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SAFETY / NATOPS OUTLINE Cold Weather, Icing… Operating in high altitude environment Mountainous terrain and obstacles Mountain Wave Turbulence Night Time.

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Presentation on theme: "SAFETY / NATOPS OUTLINE Cold Weather, Icing… Operating in high altitude environment Mountainous terrain and obstacles Mountain Wave Turbulence Night Time."— Presentation transcript:

1 SAFETY / NATOPS OUTLINE Cold Weather, Icing… Operating in high altitude environment Mountainous terrain and obstacles Mountain Wave Turbulence Night Time Flying Safety VT-3 Roswell DET 20151

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3 KROW Forecast VT-3 Roswell DET 20153

4 T-6B NATOPS Pg. 7-3 ICE PROTECTION The aircraft has been approved only for transit through light rime icing conditions. Prolonged flight in known icing conditions is prohibited and must be avoided. OPNAVINST 3710.7U Icing and Thunderstorm Conditions Flights shall be planned to circumvent areas of forecast atmospheric icing and thunderstorm conditions whenever practicable. VT-3 Roswell DET 20154

5 Engine Start Higher amp draw up to -50 AMPS GPU recommended below -18°C / 0°F OIL PX may re-illuminate, if pressure is rising, continue. Should be in normal range in 2 minutes Ensure all backup instruments are operating, not “sluggish” OBOGS may malfunction. Allow time to warm up, and confirm good operation for 3 minutes VT-3 Roswell DET 20155

6 Taxi Taxi with caution Increase separation and stopping distance Nose wheel steering may be ineffective Painted areas are significantly more slippery Avoid taxiing in deep snow Brakes will not hold with PCL at max VT-3 Roswell DET 20156

7 WARNING ● Detection of icing from the rear cockpit is not probable due to the inability to see the windshield. ● Sustained operation in icing conditions is prohibited. The aircraft has been approved only for transit through a 5000-foot band of light rime ice. ● Aerobatics after an icing encounter is prohibited until ice accumulations on the aircraft are melted or sublimated. Maneuvers with ice accumulation are restricted to 30 degrees bank angle and 0 to 2 G’s normal acceleration, up to stall warning system activation. ● For the landing configuration and during the landing phase with ice accumulation, approach speed must be increased by 10 KIAS. To ensure safe landing, make sure that sufficient forward cockpit visibility exists from either the front or rear cockpit. VT-3 Roswell DET 20157

8 CANOPY DEFOG Canopy defog may not clear the windshield. If freezing conditions are occurring at the recovery runway, ensure that conditions will allow sufficient forward cockpit visibility from either the front or rear cockpit to ensure safe landing. VT-3 Roswell DET 20158

9 CANOPY DEFOG A reduction in flaps UP climb performance of up to 47% may be observed with the defog ON and the PCL retarded to maintain the ITT within limits. VT-3 Roswell DET 20159

10 INADVERTENT ICING ENCOUNTER The potential for an icing encounter exists anytime the aircraft is operated in visible moisture at outside air temperatures of 5 °C or below. If icing conditions are encountered, experience has shown that ice will form first on the windshield followed by buildups on the wing leading edges. If indications of icing are present, take action to exit the icing conditions by climbing, descending, or changing direction as required. VT-3 Roswell DET 201510

11 INADVERTENT ICING ENCOUNTER Visible moisture, OAT 5°C or below IOAT is not OAT until “corrected” Should appear at windshield, then wings 1.Get out of the icing conditions 2.Probes/Anti-ice verify on 3.Temp controller to Manual – avoid DUCT TEMP 4.Defog on 5.Evaporator blower on high VT-3 Roswell DET 201511

12 OAT Temp Correction PCL Pg P8 VT-3 Roswell DET 201512

13 Extreme Cold WX Altimeter Corrections VT-3 Roswell DET 201513

14 After an Icing Encounter Wait for sublimation/melting Controllability check Add 10 KIAS minimum to approach speed Limits: 5000’ light rime, after icing 30° AOB, 0- 2 G, up to normal stall indications VT-3 Roswell DET 201514

15 But how would I know? DD 175-1, the On Top has a specific section for icing and freezing level location Icing SIGMETS Several tools on the ADDS website display icing and freezing level locations VT-3 Roswell DET 201515

16 Types of Icing Structural – 0° to -40°C, most common -3° to - 12°C – Rime – Clear – Mixed Engine Icing – Increased ITT, decreased Np VT-3 Roswell DET 201516

17 Frost counts too A light coating of frost, though seemingly insignificant, can sufficiently disrupt the airflow over wings and control surfaces to alter the takeoff characteristics of an aircraft. A takeoff should never be attempted under such conditions. – NATOPS INSTRUMENT FLIGHT MANUAL – – AOPA.ORG – Wind tunnel and flight tests indicate that frost, ice, or snow formations having a thickness and surface roughness similar to medium or coarse sandpaper on the leading edge and upper surface of a wing can reduce wing lift by as much as 30 percent and increase drag by as much as 40 percent. VT-3 Roswell DET 201517

18 OPERATING IN HIGH ALTITUDE ENVIRONMENT Field ALT. (KROW): 3671 MSL (KROW): 3544 MSL (KSSR): 6814 MSL At constant IAS, a Altitude = TAS Result is a greater Ground speed Longer landing ground rolls Longer takeoffs distances VT-3 Roswell DET 201518

19 VT-3 Roswell DET 201519

20 VT-3 Roswell DET 201520

21 VT-3 Roswell DET 201521

22 Don’t Practice Flaps UP Landing on RNWY 12/30 when surface is WET. VT-3 Roswell DET 201522

23 BIG PICTURE VT-3 Roswell DET 201523

24 VT-3 Roswell DET 201524

25 KSSR Sierra Blanca VT-3 Roswell DET 201525

26 Mountain Wave Turbulence VT-3 Roswell DET 201526

27 Mode of Detection Visually – Lenticular Clouds VT-3 Roswell DET 201527

28 Satellite Imagery VT-3 Roswell DET 201528

29 Night Time Flying Safety VT-3 Roswell DET 201529

30 Statistics Night is 5 x more dangerous than day flying Night accidents are more likely to be fatal – 28% of fatal accidents occur at night Landings are 3 x more hazardous than takeoffs Most night accidents occur during DARK nights Recent night experience helps prevent accidents VT-3 Roswell DET 201530

31 Moonlight: Night vs. DARK Night A full moon gives over half a million times less light than the sun Half moon: 10% of a full moon Crescent moon: 1% of a full moon A moon low in the sky gives less light Landing at a well-lit airport in the middle of a city might as well not count for night-flying experience if the next landing is to be at a remote strip. VT-3 Roswell DET 201531

32 Illusions must be anticipated VT-3 Roswell DET 201532

33 Illusions: Banking seems like a climb 33 VT-3 Roswell DET 2015

34 Illusions: Black hole illusion VT-3 Roswell DET 201534

35 Illusions: Which light is closer? VT-3 Roswell DET 201535

36 Illusions A bright light seems closer A dim seems farther away But it may no be necessarily so VT-3 Roswell DET 201536

37 Illusions Which view out the windscreen shows a climb? VT-3 Roswell DET 201537

38 38 Illusions Answer: Neither. Nose up/nose low illusion VT-3 Roswell DET 2015

39 39 Illusions Planets, street lights False horizons Size illusions VT-3 Roswell DET 2015

40 40 Vertigo Vertigo is more common at night Flicker vertigo Vertigo avoidance – Don’t close your eyes – Don’t move your head in a turn VT-3 Roswell DET 2015

41 Maximum Elevation Figures VT-3 Roswell DET 201541

42 MEF Considerations Uncontrolled Ejection Altitudes: 6,000’ AGL Controlled Ejection Altitudes: 2,000’ AGL Spins: 1.FWOP: Spins/OCF altitude between 13,500 AGL – 22,000 MSL - Recovered by 10,000 MSL 2.FTI: Spins may be performed over a ceiling that does not exceed 4,500’ AGL 3.Spins prohibited below 10,000’MSL, above 22,000’ MSL Other Considerations DEGA: High Key, X-Key, Low Key, Base Key VT-3 Roswell DET 201542

43 Obstacles VT-3 Roswell DET 201543

44 Instruments OROCA MRA MCA MEA MOCA MSA ESA VT-3 Roswell DET 2015 44

45 CFIT What is CFIT? Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT) occurs when an airworthy aircraft under the control of a pilot is inadvertently flown into terrain, water, or an obstacle with inadequate awareness on the part of the pilot of the impending disaster. VT-3 Roswell DET 201545

46 CFIT Contributing factors Spatial disorientation visual illusions Task saturation Loss of Situational awareness CFIT Prevention Adequate mission preparation (Charts, Wx, NOTAMS) IMSAFE CRM RADALT ? VT-3 Roswell DET 201546

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