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7 Queue ADTs Queue concepts Queue applications A queue ADT: requirements, contract Implementations of queues: using arrays and linked-lists Queues in the Java class library © 2008 David A Watt, University of Glasgow Algorithms & Data Structures (M)

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7-2 Queue concepts A queue is a first-in-first-out sequence of elements. Elements can added only at one end (the rear of the queue) and removed only at the other end (the front of the queue). The size (or length) of a queue is the number of elements it contains.

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7-3 Example: bus queue Consider a queue of persons at a bus-stop: BUS STOP

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7-4 Queue applications Print server – Uses a queue of print jobs. Operating system – Disk driver uses a queue of disk input/output requests. – Scheduler uses a queue of processes awaiting a slice of processor time.

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7-5 Example: demerging (1) Consider a file of person records, each of which contains a person ’ s name, gender, birth-date, etc. The records are sorted by birth-date. We are required to rearrange the records such that females precede males but they remain sorted by birth-date within each gender group. Bad idea: use a sorting algorithm. Time complexity is O(n log n) at best. Good idea: use a demerging algorithm. Time complexity is O(n).

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7-6 Example: demerging (2) Demerging algorithm: To copy a file of person records from input to output, rearranged such that females precede males but their order is otherwise unchanged: 1.Make queues females and males empty. 2.For each person p in input, repeat: 2.1.If p is female, add p at the rear of females. 2.2.If p is male, add p at the rear of males. 3.While females is not empty, repeat: 3.1.Remove a person f from the front of females. 3.2.Write f to output. 4.While males is not empty, repeat: 4.1.Remove a person m from the front of males. 4.2.Write m to output. 5.Terminate.

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7-7 Queue ADT: requirements Requirements: 1)It must be possible to make a queue empty. 2)It must be possible to test whether a queue is empty. 3)It must be possible to obtain the size of a queue. 4)It must be possible to add an element at the rear of a queue. 5)It must be possible to remove the front element from a queue. 6)It must be possible to access the front element in a queue without removing it.

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7-8 Queue ADT: contract (1) Possible contract for homogeneous queues (expressed as a Java generic interface): public interface Queue { // Each Queue object is a homogeneous queue // whose elements are of type E. /////////////// Accessors /////////////// public boolean isEmpty (); // Return true if and only if this queue is empty. public int size (); // Return this queue’s size. public E getFirst (); // Return the element at the front of this queue.

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7-9 Queue ADT: contract (2) Possible contract (continued): ////////////// Transformers ////////////// public void clear (); // Make this queue empty. public void addLast (E it); // Add it as the rear element of this queue. public E removeFirst (); // Remove and return the front element of this queue. }

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7-10 Implementation of queues using arrays (1) Consider representing a bounded queue (size cap) by: –variables size, front, rear –an array elems of length cap, containing the elements in elems[front…rear–1]. Empty queue: 0cap–1front=rear Invariant: element 0frontrear–1cap–1 unoccupiedfront elementrear element

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7-11 Initially: 012345 0 front 0 rear elems 0 size 0 Homer 1 Marge 2 Maggie 3 Lisa 45 0 front 4 rear elems 4 size After adding Homer, Marge, Maggie, Lisa: 0 Homer 1 Marge 2 Maggie 3 Lisa 4 Bart 5 0 front 5 rear elems 5 size After adding Bart: 01 Marge 2 Maggie 3 Lisa 4 Bart 5 1 front 5 rear elems 4 size After removing the front element: 012 Maggie 3 Lisa 4 Bart 5 2 front 5 rear elems 3 size After removing the front element: 012 Maggie 3 Lisa 4 Bart 5 Ralph 2 front 0 rear elems 4 size After adding Ralph: Implementation of queues using arrays (2) Animation (with cap = 6):

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7-12 Implementation of queues using arrays (3) Once the rightmost array slot is occupied, no more elements can be added, unless we shift elements to fill up any unoccupied leftmost slots. But then operation addLast would have time complexity O(n), rather than O(1). We can avoid this if we use a “cyclic array” instead of an ordinary array.

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7-13 Cyclic arrays In a cyclic array a of length n, every slot has both a successor and a predecessor. In particular: –the successor of a[n–1] is a[0] –the predecessor of a[0] is a[n–1]. Visualizing a cyclic array (of length 8): 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 or 01234567

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7-14 Implementation of queues using cyclic arrays (1) Represent a bounded queue (size cap) by: –variables size, front, rear –a cyclic array elems of length cap, containing the elements either (a) in elems[front…rear–1] or (b) in elems[front…cap–1] and elems[0…rear–1]. cap–1 front rear–1 0 (b) element cap–1 front rear–1 0 Invariant: (a) element Empty queue: 0cap–1front=rear

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7-15 Initially: 0 front 0 rear elems 0 size 012345 Implementation of queues using cyclic arrays (2) Animation (with cap = 6): HomerMargeMaggieLisa 0 front 4 rear elems 4 size After adding Homer, Marge, Maggie, Lisa: 012345 HomerMargeMaggieLisaBart 0 front 5 rear elems 5 size After adding Bart: 012345 MargeMaggieLisaBart 1 front 5 rear elems 4 size After removing the front element: 012345 MaggieLisaBart 2 front 5 rear elems 3 size After removing the front element: 012345 MaggieLisaBartRalph 2 front 0 rear elems 4 size After adding Ralph: 012345 NelsonMaggieLisaBartRalph 2 front 1 rear elems 5 size After adding Nelson: 012345 NelsonMartinMaggieLisaBartRalph 2 front 2 rear elems 6 size After adding Martin: 012345 NelsonMartinLisaBartRalph 3 front 2 rear elems 5 size After removing the front element: 012345

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7-16 Implementation of queues using cyclic arrays (3) Java implementation: public class ArrayQueue implements Queue { private E[] elems; private int size, front, rear; /////////////// Constructor /////////////// public ArrayQueue (int cap) { elems = (E[]) new Object[cap]; size = front = rear = 0; }

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7-17 Implementation of queues using cyclic arrays (4) Java implementation (continued): /////////////// Accessors /////////////// public boolean isEmpty () { return (size == 0); } public int size () { return size; } public E getFirst () { if (size == 0) throw … ; return elems[front]; }

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7-18 Implementation of queues using cyclic arrays (5) Java implementation (continued): ////////////// Transformers /////////////// public void clear () { size = front = rear = 0; } public void addLast (E it) { if (size == elems.length) … elems[rear++] = it; if (rear == elems.length) rear = 0; size++; } NB

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7-19 Implementation of queues using cyclic arrays (6) Java implementation (continued): public E removeFirst () { if (size == 0) throw … ; E frontElem = elems[front]; elems[front++] = null; if (front == elems.length) front = 0; size--; return frontElem; } } Analysis: –All operations have time complexity O(1). NB

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7-20 Implementation of queues using SLLs (1) Represent an (unbounded) queue by: –an SLL, whose header contains links to the first node (front) and last node (rear). –a variable size (optional). Invariant: element front rear size Empty queue: front rear size 0 Illustration: Homer Marge Maggie Lisa front rear size 4

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7-21 Implementation of queues using SLLs (2) Java implementation: public class LinkedQueue implements Queue { private Node front, rear; private int size; /////////////// Inner class /////////////// private static class Node { public E element; public Node succ; public Node (E x, Node s) { element = x; succ = s; } }

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7-22 Implementation of queues using SLLs (3) Java implementation (continued): /////////////// Constructor /////////////// public LinkedQueue () { front = rear = null; size = 0; } /////////////// Accessors /////////////// public boolean isEmpty () { return (front == null); }

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7-23 Implementation of queues using SLLs (4) Java implementation (continued): public int size () { return size; } public E getFirst () { if (front == null) throw … ; return front.element; }

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7-24 Implementation of queues using SLLs (5) Java implementation (continued): ////////////// Transformers /////////////// public void clear () { front = rear = null; size = 0; } public void addLast (E it) { Node newest = new Node(it, null); if (rear != null) rear.succ = newest; else front = newest; rear = newest; size++; }

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7-25 Implementation of queues using SLLs (6) Java implementation (continued): public E removeFirst () { if (front == null) throw … ; E frontElem = front.element; front = front.succ; if (front == null) rear = null; size--; return frontElem; } } Analysis: –All operations have time complexity O(1).

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7-26 Queues in the Java class library The library interface java.util.Queue is similar to the above interface Queue. The library class java.util.LinkedList implements java.util.Queue, representing each queue by a doubly-linked-list. (This is overkill!) Illustration: import java.util.*; Queue busQ = new LinkedList (); busQ.addLast(homer); busQ.addLast(marge); busQ.addLast(maggie); busQ.addLast(lisa); busQ.addLast(bart); Person p = busQ.removeFirst();

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7-27 Example: demerging again (1) Implementation of the demerging algorithm: public static void reSort ( BufferedReader input, BufferedWriter output) throws IOException { // Copy a file of person records from input to output, // rearranged such that females precede males but their // order is otherwise unchanged. Queue females = new LinkedList (), males = new LinkedList (); for (;;) { Person p = readPerson(input); if (p == null) break; // end of input

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7-28 Example: demerging again (2) Implementation (continued): if (p.female) females.addLast(p); else males.addLast(p); } while (! females.isEmpty()) { Person f = females.removeFirst(); writePerson(output, f); } while (! males.isEmpty()) { Person m = males.removeFirst(); writePerson(output, m); } }

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