap

CSC 231 Fundamentals of Python: From First Programs Through Data Structures 53 Search is linear, so enqueue is now O(n) Priority Queues (continued)

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