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Headquarters Air Mobility Command Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” Braking 101.

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Presentation on theme: "Headquarters Air Mobility Command Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” Braking 101."— Presentation transcript:

1 Headquarters Air Mobility Command Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” Braking 101

2 2 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” The information presented here is for informational use only Many references were used to develop this presentation Not all possibilities are covered Use the given information with proper respect to ORM Note: Do Not Remove “For Official Use Only” From Any Slide FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Note: This Slide is Mandatory

3 3 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” Motorcycle Braking systems Application OVERVIEW

4 4 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” BRAKING SYSTEMS Motorcycle braking systems Designed to slow front and rear of the motorcycle independently Disc or drum design  Disc is rotor attached to wheel, caliper attached to fork or swing arm  Caliper has pads which press against rotor, creating friction  Drum is attached to the wheel over a plate with a shoe inside  Shoe is pressed outward to drum creating friction Both may be operated by hydraulic or cable controls

5 5 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” BRAKING SYSTEMS Cable operated going away Drum is cheap to produce, sealed against containments Shoes are inside drum press inside out to create friction and stopping power Unable to shed heat quickly Disc is open to more containments Caliper has pads which press against rotor Rotor thickness critical Integrated / Linked Designed for application of both front and rear brake systems with one control Different for each manufacturer Anti-Lock Systems (ABS) Different for each manufacturer Based on automotive designs Sensitive to angles and traction during cornering and braking

6 6 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” BRAKING SYSTEMS Brake lines Special rubber to not react with brake fluid Degrade over time Brake fluid Water absorbent Corrosive Master cylinder Holds piston which displaces fluid through line to caliper/brake cylinder in drum Lever Connected to master cylinder Front Rear

7 7 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” BRAKING SYSTEMS Disc System Rotor  Attached to wheel and spinning at wheel speed Caliper  Attached to fork or swing arm rigidly  Inside caliper has pistons) which press against pads when hydraulic pressure is applied  Pads press against rotor, generating friction and heat

8 8 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” BRAKING SYSTEMS Fork Caliper/pads Rotor

9 9 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” BRAKING SYSTEMS Drum brakes Same as disc until brake cylinder Press shoe into drum Creates friction and heat

10 10 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” BRAKING SYSTEMS Disc and drum generate same amount of friction Friction creates heat which is absorbed by rotor, pad/shoe, brake fluid Heat degrades braking performance Disc brakes dissipate heat better then drum Maintenance Brake fluid  Type, age Pads / shoes  Type, min. material thickness Rotor / drum  Width / inside diameter, cracks, warpage

11 11 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” REVIEW Brake Systems Two basic types Hydraulically operated Front / rear separate Maintenance Brake fluid Pads / shoe Rotor / drum

12 12 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” APPLICATION Front and rear together Maximizes force Slows both ends of motorcycle at same time Maintains control Front Smooth, progressive squeeze Weight transfer forward, able to apply more force Rear Smooth press down on lever Weight transfer forward, light reduction in force Comes with time and practice

13 13 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” APPLICATION Clutch Squeeze in and hold Gear shift Downshift to first gear Head and eyes up Left foot to the ground upon complete stop, keep clutch lever in

14 14 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” APPLICATION Front skid Over application of front brake Less squeeze Tire regains traction Reapply Rear skid Keep pressed down Do not let up until complete stop Head and eyes will maintain directional control

15 15 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” APPLICATION Roadway designed for 11.2 ft/sec braking action Top motorcycle racers can stop at 32 ft/sec Average roadway user can reach 20 ft/sec Average motorcyclist is 15 ft/sec Most car users are 9.8 ft/sec 60 mph = 88 ft/sec stopping time Average roadway design is 7.9 sec, Racer is 2.75 sec Possible 4.4 sec Motorcyclists 5.9 sec Car 8.9 sec

16 16 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” APPLICATION Perception Ability to perceive that a braking action is required Reaction Physical movement of hand /foot from at-rest position to control Application Action of squeezing brake lever and pressing on rear brake

17 17 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” APPLICATION Perception of the need to stop Usability, Hick’s Law Determines the time it takes to make a decision is roughly proportional to entropy of decision (number of alternatives)  Alternatives Training Experience

18 18 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” APPLICATION Total stopping distance Perception Reaction Application

19 19 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” APPLICATION Braking exercise Requires 2 people Approval to use large area Ensure area is free of rash, dirt, rocks, etc. Three part exercise Designed for dry roadway surface, adjust if damp 100’ 90’ 80’ Start Finish

20 20 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” APPLICATION Part 1: Start at 10 mph, 1 st gear Head and eyes up Front tire crosses 80’ mark come to smooth controlled stop Self assessment:  Head and eyes stay up until stopped  Left foot to the ground first  No excessive front fork dive  4 th and later stops not to exceed 90’ mark 100’ 90’ 80’

21 21 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” APPLICATION Part 2 Start at 20 mph, 2nd gear Head and eyes up Front tire crosses 80’ mark come to smooth controlled stop Self assessment:  Head and eyes stay up until stopped  Left foot to the ground first  No excessive front fork dive  4 th and later stops not to exceed 95’ 100’ 90’ 80’

22 22 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” APPLICATION Part 3 Partner moves closer and farther between each run Start at 20 mph, 2nd gear Head and eyes up Come to smooth stop next to partner Self assessment:  Head and eyes stay up until stopped  Left foot to the ground first  No excessive front fork dive 100’

23 23 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” Review Key Points: Head and eyes up  Smooth squeeze on front brake Lock front tire, release and reapply  Light pressure on rear Lock rear tire, keep locked until complete stop

24 24 Enabling the “Global” in “Global Vigilance, Reach and Power!” REFERENCES How to ride a Motorcycle Motorbooks Int’l; Pat Hahn, 2005 Sport Riding Techniques David Bull publishing; Nick Lenatsch, 2003 Proficient Motorcycling Bowtie Press; David Hough, 2000 Green Knights M/C Club, Hanscom Chapter Gil Besana, President Minnesota Motorcycle Safety Center ?cid=1; Joan Rasmussen, director ?cid=1 Get the best from your bike, don’t let the bike get the best from you


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