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FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY The Rembrandt Case - Case study - The Burke/Lonvig Model Remember this drawing?

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Presentation on theme: "FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY The Rembrandt Case - Case study - The Burke/Lonvig Model Remember this drawing?"— Presentation transcript:

1 FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY The Rembrandt Case - Case study - The Burke/Lonvig Model Remember this drawing?

2 - A great artist’s creativity - And a meeting with genius The Rembrandt Case

3 Attending the exhibition at Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy. Attending the exhibition at the Danish National Gallery “Rembrandt? The Master and his Workshop”. Searching information material via the internet. Communicate a great artist’s creativity Meeting with genius Perpetuate 2 particular motifs The Rembrandt Case

4 Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on July 15, 1606, in Leiden, the Netherlands. His father was a miller who wanted the boy to follow a learned profession, but Rembrandt left the University of Leiden to study painting. His early work was devoted to showing the lines, light and shade, and color of the people he saw around him. He was fascinated by the work of many Italian artists. When Rembrandt became established as a painter, he began to teach and continued teaching art throughout his life. In 1631, when Rembrandt's work had become well known and his studio in Leiden was flourishing, he moved to Amsterdam. He became the leading portrait painter in Holland and received many commissions for portraits as well as for paintings of religious subjects. He lived the life of a wealthy, respected citizen and met the beautiful Saskia van Uylenburgh, whom he married in 1634. She was the model for many of his paintings and drawings. Rembrandt's works from this period are characterized by strong lighting effects. In addition to portraits, Rembrandt attained fame for his landscapes, while as an etcher he ranks among the foremost of all time. Rembrandt’s Biography I The Rembrandt Case

5 When he had no other model, he painted or sketched his own image. It is estimated that he painted between 50 and 60 self- portraits. IMPORTANT: Rembrandt Biography II The Rembrandt Case

6 In 1636 Rembrandt began to depict quieter, more contemplative scenes with a new warmth in color. During the next few years three of his four children died in infancy, and in 1642 his wife died. In the 1630s and 1640s he made many landscape drawings and etchings. His landscape paintings are imaginative, rich portrayals of the land around him. Rembrandt had become accustomed to living comfortably. From the time he could afford to, he bought many paintings by other artists. By the mid-1650s he was living so far beyond his means that his house and his goods had to be auctioned to pay some of his debts. He had fewer commissions in the 1640s and 1650s, but his financial circumstances were not unbearable. Rembrandt died October. 4, 1669 in Amsterdam. For today's student of art, Rembrandt remains, as the Dutch painter Jozef Israels said, "the true type of artist, free, untrammeled by traditions.“ Rembrandt’s Biography III The Rembrandt Case

7 A few years ago I rushed out of a room in The Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy. Gesticulating to my family, there are three Rembrandts - hanging side by side inside that room!! Come, come, come!! "Who is Rembradt?", my daughter in law said. I believe it was in order to joke about my enthusiasm. At an exhibition at the National Gallery in Denmark - in Danish it's called Statens Museum for Kunst - there was an exhibition titled "Rembrandt? The Master and his Workshop". At this exhibition there were 100 Rembrandts! There were 19 paintings and then prints and drawings by Rembrandt. As I entered into the dark room with one spotlight on each Rembradt my enthusiasm was transformed into thankfulness and humility. Thankfulness and humility due to the fact that I was blessed to experience this. A Dutchman called Rembrandt… An article by Asbjorn Lonvig The Rembrandt Case

8 Contributions and loans from the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm, the Mauritshuis in the Hague, The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, the National Gallery in London, the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam and more made this unique event possible. An experience of a lifetime. The bare presence of 100 Rembrandts in one museum – in one room - was far from the only highlight. 2 genuine Rembrandts found in Copenhagen. The National Gallery in Copenhagen found two genuine Rembrandt paintings by the master himself in the archives. Two paintings that have lived a life of obscurity in the collections at the National Gallery after having been rejected as genuine Rembrandts at different points during the 20th century. As soon as I came home from the exhibition I took a close look at my own archives. But unfortunately I found no Rembrandts. The 2 paintings are now reattributed to Rembrandt. After three years of studies conducted in close co-operation with international experts, The National Gallery is in a position to conclude that in addition to a rich collection of prints and drawings by Rembrandt, the museum also owns two genuine paintings by the master himself. The Rembrandt Case A Dutchman called Rembrandt… II

9 The small Study of an Old Man in Profile was found by Karl Madsen at Fredensborg Castle, where he discovered the painting in a storage in 1899. However, Rembrandt scholars doubted this attribution from as far back as 1933 onwards. Their doubts were mainly caused by the coarse style (broader brushstrokes) of painting. The scholars of the time found it difficult to reconcile this coarseness with what they thought of as the typically very meticulous and carefully finished style of Rembrandt's early works. Study of an Old Man in Profile c. 1630 Oil on canvas 20 x 25 cm - that's 8" x 10" Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69) The Rembrandt Case A Dutchman called Rembrandt… III

10 Recent art history has, however, pointed out that even during the earliest stage of his career - the years spent painting in his native town of Leiden - Rembrandt experimented with broader and more varied brushstrokes. Like other works by the young Rembrandt, this small painting appears to be a practice piece. X-ray studies bear out this theory by showing us that the old man's head was painted on top of another head that appears in several of Rembrandt's paintings from those years. At the same time, studies of the wooden panel show that the wood can be traced back to Rembrandt in terms of both geography and time. The Rembrandt Case A Dutchman called Rembrandt… VI

11 In 1911 Karl Madsen, found The Crusader in a remote corner of Fredensborg Castle where it had been placed in temporary storage. Despite Karl Madsen's evident enthusiasm for the painting, its status was soon called into question, and in 1969 it was rejected as a Rembrandt. The Crusader c.1659-61 Oil on canvas 60 x 80 cm - that's 23" x 31" Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69) The Rembrandt Case A Dutchman called Rembrandt… V

12 The most recent studies now tell us that the painting is a sketch for The Knight with the Falcon (Göteborgs Konstmuseum) - see next page). X-rays support this assumption by demonstrating that the underlying layers of paint are built up in a manner typical of Rembrandt. The piece presumably depicts the Dutch Saint Bavo of Ghent, and the painting has the convincing oscillation between the precise and the spontaneous that is so typical of Rembrandt. At the same time it exemplifies the pastose manner of painting characteristic of the artist's late work. There are, however, some signs to suggest that parts of the painting were done by one of Rembrandt's students, a common practice at the master's workshop. The Rembrandt Case A Dutchman called Rembrandt… IV

13 The studies took place in co-operation with an international panel of experts comprising the head of the Rembrandt Research Project, professor dr. Ernst van de Wetering, research technician with the Rembrandt Research Project Karin Groen, senior conservator David Bomford from the National Gallery in London, and head of conservation at the National Gallery Jørgen Wadum. Based on the latest knowledge about Rembrandt and the artists in the circle around him - and technical studies such as x-rays, infrared reflectography, dendrochronology (the science of dating wood), studies of the canvas thread count, ground, layers of paint, etc. - the National Gallery has obtained much more knowledge about the works in question. For example, the two reattributed works have been placed at either end of Rembrandt's life's work. The studies are documented in a comprehensive book published in connection with the exhibition. The Rembrandt Case A Dutchman called Rembrandt… IIV

14 The Knight with the Falcon 1660s, Oil. 98,5 x 79 cm Göteborg Museum of Art … the most recent studies now tell us that the painting (the Crusader) is a sketch for The Knight with the Falcon. The Rembrandt Case A Dutchman called Rembrandt… IIIV

15 When he had no other model, he painted or sketched his own image. It is estimated that he painted between 50 and 60 self-portraits. Still IMPORTANT: The Rembrandt Case

16 Self Portrait as a Young Man, c. 1628 22.5 x 18.6 cm Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam The Rembrandt Case

17 Self Portrait as the Apostle St. Paul, 1661 Oil on canvas, 91 x 77 cm Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam The Rembrandt Case

18 The Sampling Officials, 1662 Oil on canvas 191,5 x 279 cm Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam The Rembrandt Case

19 The Sampling Officials By Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam I Rembrandt has portrayed the five syndics or sampling officials of the Amsterdam Drapers' Guild. A guild is a society of persons united by a particular aim or occupation. Guilds were first formed in the Middle Ages. Some guilds were founded as charities, others were societies of merchants, craftsmen, artists and militias. Craftsmen would have been unable to practice their profession without being a member of the guild. Members were bound by a code of quality and price, but could also obtain assistance from the guild. An extensive apprenticeship system developed. Only a fully qualified master could become a member of the guild. Each guild had its patron saint: the patron of the painters guild was St Luke. as if they are looking up from their work for a moment. On the table around which the five men are sitting is a book, probably used a record of the accounts. A servant is standing at the back - the only one wearing a skullcap rather than a hat. The board of sampling officials controlled the quality of dyed laken cloth (laken cloth is a fine woolen fabric, made by a lengthy procedure, close-knit, warm and smooth). To compare the quality of the different bales, they used samples of cloth - hence the name sampling officials The Rembrandt Case

20 Researchers have discovered who is who in this portrait. It is also known where this painting hung. The portrait was intended for the sampling hall, Staalhof, on Amsterdam's Staalstraat, where the cloth was examined. A series of sampling official portraits hung in the board room. Rembrandt probably knew exactly where the painting was to hang - quite high up with the light falling from the left - so that he could adapt the light and perspective in the painting. The viewer appears to look up at the table from below. It has also been suggested that the paneling in the background of the picture matched that in the room at Staalhof. The Sampling Officials By Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam II The Rembrandt Case

21 Rembrandt had to keep to a prescribed size and place as well as a fixed formula: the sampling officials had to be seated with the servant standing. Grouping six people around a table without it appearing rigid, was no mean feat. Rembrandt altered the composition considerably before finishing. This is apparent from X-rays of the painting which reveal the changes. Sampling official A sampling official was appointed for one year, although a person could be appointed several years in succession. The term ran from Good Friday to Good Friday. Sampling official - or syndic - was an honorary title for which no remuneration was made; they were therefore expected to have a reasonable income of their own. The sampling officials met three times a week to sample the cloth, ensuring that only the best quality fabric was traded in Amsterdam. The sampling officials portrayed by Rembrandt held office from Good Friday 1661 to Good Friday 1662. Rembrandt's Sampling Officials is a masterpiece among Dutch group portraits. The Sampling Officials By Emil Kren and Daniel Marx I The Rembrandt Case

22 The painting, popularly called The Syndics, Rembrandt's largest portrait commission during his late years, is an ideal solution of the principal problem of painting a portrait group. Equal importance has been given to each of the five officials - their servant, wearing a skull cap, is in the centre yet the whole is united by ingenious psychological and formal means. The subtle composition, the glowing coloristic harmonies, and above all the sympathetic interpretation and profound psychological grasp of the personalities of the six men make this Rembrandt's greatest group portrait. The total impression is of delicately adjusted harmony and tranquility. Rembrandt brilliantly exploits horizontals - a classical rather than a Baroque device - for the unification of the group. Three horizontals run through the picture at almost equal intervals: the edge of the table and the arm of the chair at the left mark the lowest one; the middle one is established by the prevailing level of the heads; and the upper one runs along the edge of the wainscoting. But here again Rembrandt avoids all formal rigidity. These repeated horizontals are broken by sharp deviations on all three levels. The sharpest is in the group itself, in the strong curve of the head on the left. With a kind of contrapuntal effect, this movement is echoed by the slight rise in the upper horizontal on that side. The Sampling Officials By Emil Kren and Daniel Marx II The Rembrandt Case

23 While this style of composition is similar to the relief-like manner of grouping favored by artists who worked in the classical tradition, there is an increased effect of space and atmosphere by Rembrandt's use of chiaroscuro and colour. The harmonies are definitely on the warm side. A flaming red in the rug on the table, which is the most outstanding accent, is interwoven with golden tints. Golden browns reappear in the background, in the panels of the wall, and within these warmly colored surroundings the strong blacks and whites in the men's costumes have a noble and harmonious effect. The traditional interpretation of the painting is that the men were shown seated on a platform, before the assembly of the Drapers' Guild and that they are giving to the assembly - unseen by the viewer - an account of the year's business. The official seated near the centre of the picture makes a gesture with his right hand which most seventeenth-century observers understood immediately; the gesture was a standard one employed by orators demonstrating evidence. The Sampling Officials By Emil Kren and Daniel Marx III The Rembrandt Case


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