Presentation on theme: "1 Virginia Department of Education Module Four Using a Space Management System While Interacting with Traffic."— Presentation transcript:
1 Virginia Department of Education Module Four Using a Space Management System While Interacting with Traffic
2 Virginia Department of Education Module Four Using a Space Management System While Interacting with Traffic Topic 1Assessing and Managing Risk Topic 2Components of a Space Management System Topic 3Using the SEEiT Space Management System Topic 4Moving the Vehicle Topic 5Turnabouts and Parking
3 What is Risk? Driving Risk is the potentia l that a chosen action (e.g., speeding, texting, etc.,) may lead to an undesirable outcome. Choices have Consequences
4 To properly assess a specific risk, you need to have some idea of the potential outcomes. For example, if you are a distracted driver, your potential for being involved in a crash increases 4 to 9 times. (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 2008) Assessing and Managing Risk
5 Drivers must have the ability to: Identify a potentially dangerous situation Prepare to take action to avoid a conflict Consider your options and the potential consequences of your actions What is Risk Assessment?
6 Consequences of Risky Driving Behaviors Taking unnecessary risks may result in property damage, injury or death, and other losses Injury to you or others - permanent or life-threatening, Damage to personal property, and Loss such as financial loss, loss of license, loss of convenience, loss of time, and other losses.
7 Very often drivers actually create the high risk situations they become involved in! Speeding is the number one cause of crashes in Virginia Speeding is driving above the posted speed or driving too fast for conditions Risk-Taking Behaviors Cause Crashes Do speed limits improve public safety?
8 Assessing and Managing Risk Risk is always present… Never risk more than you can afford to lose Do not risk a lot for a little Consider the odds and your situation
9 Tools to Reduce Driving Risks 1.Communicate 2.Change Speed and/or 3.Change Position
10 What is a Space Management System? A space management system helps drivers organize information into meaningful categories so decisions can be made easily and quickly Drivers must evaluate potential risk using the principles of probability (will it happen?) and consequence (what will be gained or lost?) Assess, Action Step, Evaluate
11 Managing the Space Around Your Vehicle Drivers must manage all six zones around the vehicle, and adjust position to maintain a safe margin of space that provides room to steer in an emergency Right-Front ZoneRight-Rear Zone Front Zone Rear Zone Left-Front Zone Left-Rear Zone
12 Open, Closed and Changing Zones A Zone can be OPEN, CLOSED or CHANGING OPEN — An open zone is a space where you can drive without restriction CLOSED — The space or area is not available in the vehicle’s path of travel CHANGING — An open zone changes to a closed zone or a closed zone becomes an open zone
13 Using a Space Management System Move Here Changing ZONE ClosedZONE Check Rear Check Side Open ZONE Evaluate your options and then take action OPEN — this zone that has no restrictions to the line of sight or path of travel. CLOSED — this zone not available CHANGING — it was an open zone that is changing to a closed zone. ClosedZONE Right-Rear Zone Changing ZONE Check Rear Open ZONE Check Side
14 Controlling Space Drivers have the most control over the space directly in front of the vehicle 2-Second - Following Distance is effective at speeds under 35 mph 3-Second - Following Distance may provide enough time for evasive steering maneuver on dry surfaces or to brake at speeds up to 45 mph 4-Second - Following Distance provides time to steer out of a problem on dry surfaces and brake out of a problem at speeds up to 70 mph
15 Measuring Your Following Distance one-thousand-one one- thousand-two one-thousand- three, and… Begin counting when rear of the vehicle ahead passes a fixed object
16 Measuring Your Following Distance ESTABLISH FOLLOWING DISTANCE when you reach the fixed object one-thousand-fou r
17 Visibility is limited Traction is limited Number of visual and mental tasks increases being tailgated line of sight restriction path of travel restriction carrying a heavy load or pulling a trailer learning to drive Increase Following Distance When
18 Stopping Behind Another Vehicle Why do you stop in a position that you can see the rear tires of the vehicle in front? See tires
19 Managing the Space to the Rear Check rearview mirrors: Regularly Before and while braking While stopped in traffic Before and after making turns Before and after a lane change Can you control the space behind you?
20 Strive to keep one of the side zones open Respond to an oncoming vehicle by slightly adjusting lane position to increase space between your vehicle and the oncoming vehicle Adjust lane position to increase space between your vehicle and parked cars, bicyclists, pedestrians, etc. Managing the Space to the Sides
21 Component of a Space Management Systems Perception/Reaction/Response Time Perception Time Time it takes to identify a risk Average perception time varies with the circumstances Reaction Time Time it takes to respond with accelerator, brake, or steering Average reaction time is ¾ second Response Time Total time it takes to complete the action
22 Medications Alcohol Illness Age Talking on Cell Phone Others? Distractions Inattention Poor Visibility Line of Sight Restrictions Fatigue Factors Affecting Response Time
23 Search Evaluate Execute in Time Virginia’s Space Management System SEE iT!
24 Search— the entire scene in your line of sight/path of travel for potential risks, and if during your search you identify a risk you Search— the entire scene in your line of sight/path of travel for potential risks, and if during your search you identify a risk you Evaluate —it by determining if and where possible points of conflict may occur, and then Evaluate —it by determining if and where possible points of conflict may occur, and then Execute —your decision as how to best manage the risk by adjusting speed and/or position Execute —your decision as how to best manage the risk by adjusting speed and/or position in Time – to avoid the conflict in Time – to avoid the conflict Virginia Space Management System SEEiT
25 Search in SEEiT Know when, where and what to look for Search far ahead, to the sides, to the rear Search for clues: intersections, brake lights, warning signs, traffic lights, other vehicles, pedestrians, animals, parked cars, etc., Search for changes in front wheels of other vehicles, movement from the side, etc.
26 Search intersections, crosswalks, shopping centers, parking lots, construction areas and playgrounds When driving in rural areas search for hidden intersections and driveways, curves, hills and varying road conditions Search for trucks and other oversized vehicles, as well as slow moving farm vehicles, motorcycles, bicycles, etc. Search in SEEiT
27 Search Search at least seconds ahead to your target area which allows time to identify and evaluate potential problems time to execute your plan (adjust position, speed)
28 Is there a potential for conflict in the example below? You are the driver of the red car traveling at 55mph. The motorcyclist is traveling at 50mph. The blue car is traveling at 60mph. The search process consists of the three ranges: - 4 to 8-second range—Immediate Action Required! - 12 to 15-second range— look for Escape Routes - 20 to 30 second range—Search for open path of travel Searching and Time 4 to 8 seconds 20 to 30 seconds 12 to 15 seconds
29 Evaluate Gives meaning to your search Identifies where the possible points of conflict may occur Determines how the conflict may affect you if it does happen
30 Evaluating Risk in the Driving Environment Is the traffic light a stale green light? Will the zone I’m entering be open or closed? What lane position is the safest? What is the other driver going to do? Is the driver texting? Is there more than one way to manage this risk? Where will the point of conflict occur?
31 Where is the escape route? Will someone run the light? Will a pedestrian enter the roadway? Is there sufficient traction available? Is the driver in the vehicle behind me paying attention? Will a door of one of these parked cars open? Will a squirrel or deer run onto the road? Evaluating Risk in the Driving Environment
32 Execute in Time You identified a possible conflict developing between you and the blue car This conflict will happen because the blue car traveling 60 mph is going faster than the motorcycle which is traveling at 50 mph The blue car may cross into your path of travel to overtake the motorcycle What would you do in this situation?
33 Virginia Space Management System Execute In Time! As the lane change occurred you had two options: slow down and allow the blue car to proceed into zone 1 or change your position and move into the open zone 2
34 Execute in Time Without proper searching, evaluating (decision making skills), you may execute the wrong decision
35 Make proper adjustments Start the vehicle with foot on the brake Shift to reverse Assume the straight backing position Left hand at 12 o’clock Looking over right shoulder Backing Moving Straight Back
36 Check traffic to front, sides and rear Select a target Gradually release brake pressure Move slowly Accelerate gradually Cover the brake when needed Backing Backing Straight
37 Signal Readjust seat position according to direction that you turn wheel Right Side/Left Side Establish visual target Use reference points to determine when to start turning steering wheel Turn the wheel in the direction you want the back of the vehicle to go Monitor “swing” of front of vehicle Backing & Turning
38 Review pre-drive tasks Start the vehicle Shift to drive Release park brake Check traffic and signal Move to first available lane by Targeting center lane Position 1 Cancel Signal Accelerate gradually to the flow of traffic Check Ahead Check Left Check Mirror Check Over Shoulder Entering Roadway Tasks
39 Check traffic Signal intentions Visually target destination Use reference points to position vehicle 6 – 12 inches from curb Secure the vehicle Check Ahead Check Behind Check Mirror Check Over Shoulder Moving to Curb/Side of Road
40 Turnabouts Types of Turnabouts Two-point turn: Pull into driveway on right side Pull into driveway on left side Three-point turn U-turn Midblock At an intersection If you miss an address or building and you do not have the option of driving around the block…
41 Turnabouts Minimize risk by: being sure local laws permit a turnabout — look for any signs prohibiting the turn making sure you have at least 500 feet of visibility in each direction being sure you have enough space and time to complete the turn safely never making a turnabout near or on hills and curves checking continually for other traffic and pedestrians — check all zones around your vehicle NO U Turns NO LEFT Turns
42 Two-Point Turnabouts 1.Check traffic flow Signal, and position yourself 2-3 feet from curb Drive beyond the driveway and stop ; shift to reverse, monitor intended path 2.Back slowly, turning steering wheel rapidly to the right as you enter driveway Straighten wheels, centering car in driveway and stop with the wheels straight 3.Signal left and exit driveway when the way is clear One method is to back into a driveway on the right side Backing into driveway on the right side
43 Two-Point Turnabouts 1.Check traffic flow Signal and position your vehicle to 3-6 inches from center yellow line When traffic is clear, drive into the driveway and stop Shift to reverse, monitor intended path 2.Back slowly, turning steering wheel rapidly to the right as you exit driveway Straighten wheels, centering car in roadway 3.Shift into drive - Check traffic and accelerate to normal speed Pulling into driveway on the left side
44 Three-Point Turnabouts Three-point turns are also called Y-turns, and are an option if no driveway is available, traffic is light, you cannot drive around the block, or the available space prevents a U-turn This is the most dangerous turnabout!
45 Three-Point Turnabouts 1.Stop close to the right edge or curb Search for a 20- to 30-second gap, signal a left turn 2.Move slowly forward while turning the steering wheel rapidly to the left when the front wheels are almost to the curb, stop — Check traffic left and right 3.Shift the vehicle into reverse and, while slowly backing up, turn the wheel to the right 4.Shift into drive — Check traffic — Signal your intent and accelerate to normal speed Three-Point Turn
46 U-Turn Turnabouts Make sure local and state law permits this type of turnabout A midblock U-turns require a wide space This is a high-risk turnabout Mid-Block U-Turn
47 U-Turn Turnabouts When making a U-turn at an intersection, begin the U-turn in the left lane closest the center line or median Complete the turn in the lane farthest to the right in the opposite flow of traffic, and accelerate to the appropriate speed U-Turn at an Intersection 1 5
48 No Parking! Within 20 feet of an intersection Within 15 feet of the entrance to a fire, ambulance or Rescue squad station Within 500 feet of where fire trucks or equipment are stopped answering an alarm Within 50 feet of a railroad crossing Within 15 feet of a fire hydrant
49 Angle Parking 1.Signal intention, position vehicle three to four feet away from the space 2.Move forward until side view mirror appears to align with the first pavement line 3.Visually target the middle of the space and move slowly turning the wheel sharply 4.Once front enters space, gradually begin unwinding the steering wheel while monitoring the vehicles parked on either side Parking diagonally to the curb
50 Exiting Angle Parking Space 1.Place foot on brake, signal intention, shift to reverse, search path of travel Back until your vehicle’s front seat is even with the back of the space, and begin turning the steering wheel in the direction you want the rear to go Constantly monitor the front bumper on the opposite side of the direction you are turning 2.Back into the closest lane; shift to drive and move forward
51 Perpendicular Parking - Entering 1. Signal intention and position the vehicle five to six feet away from the space 2. Move forward until the side mirror appears to align with the first line of the space 3. Turn the wheel rapidly in the direction of the space controlling speed 4.Steer towards a target in center of the space and straighten the wheels 5. Position the front bumper three to six inches from the curb or end of the space target
52 Perpendicular Parking - Exiting Place foot on brake, signal direction of turn, shift to reverse, search area to the rear/sides Back until your side mirror is even with the bumper of the vehicle located to the side, begin turning the steering wheel in the direction you want to go Monitor the rear and your front bumper on the opposite side of the direction you are turning When the front bumper clears the back of the vehicle, stop, and shift to Drive
53 Parallel Parking on a Two-Way Street STEP 1 Select a space that is at least five feet longer than your vehicle Flash your brake lights, put on your turn signal as you approach the space, and monitor rear traffic Place your vehicle approximately three feet from the vehicle you want to park behind, aligning your rear bumper with the other vehicle's bumper Put the vehicle into reverse and turn the wheels all the way to the right
54 Parallel Parking on a Two-Way Street STEP 2 Slowly back up until you are at a 45-degree angle using your side view mirror, back until you can see the headlight closest to the curb of the vehicle behind to establish the 45-degree angle Slowly back up until you are at a 45-degree angle using your side view mirror, back until you can see the headlight closest to the curb of the vehicle behind to establish the 45-degree angle Stop Stop
55 Parallel Parking on a Two-Way Street Step 3 Turn the wheels all the way to the leftTurn the wheels all the way to the left Slowly back up monitoring the right front fender until you are parallel with and within 12 inches of the curb.Slowly back up monitoring the right front fender until you are parallel with and within 12 inches of the curb.
56 Parallel Parking – Exiting the Space Back-up as far as you can go without touching the vehicle behind and signal Turn your wheels all the way to the left and shift to Drive Check traffic and make sure your right front fender will clear the rear of the vehicle in front of you Turn wheels slowly to the right when your side view mirror aligns with the bumper of the vehicle ahead Select target in your path of travel and gently accelerate
57 Parking on a Hill - Facing Downhill Parking with or without a curb Position your vehicle 6” from the curb Let the car move slowly forward while turning the steering wheel sharply to the right until the right front tire rests against the curb Shift into “P” (Park) if your vehicle is equipped with an automatic transmission or into REVERSE gear for a manual transmission Engage the parking brake Downhill Parking
58 Parking on a Hill – Uphill with No Curb 1.Drive as far off the roadway onto the shoulder as possible and stop 2.Turn wheels away from traffic 3.Shift into “P” (Park) automatic transmission, or into FIRST gear for a manual transmission 4.Engage the parking brake Parking Uphill with NO Curb
59 Parking Uphill – With a Curb 1.Position your vehicle 6” from the curb and stop 2.Turn your steering wheel away from curb and let the vehicle move slowly back until the back of the front tire touches the curb 3.Shift into “P” (Park) if your vehicle is equipped with an automatic transmission or FIRST with a manual transmission 4.Engage the parking brake Uphill Parking with a Curb