Presentation on theme: "Virginia Department of Education"— Presentation transcript:
1Virginia Department of Education Module FourUsing a Space Management System While Interacting with Traffic
2Virginia Department of Education Module FourUsing a Space Management System While Interacting with TrafficTopic 1 Assessing and Managing RiskTopic 2 Components of a Space Management SystemTopic 3 Using the SEEiT Space Management SystemTopic 4 Moving the VehicleTopic 5 Turnabouts and Parking
3What is Risk?Driving Risk is the potential that a chosen action (e.g., speeding, texting, etc.,) may lead to an undesirable outcome.Choices have Consequences
4Assessing and Managing Risk To properly assess a specific risk, you need to have some idea of the potential outcomes.For example, if you are a distracted driver, your potential for being involved in a crash increases 4 to 9 times. (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 2008)
5What is Risk Assessment? Drivers must have the ability to:Identify a potentially dangerous situationPrepare to take action to avoid a conflictConsider your options and the potential consequences of your actions
6Consequences of Risky Driving Behaviors Taking unnecessary risks may result in property damage, injury or death, and other lossesInjury to you or others - permanent or life-threatening,Damage to personal property, andLoss such as financial loss, loss of license, loss of convenience, loss of time, and other losses.
7Risk-Taking Behaviors Cause Crashes Very often drivers actually create the high risk situations they become involved in!Speeding is the number one cause of crashes in VirginiaSpeeding is driving above the posted speed or driving too fast for conditionsDo speed limits improve public safety?
8Assessing and Managing Risk Risk is always present…Never risk more than you can afford to loseDo not risk a lot for a littleConsider the odds and your situation
9Tools to Reduce Driving Risks CommunicateChange Speed and/orChange Position
10What is a Space Management System? Assess, Action Step, Evaluate A space management system helps drivers organize information into meaningful categories so decisions can be made easily and quicklyDrivers must evaluate potential risk using the principles of probability (will it happen?) and consequence (what will be gained or lost?)
11Managing the Space Around Your Vehicle Drivers must manage all six zones around the vehicle, and adjust position to maintain a safe margin of space that provides room to steer in an emergencyRight-Front ZoneRight-Rear Zone35Front ZoneRear Zone16Left-Rear ZoneLeft-Front Zone24
12Open, Closed and Changing Zones A Zone can be OPEN, CLOSED or CHANGINGOPEN — An open zone is a space where you can drive without restrictionCLOSED — The space or area is not available in the vehicle’s path of travelCHANGING — An open zone changes to a closed zone or a closed zone becomes an open zone
13Using a Space Management System ClosedZONERight-Rear ZoneChanging ZONECheck RearMove HereChanging ZONEClosedZONECheck RearCheck SideOpenOpen ZONECheck SideEvaluate your options and then take actionOPEN — this zone that has no restrictions to the line of sight or path of travel.CLOSED — this zone not availableCHANGING — it was an open zone that is changing to a closed zone.
14Controlling SpaceDrivers have the most control over the space directly in frontof the vehicle2-Second - Following Distance is effective at speeds under 35 mph3-Second - Following Distance may provide enough time for evasive steering maneuver on dry surfaces or to brake at speeds up to 45 mph4-Second - Following Distance provides time to steer out of a problem on dry surfaces and brake out of a problem at speeds up to 70 mph
15Measuring Your Following Distance Begin counting when rear of the vehicle ahead passes a fixed objectone-thousand-one one-thousand-two one-thousand-three, and…
16Measuring Your Following Distance ESTABLISH FOLLOWING DISTANCE when you reach the fixed objectone-thousand-four
17Increase Following Distance When Visibility is limitedTraction is limitedNumber of visual and mental tasks increasesbeing tailgatedline of sight restrictionpath of travel restrictioncarrying a heavy load or pulling a trailerlearning to drive
18Stopping Behind Another Vehicle Why do you stop in a position that you can see therear tires of the vehicle in front?See tires
19Managing the Space to the Rear Check rearview mirrors:RegularlyBefore and while brakingWhile stopped in trafficBefore and after making turnsBefore and after a lane changeCan you control the space behind you?
20Managing the Space to the Sides Strive to keep one of the side zones openRespond to an oncoming vehicle by slightly adjusting lane position to increase space between your vehicle and the oncoming vehicleAdjust lane position to increase space between your vehicle and parked cars, bicyclists, pedestrians, etc.
21Component of a Space Management Systems Perception/Reaction/Response TimePerception TimeTime it takes to identify a riskAverage perception time varies with the circumstancesReaction TimeTime it takes to respond with accelerator, brake, or steeringAverage reaction time is ¾ secondResponse TimeTotal time it takes to complete the action
22Factors Affecting Response Time DistractionsInattentionPoor VisibilityLine of Sight RestrictionsFatigueMedicationsAlcoholIllnessAgeTalking on Cell PhoneOthers?
23Virginia’s Space Management System SEE iT!SearchEvaluateExecutein Time
24Virginia Space Management System SEEiTSearch— the entire scene in your line of sight/path of travel for potential risks, and if during your search you identify a risk youEvaluate —it by determining if and where possible points of conflict may occur, and thenExecute —your decision as how to best manage the risk by adjusting speed and/or positionin Time – to avoid the conflict
25Search in SEEiT Know when, where and what to look for Search far ahead, to the sides, to the rearSearch for clues: intersections, brake lights, warning signs, traffic lights, other vehicles, pedestrians, animals, parked cars, etc.,Search for changes in front wheels of other vehicles, movement from the side, etc.
26Search in SEEiTSearch intersections, crosswalks, shopping centers, parking lots, construction areas and playgroundsWhen driving in rural areas search for hidden intersections and driveways, curves, hills and varying road conditionsSearch for trucks and other oversized vehicles, as well as slow moving farm vehicles, motorcycles, bicycles, etc.
27SearchSearch at least seconds ahead to your target area which allowstime to identify and evaluate potential problemstime to execute your plan (adjust position, speed)
28Searching and TimeIs there a potential for conflict in the example below?You are the driver of the red car traveling at 55mph.The motorcyclist is traveling at 50mph.The blue car is traveling at 60mph.The search process consists of the three ranges:- 4 to 8-second range—Immediate Action Required!- 12 to 15-second range— look for Escape Routes- 20 to 30 second range—Search for open path of travel4 to 8seconds20 to 3012 to 15
29Evaluate Gives meaning to your search Identifies where the possible points of conflict may occurDetermines how the conflict may affect you if it does happen
30Evaluating Risk in the Driving Environment Is the traffic light a stale green light?Will the zone I’m entering be open or closed?What lane position is the safest?What is the other driver going to do?Is the driver texting?Is there more than one way to manage this risk?Where will the point of conflict occur?
31Evaluating Risk in the Driving Environment Where is the escape route?Will someone run the light?Will a pedestrian enter the roadway?Is there sufficient traction available?Is the driver in the vehicle behind me paying attention?Will a door of one of these parked cars open?Will a squirrel or deer run onto the road?
32What would you do in this situation? Execute in TimeYou identified a possible conflict developing between you and the blue carThis conflict will happen because the blue car traveling 60 mph is going faster than the motorcycle which is traveling at 50 mphThe blue car may cross into your path of travel to overtake the motorcycleWhat would you do in this situation?
33Virginia Space Management System Execute In Time!As the lane change occurred you had two options:slow down and allow the blue car to proceed into zone 1or change your position and move into the open zone 2
34Execute in TimeWithout proper searching, evaluating (decision making skills), you may execute the wrong decision
35Moving Straight Back Make proper adjustments Start the vehicle with foot on the brakeShift to reverseAssume the straight backing positionLeft hand at 12 o’clockLooking over right shoulderBacking
36Backing Straight Check traffic to front, sides and rear Select a targetGradually release brake pressureMove slowlyAccelerate graduallyCover the brake when neededBacking
37Backing & Turning Signal Readjust seat position according to direction that you turn wheelRight Side/Left SideEstablish visual targetUse reference points to determine when to start turning steering wheelTurn the wheel in the direction you want the back of the vehicle to goMonitor “swing” of front of vehicle
38Entering Roadway Tasks Check AheadCheck LeftReview pre-drive tasksStart the vehicleShift to driveRelease park brakeCheck traffic and signalMove to first available lane byTargeting center lane Position 1Cancel SignalAccelerate gradually to the flow of trafficCheck Over ShoulderCheck Mirror
39Moving to Curb/Side of Road Check AheadCheck trafficSignal intentionsVisually target destinationUse reference points to position vehicle 6 – 12 inches from curbSecure the vehicleCheck Over ShoulderCheck MirrorCheck Behind
40TurnaboutsIf you miss an address or building and you do not have the option of driving around the block…Types of TurnaboutsTwo-point turn:Pull into driveway on right sidePull into driveway on left side Three-point turn U-turnMidblockAt an intersection
41Turnabouts Minimize risk by: being sure local laws permit a turnabout — look for any signs prohibiting the turnmaking sure you have at least 500 feet of visibility in each directionbeing sure you have enough space and time to complete the turn safelynever making a turnabout near or on hills and curveschecking continually for other traffic and pedestrians — check all zones around your vehicleNOUTurnsLEFT
42Backing into driveway on the right side Two-Point TurnaboutsBacking into driveway on the right sideOne method is to back into a driveway on the right side11. Check traffic flow Signal, and position yourself 2-3 feet from curb Drive beyond the driveway and stop ; shift to reverse, monitor intended path 2. Back slowly, turning steering wheel rapidly to the right as you enter driveway Straighten wheels, centering car in driveway and stop with the wheels straight 3. Signal left and exit driveway when the way is clear23
43Pulling into driveway on the left side Two-Point TurnaboutsPulling into driveway on the left side1. Check traffic flowSignal and position your vehicle to 3-6 inches from center yellow lineWhen traffic is clear, drive into the driveway and stopShift to reverse, monitor intended path2. Back slowly, turning steering wheel rapidly to the right as you exit drivewayStraighten wheels, centering car in roadway3. Shift into drive - Check traffic and accelerate to normal speed123
44Three-Point Turnabouts 24135Three-point turns are also called Y-turns, and are an option if no driveway is available, traffic is light, you cannot drive around the block, or the available space prevents a U-turnThis is the most dangerous turnabout!
45Three-Point Turnabouts 2135Stop close to the right edge or curbSearch for a 20- to 30-second gap, signal a left turnMove slowly forward while turning the steering wheel rapidly to the leftwhen the front wheels are almost to the curb, stop — Check traffic left and rightShift the vehicle into reverse and, while slowly backing up, turn the wheel to the rightShift into drive — Check traffic — Signal your intent and accelerate to normal speed
46U-Turn Turnabouts Mid-Block U-Turn 3 5 24135Make sure local and state law permits this type of turnaboutA midblock U-turns require a wide spaceThis is a high-risk turnabout
47U-Turn at an Intersection U-Turn TurnaboutsU-Turn at an IntersectionWhen making a U-turn at an intersection, begin the U-turn in the left lane closest the center line or medianComplete the turn in the lane farthest to the right in the opposite flow of traffic, and accelerate to the appropriate speed15
48No Parking! Within 20 feet of an intersection Within 15 feet of the entrance to a fire, ambulance or Rescue squad stationWithin 500 feet of where fire trucks or equipment are stopped answering an alarmWithin 50 feet of a railroad crossingWithin 15 feet of a fire hydrant
49Angle Parking Parking diagonally to the curb Signal intention, position vehicle three to four feet away from the spaceMove forward until side view mirror appears to align with the first pavement lineVisually target the middle of the space and move slowly turning the wheel sharplyOnce front enters space, gradually begin unwinding the steering wheel while monitoring the vehicles parked on either side
50Exiting Angle Parking Space Place foot on brake, signal intention, shift to reverse, search path of travelBack until your vehicle’s front seat is even with the back of the space, and begin turning the steering wheel in the direction you want the rear to goConstantly monitor the front bumper on the opposite side of the direction you are turningBack into the closest lane; shift to drive and move forward
51Perpendicular Parking - Entering 1. Signal intention and position the vehicle five to six feet away from the space 2. Move forward until the side mirror appears to align with the first line of the space 3. Turn the wheel rapidly in the direction of the space controlling speed 4. Steer towards a target in center of the space and straighten the wheels 5. Position the front bumper three to six inches from the curb or end of the spacetarget
52Perpendicular Parking - Exiting Place foot on brake, signal direction of turn, shift to reverse, search area to the rear/sidesBack until your side mirror is even with the bumper of the vehicle located to the side, begin turning the steering wheel in the direction you want to goMonitor the rear and your front bumper on the opposite side of the direction you are turningWhen the front bumper clears the back of the vehicle, stop, and shift to Drive
53Parallel Parking on a Two-Way Street STEP 1Select a space that is at least five feet longer than your vehicleFlash your brake lights , put on your turn signal as you approach the space, and monitor rear trafficPlace your vehicle approximately three feet from the vehicle you want to park behind, aligning your rear bumper with the other vehicle's bumperPut the vehicle into reverse and turn the wheels all the way to the right
54Parallel Parking on a Two-Way Street STEP 2Slowly back up until you are at a 45-degree angle using your side view mirror, back until you can see the headlight closest to the curb of the vehicle behind to establish the 45-degree angleStop
55Parallel Parking on a Two-Way Street Step 3Turn the wheels all the way to the leftSlowly back up monitoring the right front fender until you are parallel with and within 12 inches of the curb.
56Parallel Parking – Exiting the Space Back-up as far as you can go without touching the vehicle behind and signalTurn your wheels all the way to the left and shift to DriveCheck traffic and make sure your right front fender will clear the rear of the vehicle in front of youTurn wheels slowly to the right when your side view mirror aligns with the bumper of the vehicle aheadSelect target in your path of travel and gently accelerate
57Parking on a Hill - Facing Downhill Parking with or without a curbPosition your vehicle 6” from the curbLet the car move slowly forward while turning the steering wheel sharply to the right until the right front tire rests against the curbShift into “P” (Park) if your vehicle is equipped with an automatic transmission or into REVERSE gear for a manual transmissionEngage the parking brake
58Parking on a Hill – Uphill with No Curb Parking Uphillwith NO CurbDrive as far off the roadway onto the shoulder as possible and stopTurn wheels away from trafficShift into “P” (Park) automatic transmission, or into FIRST gear for a manual transmissionEngage the parking brake
59Parking Uphill – With a Curb Uphill Parkingwith a CurbPosition your vehicle 6” from the curb and stopTurn your steering wheel away from curb and let the vehicle move slowly back until the back of the front tire touches the curbShift into “P” (Park) if your vehicle is equipped with an automatic transmission or FIRST with a manual transmission Engage the parking brake