2 FOCUS ON THE FOLLOWING IN THIS CHAPTER Universal vs. EthnicMajor Universal and Ethnic characteristics (where are they, percentage of world population…)Major branches of those religionsWhere are the major religions and their major branches and why are they there? (ex. Historical migration patterns)How do different religions affect the environment? ex. burial practices)Examples of religious tension/fighting/war (ex. Northern Ireland)
3 GEOGRAPHERS & RELIGION… Geographers are concerned with the process of how religions diffuse and possible conflictsExamine how religions have a two way relationship with the environmentThey want to understand why some are widespread and others are clustered in specific places
4 Where are Religions Distributed? ISSUE #1Where are Religions Distributed?
5 TYPES OF RELIGIONS UNIVERSALIZING ETHNIC Attempt to be globalAppeal to all people, regardless of location or cultureAbout 62% of the world’s populationAre divided into branches, denominations, and sectsAppeal primarily to one group in one placeAbout 24% of world’s population
8 World Distribution of Religions Fig. 6-1: World religions by continent. KNOW THIS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
9 World Population by Religion Fig. 6-1a: Over two thirds of the world’s population adhere to Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism. Christianity is the single largest world religion.
10 CHRISTIANITY3 major branches are Roman Catholic, Protestant, Eastern OrthodoxAbout 90% of people in the Western Hemisphere are Christian
11 ISLAM Islam means “submission to the will of god” a follower of Islam is called a Muslim (one who surrenders to God)Predominates from North Africa to Central Asiapopulation is increasing in North America and Europe2 main branches are Sunni and Shiite (Shia)
12 BUDDHISM Located primarily in China and Southeast Asia 3 main branches are Mahayana, Theravada, TantrayanaAccurate count is difficult because:Few participate in Buddhist institutionsDiffers from Western concept of a formal religionCommunism in China
13 ETHNIC RELIGIONSYou are responsible for this section, pages
14 ISSUE #2 Why do Religions Have Different Distributions? (read and know the intro!!!)
15 ORIGINS UNIVERSALIZING ETHNIC Specific places of origin Based on the life of one man(ex. Christianity-Jesus, Islam-Muhammad, Buddhism-Siddhartha)Unknown/unclear originsnot identified with one specific individual(ex. Hinduism-Indian culture over several centuries)- Judaism is an exception
16 DIFFUSION-UNIVERSALIZING All 3 diffused from specific hearths located in Asia. Buddhism-present day Nepal; Christianity-present day Israel; Islam-present day Saudi Arabia
17 CHRISTIANITYDiffused through a combination of all types of diffusion (relocation and expansion)
18 ISLAMDiffused very rapidly through North Africa, SW Europe and SW Asia
20 DIFFUSION - ETHNICLimited to no diffusion; usually by relocation diffusionUnlike universalizing, they don’t have missionariesThey are often either replaced by URs or mix with themEx. Traditional African religious mixing with Christianity70% of Japanese say they are Buddhist, 90% say they are Shinto (huh?)Judaism the exception to this trend – it’s practiced in many countries, not just location of its origins
21 TYPE 2 List 3 universalizing religions and 3 ethnic religions List 3 major differences between universalizing and ethnic religionsList the primary locations of the 3 universalizing religions (use regions, not countries – for ex. Western Hemisphere, Eastern Europe….)
22 HOLY PLACES UNIVERSALIZING ETHNIC Tend to be tied to places related to the founder (cities, villages…)Ex. Mecca for Muhammad/IslamTend to be tied to the physical environment of the hearth (mountains, rivers…)Ex. Ganges River for Hindus
34 The Golden Temple in Amritsar The Golden Temple (Darbar Sahib) in Amritsar, India is the holiest structure for Sikhism.
35 COSMOGONYRead this section on Look at how universalizing and ethnic religions differ in the following:Creation of the world? How?Interaction with nature?Modification of nature?
36 CALENDAR UNIVERSALIZING ETHNIC Holidays based primarily on significant events of the founder’s lifeEx. - birth of Jesus (Christians)- Siddhartha’s birth (Buddhists)Holidays based primarily on physical geography of the homeland (seasons and agriculture)Ex. - Holi for Hindus- Bontok of the Philippines
37 CALENDARS - ETHNICProminent feature of ERs is the celebration of seasons – particularly for agricultureJudaism – major holidays based on agriculture in IsraelEx. Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement – Fall)Use a lunar calendarSolstice has a significant meaning for many ethnic religions (shortest and longest days of year)
38 CALENDARS - UNIVERSALIZING Prominent feature is celebrating events of the founder’s lifeIslam uses a lunar calendar, Christianity a solarHolidays arrive in different seasons from generation to generation when using a lunar calendar(ex. Ramadan for Muslims)Not all members of URs celebrate same holidays on same day ( ex. Easter, Buddha’s birth)
39 ISSUE #3 Why do Religions Organize Space in Different Patterns? (AP test likes questions about the impact of religion on space)
40 Places of Worship All major religions have these structures/buildings The function of these locations influences the arrangement of them over the landscapeHave different characteristics, purposes, meanings….The distribution of these religious elements on the landscape reflects the importance of religion for that particular society
41 Christianity – Church (sanctified for public worship) Islam – Mosque (public assembly)Hinduism – Temple (more for shrines, home is used more for worship)Buddhism, Shintoism – Pagodas (contain relics)
46 SACRED SPACEHow religions distribute their elements across land depends on their beliefsdistributions range from very small (cemetery) to very large (entire communities - ex. Salt Lake City, Utah)Most significant land use is for burial and religious settlements
47 SACRED SPACE - BURIALClimate, topography, and doctrine combine to create different burial practicesUse of cemeteries (Christianity, Judaism, Islam)Health concernsBodies facing certain directionUsed as parksTake up valuable land (ex. China now encouraging cremation)Not all bury dead (ex. Cremation for Hindus)
48 SACRED SPACE – RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENTS Most settlements serve an economic purpose, some serve a religious oneUtopian societies (Salt Lake City)Religious impact on colonial settlements (clustered settlement patterns of Puritans in New England)
49 SACRED SPACE – RELIGIOUS PLACE NAMES Roman Catholics often give place names (also called ?????) to settlements, particularly in the new worldQuebecU.S. Southwest
50 Place Names in QuébecFig. 6-12: Place names in Québec show the impact of religion on the landscape. Many cities and towns are named after saints.
51 BUILDINGS OF WORSHIP VIDEOS Hindu Temple Muslim Mosque Jewish Synagogue Christian Church
52 Why do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups? ISSUE #4Why do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups?
53 Since WWII local conflicts in areas of cultural diversity have increased (often religiously based) Inflexible religious views = conflict
54 RELIGION v. GOVERNMENT POLICIES Role of religion in organizing the earth’s surface has been diminished in some areas, largely due to political and economic changeKnow examples of how for each of the following:Islam particularly affectedHinduism and WestBuddhism, Christianity, Islam and CommunismVS.
55 RELIGION vs. GOVERNMENT POLICIES Religion v. CommunismVs.
56 RELIGION vs. RELIGION Know these examples Christian v. Muslim Catholic v. ProtestantSunni v. ShiiteHindu v. Muslim
57 RELIGIOUS WARS IN IRELAND Worst religious boundary in W. EuropeRepublic of Ireland – 92% Roman CatholicNorthern Ireland (UK) – 58% Protestant and 42% Roman CatholicIsland became part of the UK in 1801Declared independence in 1937, members of the North chose to stay part of the UK (why?)RCs victimized by discrimination in the Northern Ireland – fighting between RCs and Ps has led to more than 3,000 deaths since 1968IRA - UDFMajority want peace, extremist elements make that difficult
65 RELIGIOUS WARS – MIDDLE EAST Jews, Christians and Muslims have been fighting over land for centuries (historical name is Palestine)Jews - trace their origins here (Promised Land) - kicked out by the Romans in A.D. 70Christians – major events of Jesus’ life centered here and Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire in the 4th centuryMuslims – Jerusalem is their third holiest city, believe Muhammad ascended to heaven from thereHave controlled this area for most of the past 1,500 years
67 CRUSADESMuslim empire expanded quickly after Muhammad’s death (632) across northern Africa and into EuropeBeginning in 1099 the Christians in WE launched a series of military campaigns to regain the holy land (lasted about 150 years, gain, and then lose, control of the holy land)
69 JEWS vs. MUSLIMS IN PALESTINE Ottoman Empire (Muslim) ruled Palestine from 1500s – 1917 (what happened in 1917?)UN voted to partition it into 2 countries, Jewish and Muslim in 1947 (what about Jerusalem?)1948 – Jews declare their country, Arab neighbors attack the next dayArmistice in 1949 divided control of Jerusalem3 more wars fought between Israel and its neighbors:1956, 1967 (Six Days War), 1973(read caption to maps on 211)Camp David Accords
71 Boundary Changes in Palestine/Israel Fig. 6-16: The UN partition plan for Palestine in 1947 contrasted with the boundaries that were established after the War. Major changes later resulted from the 1967 War.
72 CONFLICT – PALESTINIAN PERSPECTIVES After 1973 the Palestinians emerged as Israel’s primary opponentKnow 5 groups considering themselves PalestiniansPalestinians are very angry with Jewish settlements in the West Bank, consider this area their historical homeland as wellRole of the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization)Some Palestinians are willing to accept the existence of while others (ex. Hamas) are not
73 CONFLICT – ISRAELI PERSPECTIVE Sees itself as a small, Jewish nation surrounded by enemiesMajor geographic considerations:Major population centers are close to int’l borders (vulnerable)Landforms (northern hills, West Bank, Golan Heights)
74 Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Political and Physical maps Fig. 6-17: The West Bank and Gaza have been under Israeli control since 1967, and numerous Israeli settlements have been established there. The area includes three physical regions: the coastal plain, the hills, and the Jordan River Valley.
75 Section of Israeli Security Barrier Fig : A typical section of the security barrier built by Israel in the West Bank.
76 Israel’s Barrier in the West Bank Fig : The planned route of Israel’s security barrier in the West Bank includes many of Israel’s settlements in the territory.
77 Jerusalem - in the end, it all comes down to Jerusalem, no agreement on Jerusalem = continued tensionFig. 6-15: The Old City of Jerusalem contains holy sites for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
79 06.01 Which of the following is not a universalizing religion? 1. Buddhism2. Christianity3. Judaism4. Islam
80 06.01 Which of the following is not a universalizing religion? 1. Buddhism2. Christianity3. Judaism4. Islam
81 06.02 Roman Catholicism predominates in 1. Northern Europe2. East Asia3. Canada4. South America5. Australia
82 06.02 Roman Catholicism predominates in 1. Northern Europe2. East Asia3. Canada4. South America5. Australia
83 06.03 Which of the following is not one of the five pillars of Islam? 1. Accept Allah as the one God2. Donate to charities3. Fast during the month of Ramadan4. Make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem5. Pray five times daily
84 06.03 Which of the following is not one of the five pillars of Islam? 1. Accept Allah as the one God2. Donate to charities3. Fast during the month of Ramadan4. Make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem5. Pray five times daily
85 06.04 In which region are ethnic religions most widely practiced? 1. Asia2. South America3. North America4. North Africa5. Europe
86 06.04 In which region are ethnic religions most widely practiced? 1. Asia2. South America3. North America4. North Africa5. Europe
87 06.06 __________ consider solstices to be holy times. 1. Buddhists2. Jews3. Confucians4. Christians5. Pagans
88 06.06 __________ consider solstices to be holy times. 1. Buddhists2. Jews3. Confucians4. Christians5. Pagans
89 06.07 _________ typically favors cremation over burial. 1. Islam2. Judaism3. Taoism4. Christianity5. Hinduism
90 06.07 _________ typically favors cremation over burial. 1. Islam2. Judaism3. Taoism4. Christianity5. Hinduism
91 06.08 What is the second-highest rank within the Roman Catholic hierarchy? 1. Pope2. Archbishop3. Bishop4. Cardinal5. Priest
92 06.08 What is the second-highest rank within the Roman Catholic hierarchy? 1. Pope2. Archbishop3. Bishop4. Cardinal5. Priest
93 06.09 The caste system in India 1. Places Shudras at the top of the hierarchy2. Was created by the Aryan invaders of India3. Does not affect how individual Hindus practice the religion4. Is enforced by official government policies5. Sees the “untouchables” as closest to enlightenment
94 06.09 The caste system in India 1. Places Shudras at the top of the hierarchy2. Was created by the Aryan invaders of India3. Does not affect how individual Hindus practice the religion4. Is enforced by official government policies5. Sees the “untouchables” as closest to enlightenment
95 06.10 Which three religions have holy places in Jerusalem? 1. Sikhism, Islam, Judaism2. Islam, Christianity, Hinduism3. Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism4. Islam, Christianity, Judaism5. Jainism, Christianity, Judaism
96 06.10 Which three religions have holy places in Jerusalem? 1. Sikhism, Islam, Judaism2. Islam, Christianity, Hinduism3. Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism4. Islam, Christianity, Judaism5. Jainism, Christianity, Judaism