Presentation on theme: "Rifle Marksmanship A Shot Technique and firing in the Supported Position INSTRUCTION (PHASE 1): Supported Position Sight Alignment Breath Control Trigger."— Presentation transcript:
1 Rifle Marksmanship AShot Technique and firing in the Supported PositionINSTRUCTION (PHASE 1):Supported PositionSight AlignmentBreath ControlTrigger ControlSight PictureINSTRUCTION (PHASE 2)Sight AdjustmentTarget Scoring7A.1 Rifle Marksmanship Phase A: Familiarization Firing in the Supported PositionRifle marksmanship instruction should begin with learning the basic skills needed to fire accurate shots. New shooters’ first shots should be fired in the supported position where using a support to stabilize the rifle allows attention to be focused on basic skills. Instruction for this phase covers these topics:Supported Position. The supported position can be fired from prone, on the floor, or from a table or bench. The proper use of a simple support placed under the fore-end of the rifle stabilizes the movements of the rifle and gives new shooters better opportunities to master sight alignment, breath control, trigger control, sight picture and sight adjustment before advancing to the regular firing positions, standing, prone and kneeling.Sight Alignment. How to look through the sights and properly align them.Breath Control. How to breath and stop breathing to maximize rifle stability while the shot is fired.Trigger Control. How to properly release the trigger to fire a shot.Sight Picture. How to aim the aligned sights at a target.Sight Adjustment. How to adjust rifle sights so that shot groups are in the center of the target. Note: Training on sight adjustment is usually given after one or two sessions of firing have been completed.
2 Charging & Loading 1) Open action--pull bolt to rear 2) Charge pneumatic air rifle by opening and closing charging lever7A.2 Cocking and Loading:Before you can do any dry firing or live firing exercises, you must be able to cock, charge and load your air rifle.Dry Firing. To prepare a rifle for dry firing, simply pull the bolt fully to the rear to cock the trigger mechanism and then push it back forward to close the bolt. While dry firing, do not operate the charging lever to charge the mechanism with air and do not load a pellet in the action. Note: Some air rifles like the Daisy M888 and M887 (CO2) cannot be dry-fired; for those air rifles, an alternative to dry firing is to do aiming or holding exercises where the shooter strives to achieve a stable sight picture while aiming the rifle in position at the target.Loading for Live Firing--follow these steps:Load only after the Range Officer gives the command LOAD.Pull the bolt to the rear to open the action (always do this first).Open the charging lever, wait one full second with the charging lever fully open (to allow a full charge of air to enter the air chamber), then close the charging lever.Place a pellet on the loading port. Position the pellet so that the hollow or skirted end of the pellet is to the rear and the head or solid end is pointed forward.Push the bolt forward to close the action.The rifle is now loaded and ready to fire.3) Load air rifle by placing pellet in loading port and closing boltTo Dry-Fire: Open and close bolt without charging air or loading a pellet
3 Supported Position—Table or Bench Sit behind the rifle and rest--hold the rifle with both hands7A.3 The Supported PositionThe supported position may be fired from a table or bench or from the floor while lying on a shooting mat. A support must be placed under the rifle to give it steady support. A kneeling roll works well for this purpose if it is placed on a block or small box to give it proper height. The combination of a sand bag or other object that is 2-3 inches thick plus a kneeling roll will provide a support that is 6-8 inches high. A special adjustable support such as the one shown in the illustration above also works well. Follow these steps to get into a good, stable supported position:Place the support on the table or on the floor just ahead of the firing line.Sit or lie directly behind the support.Support the upper body with both elbows. Grasp the fore-end of the rifle with the left hand and place the butt-plate well up in the shoulder so that the head is erect.Adjust the height of the support so that the rifle sights point at the same level as the targets when the butt-plate is placed in the shoulder.Relax your body as much as possible so that the rifle lays on the rest and the rest steadies the rifle.Keep butt up in shoulder so you can look straight ahead through the rear sightLet the rifle lay on the rest--allow the rest to support and steady the rifle
4 Prone Supported Position 7A.4 Prone Supported PositionThe supported position may be fired either from a table or bench or from the floor while lying on a shooting mat. Where tables are not available, the prone supported position will work equally well. In this position, a support must also be placed under the rifle to give it steady support. The sling is not used in the supported prone position, but will be used later in the regular prone position. Follow these steps to get into a good, stable prone supported position:Lay a shooting mat or ground cloth on the firing point at a degree anglePlace the support on the floor just ahead of the firing line.Lie behind the support with the body at a slight angle to the line of fire.Support the upper body with both elbows. Grasp the fore-end of the rifle with the left hand and place the butt-plate well up in the shoulder so that the head is erect.Adjust the height of the support so that the rifle sights point at the same level as the targets when the butt-plate is placed in the shoulder.Relax your body as much as possible so that the rifle lays on the rest and the rest steadies the rifle.
5 Sight AlignmentRear sight aperture7A.5 Sight Alignment:To aim the rifle and fire a shot, it is necessary to look through the sights and align them so that the rifle can be pointed at the target by using its aligned sights. Sight alignment simply means seeing the front sight centered in the rear sight aperture. Sight alignment is the first step in accurate aiming.To align the sights on your air rifle:Place the rifle in position with the butt-plate on your shoulder.Lower your head to the stock.Look through the small opening or aperture in the rear sight.See the front sight hood and ring in the center of the rear sight aperture.Look for a series of concentric rings—front sight ring, front sight hood and rear aperture.Your sights are now correctly aligned and you can go to the next step in firing the shot.Rear sight apertureFront sight with ring insertRest your cheek on the stock and look through the aperture (opening) in the rear sightLook through the rear sight aperture—see the front sight in the center of the aperture
6 Stop breathing during aiming Breath ControlStop breathing during aiming7A.6 Breath Control:Question: If you try to aim the rifle at a target, can you hold it steady if you continue to breath while aiming? Answer: No, each breath you take will move the rifle and sights away from the target.Question: If breathing while aiming causes the rifle to be unsteady, how do you solve this problem? Answer: Stop breathing or hold your breath while aiming.Breath control, which means to stop breathing while aiming and attempting to fire a shot is the next step in firing an accurate shot. To properly control your breath:Align your sights and begin to aim at the target.Inhale and exhale one or two more times.Exhale and stop breathing (stop breathing at the end of the natural respiratory cycle/after exhaling).Continue to hold your breath while attempting to fire the shot. This should not last longer than eight or ten seconds.To hold the rifle steady while aiming, you must stop breathing. Breathe normally, when aiming begins, exhale and stop breathing (hold your breath) until the shot is fired.
7 Aiming--Sight Picture To aim, point the aligned sights at the bull's-eye on the targetThe bull’s-eye will not sit perfectly still—center the front sight movements over the bull’s-eye!7A.7 Aiming—Sight Picture:Aiming is a two step process. First, the front and rear sights on the rifle must be aligned by looking through the rear sight to see the front sight in the rear sight aperture. That is called sight alignment. The second step is to point the aligned sights at the target by centering the bulls-eye on the target in the front sight ring. When the bull's-eye is centered in the front sight ring, with the front and rear sights aligned, that is called sight picture.One of the important things for new shooters to understand is that unless the rifle is held by a very steady rest, the front sight will not stay perfectly centered over the bull's-eye while aiming at the target. Instead there will be some movement. In the supported position, the movement will be quite small and it should be possible to hold the bull's-eye well within the front sight ring. In the standing position, the movements can be quite large, especially for new shooters. The important thing is to just to do the best you can to relax and center the front sight movements over the bull's-eye.
8 Trigger ControlTrigger Control: The smooth release of the cocked trigger while aiming at the target.TRIGGER CONTROL TIPS:Place finger on trigger and take up the trigger slack when first starting to aimWhen the sights are properly aligned, press the trigger straight to the rear as smoothly as possibleTrigger release must be STEADY & SMOOTH—takes 2-4 secondsDry firing is a great way to practice trigger control7A.8 Trigger Control:Proper trigger control is critical to the firing of an accurate shot. Trigger control means smoothly releasing the cocked trigger, while aiming at the target, so that the aim of the rifle is not disturbed. Consider these things when learning to properly control the trigger on an air rifle:Start to aim at the target before placing the finger on the trigger.Place the first section of the index finger squarely on the trigger.Take up the slack or free play (first stage) in the trigger first, then focus on aiming at the target. Center the front sight movements over the bulls-eye.While aiming at the target continue to apply pressure until the trigger releases. This gradual application of pressure on the trigger should take two to five seconds to complete.Be sure to apply pressure on the trigger as smoothly as possible. Continue to aim at the target for a second or so after the trigger releases. Continuing to aim after the shot fires is called “follow through.”
9 Range Firing Exercises Supported Position, with blank targetDry firingLive fire, 5-shot groupsSupported Position, with bull’s-eye targetDry firing or aiming exercise (holding)Live fire, 5-shot groups--try to shoot smallest possible group7A.9 Range Firing ExercisesAfter receiving gun safety instruction and successfully completing your safety exam and now after going through this brief instruction on the supported position and the basics of firing the shot, you are ready to fire your first shots at targets.The best way to do your first live firing is to hang your targets backwards and shoot on a blank target first. Get into the supported position. Make sure your rifle support is high enough that it fully supports the rifle. Start by dry firing or doing aiming exercises on your blank target. This will let you become comfortable with the position and how the trigger feels when you release it. Next, after a few minutes of dry firing or aiming, your instructor will give you the commands to start firing. At first, you should fire 5-shot groups. If you point your aligned sights at the center of your blank target and smoothly press the trigger, your shots should form a cluster or “group” somewhere on the target. At this point, it does not matter whether your shots are in the center of the target, only that you have them together in a group.After firing three or four 5-shot groups on a blank target, it will be time to turn the target around and fire 5-shot groups on the bulls-eye target. Here, be sure to center the bulls-eye in the front sight ring and smoothly press the trigger. Again, it does not matter where your shot group is on the target, only that you have your shots together in a group.
10 Sight Adjustment Scoring PHASE 2 INSTRUCTIONSight AdjustmentScoring7A.10 Phase 2 InstructionPhase 2 instruction should be covered after Phase 1 instruction has been given and cadets have all had an opportunity to shoot a series of 5-shot groups on blank targets as well as on regular targets with bull’s-eyes.An excellent gauge as to whether a new shooter is ready for the next phase of instruction covering sight adjustment and scoring is whether a quarter will cover the best 5-shot groups. If you can cover your 5-shot groups with a quarter, you are ready to advance.If you cannot yet cover your shot groups with a quarter, here are some things you should work on to reduce the size of your shot groups:Your Supported Position: Is the rest truly supporting the rifle so that your arms are relaxed?Breath Control: Do you stop breathing (hold your breath) while attempting to fire the shot?Sight Picture: Carefully center the bull’s-eye in the exact center of the front sight ring.Trigger Control: Do you take up the trigger slack (first stage) when you start to aim? Are you really pressing the trigger smoothly and slowly?
11 Shot Group Analysis 7A.11 Analyzing Your Shot Groups After firing a shot group, it is important to analyze it to see what you can learn from it. Here are two extreme examples of the types of shot groups that new shooters may fire. The shot group on the left is a very large shot group that indicates the firer is doing one or more things wrong. If you have a shot group like this, it is important to again ask yourself these questions:Are you using the support to hold the rifle steady?Are you centering the front sight ring over the bulls-eye?Do you stop breathing while you attempt to fire the shot?Are you pressing the trigger smoothly or are you trying to grab it quickly?The shot group on the right is a good example of the type of shot group that is fired when the new shooter does a good job of following the instruction just given. This shot group also indicates a readiness for the next instruction, how to adjust sights so that your shot groups form in the middle of the targets.
12 How Sights Work Elevation Knob: Turning this knob moves the shot group up or down on the target--direction of movement is indicated by the direction arrow on the knobWindage Knob: Turning this knob moves the shot group left or right on the targetElevation and Windage changes are made in increments called “clicks”7A.12 How Sights WorkIn order to adjust your sights to move your shot groups to the center of the target, you first have to know how your sights work. Rifles used in target shooting have special target sights that can be adjusted very precisely. This makes it possible to always aim at the center of the target and have the sights adjusted so that the shot groups form in the center of the target. Target sights have an elevation knob to adjust shot groups up or down and a windage knob to adjust shot groups left or right. These knobs turn in increments called “clicks.” The direction that turning the adjustment knob moves a shot group is marked on each knob.Basic Principle of Sight Adjustment. This basic principle states that the rear sight aperture must be moved in the same direction that you want the shot group to move. Thus, if the shot group is to the left (2nd target on previous slide), the shot group must be moved to the right and the sight must be adjusted to move the aperture to the right.Determining How Much Sight Adjustment to Make. It is important to understand that the sight adjustment increments or “clicks” on a target sight are calibrated to move the shot group a precise distance on the target. With the sights on the Daisy M853, for example, 6 clicks of adjustment will move the shot group one scoring ring distance on the BMC target, while 2 clicks will move the shot group one scoring ring on the 10 meter competition target.Daisy sight click values: 6 clicks per ring on BMC target2 clicks per ring on the 10m competition target
13 Calculating Sight Adjustments Find shot group center--draw lines through shot group centerVertical adjustment--count scoring rings distance to target center--multiply by 6 (clicks per ring)--apply elevation changeHorizontal adjustment--count scoring rings distance to target center--multiply by 6--apply windage change2 scoring rings distance X 6 = 12 clicks down7A.13 Calculating Sight AdjustmentsFollow these steps to adjust the sights to move a shot group to the center of the target:Fire a shot group ( preferably 5 shots).Determine the center of the shot group. Disregard any wild or poor shots that are not part of the basic shot group. Draw real or imaginary horizontal and vertical lines through the group center.Count the number of vertical and horizontal scoring rings from the center of the shot group to the center of the target.For the Daisy M853 sight, multiply the number of scoring rings times 6 for the BMC target or times 2 for the air rifle competition target.Turn the sight knobs that number of clicks in the direction you want the shot group to move (look at arrow on adjustment knob).There are two important rules to remember regarding sight adjustments:Always adjust the sight to place shot groups in the target center—never hold off or use “Kentucky windage” to do this.Each individual shooter is responsible for calculating and making sight adjustments to keep his/her shot groups centered on the target.1 2/3 scoring rings distance X 6 = 10 clicks left
14 Exercise: Sight Adjustment Calculations Group #2Group #3Group #17A.14 Exercise: Sight Adjustment CalculationsBefore you go back to the range to fire a shot group with your rifle and make a sight change on it, complete this exercise by calculating sight adjusts for these three shot groups.Group #1: ____ clicks up/down, ____ clicks left/right.Group #2: ____ clicks up/down, ____ clicks left/right. Use caution in determining the center of this shot group. Note that the long shot on the left is a long ways from the other four shots that form a tight cluster. For this reason, this shot is most likely a poor shot that should be ignored in determining the shot group center.Group #3: ____ clicks up/down, ____ clicks left/right. A shooter with a group like this may be tempted to make no sight adjustment because all five shots score tens. Nevertheless, the shot group is not centered. Shooters must learn to always make the changes necessary, even if only one or two clicks of change are required, to move shot groups to the center of the target.Adjustments: BMC Target = 6 clicks per ring(2 clicks per ring on competition target)
15 How to Score TargetsScoring Rule: Shots receive the value of the highest scoring ring they break or touchShot is partly in 6 ring and partly in 7 ring, counts 7 pointsShot is in 8 ring, counts 8 pointsShot is mostly in 9 ring, but breaks 10 line, counts 10 points7A.15 How to Score Targets:After shooters learn to adjust their rifle sights so that shot groups are centered, it is possible to score the targets and have meaningful scores. This is because the maximum score for a series of shots cannot be attained unless the grouping of shots is centered on the target. At this point it is time to learn how to score target.The basic scoring rule is that a shot receives the score of the highest value scoring ring that it strikes or touches. To determine the value of a shot, follow these rules:Shot in scoring ring. If a shot hole lies in one scoring ring, it must be given the value of that scoring ring. The value of each scoring ring is printed on the target.Shot lies in two scoring rings. If a shot hole lies in two scoring rings, it must be given the score of the highest value scoring ring.Shot lies in one ring, but breaks or touches higher value ring. If a shot hole lies mostly within one scoring ring, but breaks or even just touches a higher value ring, it must be given the score of the highest value ring that it touches.Deciding doubtful shot holes. Sometimes it is very difficult to tell whether a shot hole touches a scoring ring. A scoring gauge (plug) is used to determine doubtful shot values. If you use a scoring gauge, be sure to review the instructions for scoring in the National Standard Three-Position Air Rifle Rules (pages 69-74). To properly score a torn shot hole, it is necessary to determine where the round outline of the pellet lies and to use that line, not the tear, to determine the shot value.Shot is in 9 ring, but outside edge “touches” 10 ring, counts 10 pointsShot is outside of all scoring rings, counts 0 points
16 Exercise: Scoring Targets 7A.16 Exercise: Scoring TargetsHere are two targets, one with five shot holes, and one with ten shot holes. Use the rule for target scoring and determine the score for each target.5-shot target on left, score: __________10-shot target on right, score: ___________What is the score for the 5-shot series on the left?What is the score for the 10-shot series on the right?
17 Range Firing Exercises Supported Position, with bull’s-eye targetDry firing or aiming exerciseLive fire, 5-shot group--calculate and make sight adjustmentLive fire, 5-shot groups--make additional sight adjustments as needed7A.17 Range Firing ExercisesThe next series of range firing exercises should also be fired in the supported position. Begin each shot series by dry firing. Dry firing is a great way to get extra repetitions to help develop your new marksmanship skills.After dry firing, your instructor will give the commands to LOAD and START so that you can fire your next five-shot series. After firing that group, determine where the center of the shot group is, calculate the sight changes needed to move the group to the center of the target and apply those changes to the sight. Then fire another shot group. It may be necessary to fire three or four shot groups before your groups are well-centered. Each time you fire a shot group, try to improve your performance so that your shot groups keep getting smaller.Once your shot groups are centered, you can begin to score your targets. A five-shot group would have a maximum possible score of 50. How many points can you score?When you can consistently score points or higher on the BMC target (35 points or higher on the air rifle competition target), you are ready to start firing in the standing position (Instruction Module 7B).