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Early Medieval Art. Who, When, and Where CivilizationDateLocation Hiberno-Saxon6 th -8 th C.British Isles Viking8 th -11 th C.Scandinavia Carolingian8.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Medieval Art. Who, When, and Where CivilizationDateLocation Hiberno-Saxon6 th -8 th C.British Isles Viking8 th -11 th C.Scandinavia Carolingian8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Medieval Art

2 Who, When, and Where CivilizationDateLocation Hiberno-Saxon6 th -8 th C.British Isles Viking8 th -11 th C.Scandinavia Carolingian8 th -9 th C.France, Germany Ottonian10 th -Early 11 th C.Germany Key Ideas The Migration period in the Early Middle Ages featured portable works that were done in the animal style. Characteristics of Early Medieval Art include horror vacui and interlacing patterns Art at the court of Charlemagne begins the first of many western European revivals of ancient Rome Ottonian art revives large scale sculpture and architecture

3 Vocabulary Animal Style- a medieval art form in which animals are depicted in a stylized and often complicated pattern, usually seen fighting one another Cloisonné- enamelwork in which colored areas are separated by thin bands of metal, usually gold or bronze Cloister- a rectangular open-air monastery courtyard with a covered arcade surrounding it Codex- a manuscript book

4 Vocabulary Colophon- an inscription at the end of a manuscript containing relevant information about its publication Gospels- the first 4 books of the New Testament (chronicle the life of Jesus Christ) Horror Vacui- type of artwork in which the entire surface is filled with objects, people, designs, and ornaments in a crowded congested way

5 Vocabulary Psalter- book of Psalms (sacred sung poems), of the Bible Scriptorium- place in a monastery where monks wrote manuscripts Westwork- a monumental entrance to a Carolingian church in which two towers flank a lower central entrance

6 Illuminated Manuscripts: Illuminated Manuscripts Anglo Saxon Hoard Found

7 Characteristics of Saxon Art: Medieval Britain- 6 th – 8 Th C. The discovery of a hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silverwork in 2009 changed the historical perspective/knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Medieval Britain Sutton Hoo ship burial (1939) revealed some of the richest works from this period. Artistic styles include: Cloisonne Horror vacui Animal style Interlacing patterns Portable objects Elaborate symmetry with animals and geometric designs

8 Saxon Art: Purse Cover from Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, 600-650 Ship burial, possibly for King Raedwald of East Anglia Purse cover- the metal was backed by ivory or bone, which desintigrated along with the leather portions of the bag Animal style (hawks attacking ducks) Animals bite the heads of the men they flank Interlacing patterns, ornamental design Legs and arms intertwined Cloisonne technique


10 Characteristics of Hiberno-Saxon Art: Hibernia = ancient name for Ireland Hiberno-Saxon – Art of the British Isles, 6 th – 8 th C. Main artistic expression is ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS Artistic Styles/Themes include: Interlacing patterns horror vacui Harbor animals in combat patterns (??) Animal style Illuminated texts: Open with huge initials, highly decorated Bright colors, painted by highly skilled artists

11 Hiberno-Saxon Art: Saint Matthew from the Book of Lindisfarne, 700 Illuminated Manuscript Gospel Book Saint Matthew seated on a cushioned bench writing his book of the Bible Man behind curtain- God? Moses? Christ? Matthew’s symbolic angel behind him Words= “Image of a Man” Byzantine influence: Greek words “Saint Matthew” in Latin Angel’s hand covered Flattened linear elements Colophon: the gospels were painted and inscribed by Bishop Eadfrith of Lindisfarne

12 Hiberno-Saxon Art: Chi-Rho-Iota Page from the Book of Matthew in the Book of Kells, 800 Lavish, richly decorated book Very complex designs Interlacing patterns The initials are the dominant motif Chi and Rho = the first two letters of Christ’s name in Greek (Christos); often represented as a monogram in Christian art Created by monks in a Scriptorium Painted on vellum Very expensive material

13 Characteristics of Viking Art: Population growth in Scandinavia resulted in Viking invasions throughout Europe. Viking artists emphasized animals and spirals and elaborate interlacing patterns Mostly applied art, ie FUNCTIONAL Sword hilts, belts, buckles, etc. Art/symbols/designs were engraved on functional objects Animal style with horror vacui

14 Viking Art: Animal Head Post from the Oseberg Ship Burial, 834 Part of a ship burial for two high ranking women in the Viking court Snarling mouth, wild staring eyes, flaring nostrils Head- filled with interlacing animal patterns Purpose = unknown; possibly prow of a boat or used in a procession


16 Characteristics of Carolingian Art: Carolingian Art = the art of Charlemagne (and the time period, of course) France and Germany, 8-9 th C. First revival of classical art from the ancient world (this will be a theme throughout European art from now on…yay?) Charlemagne Wanted to be the emperor of a “New Rome”….so he copied all Rome’s stuff. Like… Bath houses, theatres, forum Roman imagery was used on coins and in architecture (and everything in between)

17 Characteristics of Carolingian Art: Carolingian Churches Elaborate westworks (entrance, chapel, two towers) Monastic buildings housing…ahem…monks/nuns. (in entirely self sufficient communities- we don’t want these guys and gals being tempted with sin by interacting with “the public”) Cloisters- open air courtyards in monasteries All these churchey buildings were usually placed together…near the church. Some murals and mosaics were created, but nobody really liked them. Let’s focus on the manuscripts and paintings! (blending Byzantine and Roman styles, of course!)

18 Carolingian Art: Lorsch Gatehouse, 760, Lorsch Germany Part of the Lorsch Abbey Placed before the entrance to the monastery 3 arched openings divided by engaged columns (Roman) Fluted pilasters (fake columns) on second story Chapel on upper story Turrets (tower) on left and right stairwell Carolingian patterns with brick

19 Carolingian Art: Equestrian Statue of a Carolingian Ruler, 9 th C. Imperial imagery- holding an orb (symbol of the world) Influenced by Roman equestrian statutes (did you guess Marcus Aurelius??) Rider Larger than horse Upright No natural movement Charlemagne? Charles the Bald?

20 Carolingian Art: Utrecht Psalter, 820-832 A Map of Middle Earth I mean…a book of Psalms Highly detailed drawings of the psalms from the Bible Monochrome (brown and white) Literal translation of the psalms Stylized characters- displays agitation, violence, etc.

21 Carolingian Art: Palatine Chapel, 792-805, Aachen, Germany


23 Carolingian Art: Odo of Metz, Palatine Chapel, 792-805, Aachen, Germany Architect- Odo of Metz Was originally part of Charlemagne’s Palace of Aachen Sort of modeled after San Vitale Capitals and columns are Roman spolia from Ravenna Dome composed of spherical triangles Charlemagne’s throne is in the gallery “halfway between heaven and earth” (high opinion of himself, hmm??) Largest arches are on second floor, not the first (unusual) Columns that fill the arches don’t support it- they just fill the space

24 Carolingian Art: Plan of St. Gall, 820 Medieval architectural drawing of a monastic compound Ideal, self-sufficient monastic community of 3000 people Church in the center (literal and symbolic) Cloistered monks only leave to work in the fields Daily activities revolve around the cloister- sleep, eat, etc. Workshops for making leather, pottery, etc. Houses made of timber, serfs live with their animals Typical Carolingian church- 2 apses, elaborate westwork No evidence that these plans were ever made into an actual building


26 Characteristics of Ottonian Art: Germany, 10-early 11 th C. Influenced by Roman and Early Christian art Large stone churches, bronze doors Common themes include: Interior arches and windows that do not line up atop each other Flat, undecorated walls Large black spaces Arches with red and cream alternating stones

27 Ottonian Art: Abbey Church of St. Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001-1033 Church with 2 transepts, each with crossing towers and 2 stair turrets Lateral entrances through side aisles External side aisles act as narthexes (lobbies) to the building Support of nave arcade alternates pairs of columns and square piers Windows in clerestory do not line up with arches (10 windows/9 arches) Transept arch is subdivided by 2 tower round arches & 4 smaller second story arches


29 Ottonian Art: Bishop Bernward Doors, Saint Michael’s, 1015, Hildesheim, Germany Two 15-feet tall bronze doors “Imperial” overtones- Pantheon originally had bronze doors (they are gone) and Aachen has plain bronze doors (Charlemagne's chapel) Left Door: Fall of Man Right Door: Redemption of Man Rectangular panels, few human figures, bare landscapes, emphasis is placed on lively gestures Bony figures with emphasis placed on their hands, feet, and heads

30 http://www.youtub pl88NO9Jw Expulsion from the Garden of Eden

31 Ottonian Art: Gero Crucifix, 970, Cologne Cathedral Return of large, monumental sculptures Life-sized, wooden; painted and partially gilded Rounded human form Human suffering crucifixion; earliest example of art depicting the Crucifixion with a dead Christ Commissioned by Archbishop Gero fro the cathedral in Cologne, Germany Considered “Late Ottonian” or “Early Romanesque”


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