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NORTHERN LIGHTS CHAPTER 2: EVIDENCE FROM THE PAST 6 th Grade Social Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "NORTHERN LIGHTS CHAPTER 2: EVIDENCE FROM THE PAST 6 th Grade Social Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 NORTHERN LIGHTS CHAPTER 2: EVIDENCE FROM THE PAST 6 th Grade Social Studies

2 CHAPTER 2: EVIDENCE FROM THE PAST Terms to Know petroglyph—a rock carving made by people elder—an older member of a community who is respected for his or her knowledge and wisdom archaeologist—a scientist who studies past human life and activities by examining physical evidence such as tools, fire pits, and ruins from dwellings perspective—the way a person sees and understands the world; based on education, culture, time period, and home oral history—the purposeful retelling of stories about the past events and legends of a group in order to teach about that group’s culture artifact—any object made, used or altered by humans scientific method—a process using experiments and careful observation to test ideas and theories hypothesis—an assumption, educated guess, or theory

3 Introduction Glaciers have covered the Midwest, Minnesota, and Canada many times. As glaciers moved, they created the landscape, left behind water to make lakes and rivers, hills and mountains, and form rocks. Humans started living in Minnesota 12,000 years ago 7,000 years ago—started leaving marks at Jeffers

4 Messages From the Past Jeffers Petroglyphs Historic Site—important collection of ancient rock carvings Petroglyphs can tell us about the people who made the carvings, how they lived, and what they may have believed. Carvings—some we recognize, some we don’t American Indian elders—Jeffers=sacred Archaeologists—Jeffers=important info on people, time and place

5 One Way of Knowing: Oral History Native Americans keep history alive Oral History Stories  Happened long time ago  Teach lessons  Explain why things are  Future Don’t know who made carvings at Jeffers  Many people from various groups could have left them  Explorers, traders, Mandan, Iowa, Ottowa, Omaha, Hidatsa, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Winnebago, Dakota  Oral histories of different tribes may help interpret

6 Oral History Interpretation of ‘The Hand’ Friendship  Handshake  Leaving a sign of peace Grief  Wipe tears with palms  Burial ground? Death  ‘The Hand’ constellation—when they passed away, they would go through the constellation on a spirit journey

7 Another Way of Knowing: Archaeology Jeffers Petroglyphs  Who made the carvings? Where did the people who made them come from? Use different methods to find the answers  Comparing  Experiments—using scientific method Scientific Method: 1. Ask a Question 2. State a Hypothesis 3. Perform Experiment 4. Record Findings 5. Reach a Conclusion

8 Learning From Each Other Archaeologists can use elders’ oral histories Elders can use archaeologists’ to find information about their histories Don’t always agree Agree: Jeffers Petroglyphs show that people have lived in Minnesota for a very long time

9 The Government Protects Burial Mounds MN has several burial mounds (1,500-2,000 yrs old) As MN was settled many burial mounds were found and thousands were destroyed (25,000 to 5,000) Laws passed  Protect human burials (1979)  Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act  Return American Indian items to descendants Human remains, sacred items


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