2 7-59Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius 7-59Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, from Rome, Italy, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, 11′ 6″ High. Musei Capitolini— Palazzo Dei Conservatori, RomeIn this equestrian portrait of Marcus Aurelius as omnipotent conqueror, the emperor stretches out his arm in a gesture of clemency. An enemy once cowered beneath the horse’s raised foreleg.
4 Cremation or burial7-59ACommodus as Hercules, ca. 190–192 CE7-60Sarcophagus with the Myth of Orestes, ca. 140–150 CE. Marble, 2′ 7½″ High. Cleveland Museum of Art, ClevelandUnder the Antonines, Romans began to favor burial over cremation, and sarcophagi became very popular. Themes from Greek mythology, like the tragic saga of Orestes, were common subjects.Although the emperors themselves continued to be cremated in the traditional Roman manner, many private citizens opted for burialThis in turn led to a sudden demand for sarcophagi, which are more similar to modern coffins than any other ancient type of burial container.Lead to believe they had pattern books-Western sarcophagus had relief only on the front and sides because they were placed in floor-level niches inside roman tombs.eastern sarcophagi had reliefs on all 4 sides and stood in the center of the burial chamberRoman men and women identified themselves on their coffins with Greek heroes and heroines, whose heads often were portraits of the deceased. These private patrons were following the model of imperial portraiture, in which emperors and empresses frequently masqueraded as gods and goddesses and heroes and heroines
5 7-61Asiatic Sarcophagus with Kline Portrait of a Woman, from Rapolla, Near Melfi, Italy, ca. 165–170 CE. Marble, 5′ 7″ High. Museo Nazionale Archeologico Del Melfese, MelfiThe Romans produced sarcophagi in several regions. Western sarcophagi have carvings only on the front. Eastern sarcophagi, such as this one with a woman’s portrait on the lid, feature reliefs on all four sides.manufactured in Asia Minor, attests to the vibrant export market for these luxury items in Antonine times. The lid portrait, which carries on the tradition of Etruscan sarcophagithe deceased woman reclines on a klineA couch or funerary bed. A type of sarcophagus with a reclining portrait of the deceased on its lid. (bed). With her are her faithful little dog (only its forepaws remain at the left end of the lid) and Cupid (at the right). The winged infant god mournfully holds a downturned torch, a reference to the death of a woman whose beauty rivaled that of his mother, Venus, and of Homer’s Helen.
6 Mummy Portraits in Roman Egypt In Roman Egypt the traditional stylized portrait mask buried with the dead in mummy cases was replaced with realistic portraits painted in encaustic on wood.7-62Mummy Portrait of a Priest of Serapis, from Hawara (Faiyum), Egypt, ca. 140–160 CE. Encaustic on Wood, 1′ 4¾″ × 8¾″. British Museum, LondonIn Roman times, the Egyptians continued to bury their dead in mummy cases, but painted portraits replaced the traditional masks. The painting medium is encaustic—colors mixed with hot wax.a priest of the Egyptian god Serapis. His curly hair and beard closely emulate the Antonine fashion in Rome, but the corkscrew curls of hair on the forehead are distinctive to images of Serapis and his followers. The priest’s portrait exhibits the painter’s refined use of the brush and spatula, mastery of the depiction of varied textures and of the play of light over the soft and delicately modeled face, and sensitive portrayal of the deceased’s calm demeanor.7-62AMummy of Artemidorus, ca. 100–120 CE
7 According to texts, there were many examples of portraits in Rome related to the ancestor worship but none have survived In Roman times, however, painted portraits on wood often replaced the traditional stylized portrait masks from EgyptMore were found in the Egyptian part of the empire (Egyptians wrapped the portraits with mummies)Done on a wood panel with encaustic (freshness of color)Encaustic: paint pigments are mixed with hot waxThe image is very lifelike and solid.Emphasis is on the eyes.The Faiyum mummies enable art historians to trace the evolution of portrait painting (FIGS and 7-25A) after Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 CE.Portrait of a Boy, lower Egypt, 2nd century CE.
8 Late Empire- page 219 7-6a The Severan That is also how he appears in the only preserved painted portrait (FIG. 7-63) of an emperor.Discovered in Egypt and painted in tempera A technique of painting using pigment mixed with egg yolk, glue, or casein; also, the medium itself. (pigments in egg yolk) on wood (as were many of the mummy portraits from Faiyum), the portrait is of tondoA circular painting or relief sculpture. (circular) formatGeta’s face is erased- When Caracalla (r. 211–217 CE) succeeded his father as emperor, he had his younger brother murdered and ordered the Senate to damn Geta’s memoryThe Severan family portrait is an eloquent testimony to that damnatio memoriaeThe Roman decree condemning those who ran afoul of the SenateLate Empire- page 2197-6a The SeveranCivil conflict followed Commodus’s death. When it ended, an African-born general named Septimius Severus (r. 193–211 CE) was master of the Roman world. He succeeded in establishing a new dynasty that ruled the Empire for nearly a half century.7-63Painted Portrait of Septimius Severus and His Family, from Egypt, ca. 200 CE. Tempera on Wood, 1′ 2″ Diameter. Staatliche Museen, BerlinThe only known painted portrait of an emperor shows Septimius Severus with gray hair. With him are his wife, Julia Domna, and their two sons, but Geta’s head was removed after his damnatio memoriae.
9 Caracalla7-64Bust of Caracalla, ca. 211–217. Marble, 1′ 10¾″ High. Staatliche Museen, Antikensammlung, BerlinCaracalla’s portraits introduced a new fashion in male coiffure but are more remarkable for the dramatic turn of the emperor’s head and the moving characterization of his personality.7-64ACaracalla, ca. 211–217 CEPortraits bust renders physical likeness sa well as character portrayalIN life a ruthless tyrant, in sculpture a hard- nosed , stern, and suspicious faceBrutal ruler who ordered the deaths of his opponents, including his wife and brotherDownturned moustache and lines over eyes contribute to harsh characterization
10 Lepcis Magn7-65Chariot Procession of Septimius Severus, Relief from the Attic of the Arch of Septimius Severus, Lepcis Magna, Libya, 203 CE. Marble, 5′ 6″ High. Castle Museum, TripoliA new non-naturalistic aesthetic emerged in later Roman art. In this relief from a triumphal arch, Septimius Severus and his two sons face the viewer even though their chariot is moving to the right.
11 Baths of Caracall7-66Plan of the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Italy, 212–216 CE. (1) natatio, (2) frigidarium, (3) tepidarium, (4) caldarium, (5) palaestraCaracalla’s baths could accommodate 1,600 bathers. They resembled a modern health spa and included libraries, lecture halls, and exercise courts in addition to bathing rooms and a swimming pool.
12 Frigidarium, Baths of Diocletian, 7-67Frigidarium, Baths of Diocletian, Rome, ca. 298–306 (remodeled by MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI as the nave of Santa Maria degli Angeli, 1563)The groin-vaulted nave of the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome was once the frigidarium of the Baths of Diocletian. It gives an idea of the lavish adornment of imperial Roman baths.
13 7-6b The Soldier Emperor7-68Portrait Bust of Trajan Decius, 249–251 CE. Marble, Full Bust 2′ 7″ High. Museo Capitolino, RomeThis portrait of a short-lived soldier emperor depicts an older man with bags under his eyes and a sad expression. The eyes glance away nervously, reflecting the anxiety of an insecure ruler.
14 Trebonianus Gallu 7-68APhilip the Arabian, 244–249 CE 7-69Heroic Portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, from Rome, Italy, 251–253 CE. Bronze, 7′ 11″ High. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New YorkIn this over-life-size heroically nude statue, Trebonianus Gallus projects an image of brute force. He has the massive physique of a powerful wrestler, but his face expresses nervousness.
15 Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus 7-70Battle of Romans and Barbarians (Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus), from Rome, Italy, ca. 250–260 CE. Marble, 5′ High. Museo Nazionale Romano—Palazzo Altemps, RomeA chaotic scene of battle between Romans and barbarians decorates the front of this sarcophagus. The sculptor piled up the writhing, emotive figures in an emphatic rejection of Classical perspective.
16 Youthful Roman general appears center top with no weapons, and is the only Roman with no helment indicating that he is invincible and needs no protection
17 Philosopher Sarcophagu 7-71Sarcophagus of a Philosopher, ca. 270–280 CE. Marble, 4′ 11″ High. Musei Vaticani, RomeOn many third-century CE sarcophagi, the deceased appears as a learned intellectual. Here, the seated philosopher is the central frontal figure. His two female muses also have portrait features.
18 Baalbek7-72Restored View (top) and Plan (Bottom) of the Temple of Venus, Baalbek, Lebanon, Third Century CEThis “baroque” temple violates almost every rule of Classical design. It has a scalloped platform and entablature, five- sided Corinthian capitals, and a facade with an arch inside the pediment.
19 Diocletian and the Tetrarch 7-73Portraits of the Four Tetrarchs, from Constantinople, ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, 4′ 3″ High. Saint Mark’s, VeniceDiocletian established the tetrarchy to bring order to the Roman world. In group portraits, artists always depicted the four corulers as nearly identical partners in power, not as distinct individuals.
20 Each pair was originally attached to a large column in Constantinople :later the images were united in Rome
21 Palace of Diocletia7-74Restored View of the Palace of Diocletian, Split, Croatia, ca. 298–306Diocletian’s palace resembled a fortified Roman city (compare FIG. 7-43). Within its high walls, two avenues intersected at the forumlike colonnaded courtyard leading to the emperor’s residential quarters.
22 Constantine7-75South Facade of the Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy, 312– 315 CE.Much of the sculptural decoration of Constantine’s arch came from monuments of Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius. Sculptors recut the heads of the earlier emperors to substitute Constantine’s features.
24 Distribution of Largesse, 7-76Distribution of Largesse, Detail of the North Frieze of the Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy, 312–315 CE. Marble, 3′ 4″ HighThis Constantinian frieze is less a narrative of action than a picture of actors frozen in time. The composition’s rigid formality reflects the new values that would come to dominate medieval art.
25 Colossus of Constantine 7-77Colossal Head of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy, ca. 315–330 CE. Marble, 8′ 6″ High. Musei Capitolini–Palazzo Dei Conservatori, Rome.Constantine’s portraits revive the Augustan image of an eternally youthful ruler. This colossal head is one fragment of an enthroned Jupiter-like statue of the emperor holding the orb of world power.
27 Basilica Nov7-78Restored Cutaway View of the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy, ca. 306–312 CE (John Burge)Roman builders applied the lessons learned constructing baths and market halls to the Basilica Nova the clerestory of a stone-and-timber basilica.
28 Once housed giant sculpture of Constantine Massive building with great window panes for maximum lightLarge groin-vaulted main aisle: barrel-vaulted and coffered sided aislesBegun by Constantine’s rival, Maxentius: completed by ConstantineBasilica of Constantine, Rome, CE
29 Largest roofed interior in all of Rome Basilicas with long halls served civic purposes, and were a standard feature of every Roman town. They often held the courts.Nave – the center tractApse-rounded at the end of the building - - roman had on each endClerestory – the upper part of the nave, pierced with large windows to let in lightThe raised roof of the clerestory was possible because the groined vaults helped center the weight on the four corners.Reconstruction drawing ofthe Basilica of Constantine
30 Aula Palatin7-79Exterior of the Aula Palatina (Looking Southeast), Trier, Germany, Early Fourth Century CE.The austere brick exterior of Constantine’s Aula Palatina at Trier is typical of later Roman architecture. Two stories of windows with lead- framed panes of glass take up most of the surface area.
32 Aula Palatina7-80Interior of the Aula Palatina (Looking North), Trier, Germany, Early Fourth Century CE.The interior of the audience hall of Constantine’s palace in Germany resembles a timber- roofed basilica with an apse at one end, but it has no aisles. The large windows provided ample illumination.
33 Constantinian Coin7-81Two Coins with Portraits of Constantine. Left: Nummus, 307 CE. Billon, Diameter 1″. American Numismatic Society, New York. Right: medallion, ca. 315 CE. Silver, diameter 1″. Staatliche Munzsammlung, MunichThese two coins underscore that portraits of Roman emperors were rarely true likenesses. On the earlier coin, Constantine appears as a bearded tetrarch. On the later coin, he appears eternally youthful.
37 Late Empire 192–337 CE Arch of Constantine, Rome, 312–315 CE In the art of the Severans (r. 193–235 CE), the non-Classical Late Antique style took root. Artists represented the emperor as a central frontal figure disengaged from the action around him.During the chaotic era of the soldier emperors (r. 235–284 CE), artists revealed the anxiety and insecurity of the emperors in moving portraits.Diocletian (r. 284–305 CE) reestablished order by sharing power. Statues of the tetrarchs portray the four emperors as identical and equal rulers, not as individuals.Constantine (r. 306–336 CE) restored one-man rule, ended persecution of Christians, and transferred the capital of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople in 330. The abstract formality of Constantinian art paved the way for the iconic art of the Middle Ages.
40 Compare thefour differentRoman Styles ofpainting in Pompeii.Second StyleExplain thedifferentcharacteristicsof each. Includehow space wastreated in eachcomposition.First StyleFourth StyleThird Style
41 Compare the four Roman sculpted portraits above. Discuss how the Roman Patrician Vespasian Caracalla ConstantineCompare the four Roman sculpted portraits above. Discuss how thethe material was fashioned in each case to create the expressivequalities that are evident in each of the faces.
42 Compare the two architectural styles evident in the Pantheon Aula PalatinaCompare the two architectural styles evident in theconstruction of the Pantheon and the Aula Palatina.How do they both achieve the large interior expansein very different ways? Consider the exteriors of bothbuildings as well in comparing the two.