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CHAPTER 6 RELIGION. FOCUS ON THE FOLLOWING IN THIS CHAPTER 1.Universal vs. Ethnic 2.Major Universal and Ethnic characteristics (where are they, percentage.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 6 RELIGION. FOCUS ON THE FOLLOWING IN THIS CHAPTER 1.Universal vs. Ethnic 2.Major Universal and Ethnic characteristics (where are they, percentage."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 6 RELIGION

2 FOCUS ON THE FOLLOWING IN THIS CHAPTER 1.Universal vs. Ethnic 2.Major Universal and Ethnic characteristics (where are they, percentage of world population…) 3.Major branches of those religions 4.Where are the major religions and their major branches and why are they there? (ex. Historical migration patterns) 5.How do different religions affect the environment? ex. burial practices) 6.Examples of religious tension/fighting/war (ex. Northern Ireland)

3 GEOGRAPHERS & RELIGION… Geographers are concerned with the process of how religions diffuse and possible conflicts Examine how religions have a two way relationship with the environment They want to understand why some are widespread and others are clustered in specific places

4 ISSUE #1 Where are Religions Distributed?

5 TYPES OF RELIGIONS UNIVERSALIZING Attempt to be global Appeal to all people, regardless of location or culture About 62% of the world’s population Are divided into branches, denominations, and sects ETHNIC Appeal primarily to one group in one place About 24% of world’s population

6 UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS CHRISTIANITY BUDDHISM ISLAM

7 ETHNIC RELIGIONS HINDUISM CONFUCIANISM DAOISM (TAOISM) SHINTOISM JUDAISM AFRICAN RELIGIONS

8 World Distribution of Religions Fig. 6-1: World religions by continent. KNOW THIS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

9 World Population by Religion Fig. 6-1a: Over two thirds of the world’s population adhere to Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism. Christianity is the single largest world religion.

10 CHRISTIANITY 3 major branches are Roman Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox About 90% of people in the Western Hemisphere are Christian

11 ISLAM Islam means “submission to the will of god” – a follower of Islam is called a Muslim (one who surrenders to God) Predominates from North Africa to Central Asia – population is increasing in North America and Europe 2 main branches are Sunni and Shiite (Shia)

12 BUDDHISM Located primarily in China and Southeast Asia 3 main branches are Mahayana, Theravada, Tantrayana Accurate count is difficult because: 1.Few participate in Buddhist institutions 2.Differs from Western concept of a formal religion 3.Communism in China

13 ETHNIC RELIGIONS You are responsible for this section, pages

14 ISSUE #2 Why do Religions Have Different Distributions? (read and know the intro!!!)

15 ORIGINS UNIVERSALIZING Specific places of origin Based on the life of one man (ex. Christianity-Jesus, Islam- Muhammad, Buddhism- Siddhartha) ETHNIC Unknown/unclear origins not identified with one specific individual (ex. Hinduism-Indian culture over several centuries) - Judaism is an exception

16 DIFFUSION-UNIVERSALIZING All 3 diffused from specific hearths located in Asia. Buddhism-present day Nepal; Christianity-present day Israel; Islam-present day Saudi Arabia

17 CHRISTIANITY Diffused through a combination of all types of diffusion (relocation and expansion)

18 ISLAM Diffused very rapidly through North Africa, SW Europe and SW Asia

19 BUDDHISM

20 DIFFUSION - ETHNIC Limited to no diffusion; usually by relocation diffusion Unlike universalizing, they don’t have missionaries They are often either replaced by URs or mix with them – Ex. Traditional African religious mixing with Christianity – 70% of Japanese say they are Buddhist, 90% say they are Shinto (huh?) Judaism the exception to this trend – it’s practiced in many countries, not just location of its origins

21 TYPE 2 1.List 3 universalizing religions and 3 ethnic religions 2.List 3 major differences between universalizing and ethnic religions 3.List the primary locations of the 3 universalizing religions (use regions, not countries – for ex. Western Hemisphere, Eastern Europe….)

22 HOLY PLACES UNIVERSALIZING Tend to be tied to places related to the founder (cities, villages…) Ex. Mecca for Muhammad/Islam ETHNIC Tend to be tied to the physical environment of the hearth (mountains, rivers…) Ex. Ganges River for Hindus

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24 IMPORTANT SITES IN JERUSALEM

25 WESTERN WALL (wailing wall) Section of the western wall that remains of the Jewish Temple destroyed in A.D. 70 Extremely sacred place for Jews

26 DOME OF THE ROCK Built to represent the greatness of Islam Built on the site of the rock on which Abraham went to sacrifice his son Also the site of Muhammad’s “night journey”

27 CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHER Built over the site of Jesus’ burial Extremely sacred to Christians

28 Holy Sites for Buddhists Fig. 6-9: Most holy sites in Buddhism are locations of important events in Buddha’s life and are clustered in northeastern India and southern Nepal.

29 Buddhist Temple Bodh Gaya, India

30 Mecca, Islam’s Holiest City Fig. 6-10: Makkah (Mecca) is the holiest city in Islam and the site of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims each year. There are numerous holy sites in the city.

31 Makkah during the Haj Pilgrimage The Ka’ba stands at the center of the Great Mosque (al-Haran al Sharif) in Makkah.

32 Ritual Bathing in the Ganges River Hindu pilgrims achieve purification by bathing in the Ganges.

33 Baha’i Temple in Uganda

34 The Golden Temple in Amritsar The Golden Temple (Darbar Sahib) in Amritsar, India is the holiest structure for Sikhism.

35 COSMOGONY -Read this section on Look at how universalizing and ethnic religions differ in the following: -Creation of the world? How? -Interaction with nature? -Modification of nature?

36 CALENDAR UNIVERSALIZING Holidays based primarily on significant events of the founder’s life Ex. - birth of Jesus (Christians) - Siddhartha’s birth (Buddhists) ETHNIC Holidays based primarily on physical geography of the homeland (seasons and agriculture) Ex. - Holi for Hindus - Bontok of the Philippines

37 CALENDARS - ETHNIC Prominent feature of ERs is the celebration of seasons – particularly for agriculture Judaism – major holidays based on agriculture in Israel – Ex. Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement – Fall) Use a lunar calendar Solstice has a significant meaning for many ethnic religions (shortest and longest days of year)

38 CALENDARS - UNIVERSALIZING Prominent feature is celebrating events of the founder’s life Islam uses a lunar calendar, Christianity a solar Holidays arrive in different seasons from generation to generation when using a lunar calendar(ex. Ramadan for Muslims) Not all members of URs celebrate same holidays on same day ( ex. Easter, Buddha’s birth)

39 ISSUE #3 Why do Religions Organize Space in Different Patterns? (AP test likes questions about the impact of religion on space)

40 Places of Worship All major religions have these structures/buildings The function of these locations influences the arrangement of them over the landscape Have different characteristics, purposes, meanings…. The distribution of these religious elements on the landscape reflects the importance of religion for that particular society

41 Christianity – Church (sanctified for public worship) Islam – Mosque (public assembly) Hinduism – Temple (more for shrines, home is used more for worship) Buddhism, Shintoism – Pagodas (contain relics)

42 Church – St. Paul’s in London

43 Blue Mosque - Turkey

44 Hindu Temple - India

45 Pagoda - China

46 SACRED SPACE How religions distribute their elements across land depends on their beliefs distributions range from very small (cemetery) to very large (entire communities - ex. Salt Lake City, Utah) Most significant land use is for burial and religious settlements

47 SACRED SPACE - BURIAL Climate, topography, and doctrine combine to create different burial practices Use of cemeteries (Christianity, Judaism, Islam) – Health concerns – Bodies facing certain direction – Used as parks – Take up valuable land (ex. China now encouraging cremation) Not all bury dead (ex. Cremation for Hindus)

48 SACRED SPACE – RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENTS Most settlements serve an economic purpose, some serve a religious one – Utopian societies (Salt Lake City) – Religious impact on colonial settlements (clustered settlement patterns of Puritans in New England)

49 SACRED SPACE – RELIGIOUS PLACE NAMES Roman Catholics often give place names (also called ?????) to settlements, particularly in the new world – Quebec – U.S. Southwest

50 Place Names in Québec Fig. 6-12: Place names in Québec show the impact of religion on the landscape. Many cities and towns are named after saints.

51 BUILDINGS OF WORSHIP VIDEOS Hindu Temple Muslim Mosque Jewish Synagogue Christian Church

52 ISSUE #4 Why do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups?

53 Since WWII local conflicts in areas of cultural diversity have increased (often religiously based) Inflexible religious views = conflict

54 RELIGION v. GOVERNMENT POLICIES Role of religion in organizing the earth’s surface has been diminished in some areas, largely due to political and economic change Know examples of how for each of the following: – Islam particularly affected – Hinduism and West – Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and Communism VS.

55 RELIGION vs. GOVERNMENT POLICIES Religion v. Communism Vs.

56 RELIGION vs. RELIGION Catholic v. Protestant Christian v. Muslim Sunni v. ShiiteHindu v. Muslim Know these examples

57 RELIGIOUS WARS IN IRELAND Worst religious boundary in W. Europe Republic of Ireland – 92% Roman Catholic Northern Ireland (UK) – 58% Protestant and 42% Roman Catholic Island became part of the UK in 1801 Declared independence in 1937, members of the North chose to stay part of the UK (why?) RCs victimized by discrimination in the Northern Ireland – fighting between RCs and Ps has led to more than 3,000 deaths since 1968 – IRA- UDF Majority want peace, extremist elements make that difficult

58 UNITED KINGDOM

59 IRELAND cont. Fig 6-14: When Ireland became independent in 1937, 26 northern districts with large Protestant populations chose to remain part of the United Kingdom.

60 Catholic Protestors in Northern Ireland

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65 RELIGIOUS WARS – MIDDLE EAST Jews, Christians and Muslims have been fighting over land for centuries (historical name is Palestine) Jews - trace their origins here (Promised Land) - kicked out by the Romans in A.D. 70 Christians – major events of Jesus’ life centered here and Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire in the 4 th century Muslims – Jerusalem is their third holiest city, believe Muhammad ascended to heaven from there – Have controlled this area for most of the past 1,500 years

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67 CRUSADES Muslim empire expanded quickly after Muhammad’s death (632) across northern Africa and into Europe Beginning in 1099 the Christians in WE launched a series of military campaigns to regain the holy land (lasted about 150 years, gain, and then lose, control of the holy land)

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69 JEWS vs. MUSLIMS IN PALESTINE Ottoman Empire (Muslim) ruled Palestine from 1500s – 1917 (what happened in 1917?) UN voted to partition it into 2 countries, Jewish and Muslim in 1947 (what about Jerusalem?) 1948 – Jews declare their country, Arab neighbors attack the next day Armistice in 1949 divided control of Jerusalem 3 more wars fought between Israel and its neighbors: – 1956, 1967 (Six Days War), 1973 (read caption to maps on 211) Camp David Accords

70 ISRAEL TODAY

71 Boundary Changes in Palestine/Israel Fig. 6-16: The UN partition plan for Palestine in 1947 contrasted with the boundaries that were established after the War. Major changes later resulted from the 1967 War.

72 CONFLICT – PALESTINIAN PERSPECTIVES After 1973 the Palestinians emerged as Israel’s primary opponent – Know 5 groups considering themselves Palestinians Palestinians are very angry with Jewish settlements in the West Bank, consider this area their historical homeland as well Role of the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) Some Palestinians are willing to accept the existence of while others (ex. Hamas) are not

73 CONFLICT – ISRAELI PERSPECTIVE Sees itself as a small, Jewish nation surrounded by enemies Major geographic considerations: 1.Major population centers are close to int’l borders (vulnerable) 2.Landforms (northern hills, West Bank, Golan Heights)

74 Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Political and Physical maps Fig. 6-17: The West Bank and Gaza have been under Israeli control since 1967, and numerous Israeli settlements have been established there. The area includes three physical regions: the coastal plain, the hills, and the Jordan River Valley.

75 Section of Israeli Security Barrier Fig : A typical section of the security barrier built by Israel in the West Bank.

76 Israel’s Barrier in the West Bank Fig : The planned route of Israel’s security barrier in the West Bank includes many of Israel’s settlements in the territory.

77 Jerusalem Jerusalem - in the end, it all comes down to Jerusalem, no agreement on Jerusalem = continued tension Fig. 6-15: The Old City of Jerusalem contains holy sites for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

78 Chapter 6: Review

79 06.01 Which of the following is not a universalizing religion? 1. Buddhism 2. Christianity 3. Judaism 4. Islam

80 06.01 Which of the following is not a universalizing religion? 1. Buddhism 2. Christianity 3. Judaism 4. Islam

81 06.02 Roman Catholicism predominates in 1. Northern Europe 2. East Asia 3. Canada 4. South America 5. Australia

82 06.02 Roman Catholicism predominates in 1. Northern Europe 2. East Asia 3. Canada 4. South America 5. Australia

83 06.03 Which of the following is not one of the five pillars of Islam? 1. Accept Allah as the one God 2. Donate to charities 3. Fast during the month of Ramadan 4. Make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem 5. Pray five times daily

84 06.03 Which of the following is not one of the five pillars of Islam? 1. Accept Allah as the one God 2. Donate to charities 3. Fast during the month of Ramadan 4. Make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem 5. Pray five times daily

85 06.04 In which region are ethnic religions most widely practiced? 1. Asia 2. South America 3. North America 4. North Africa 5. Europe

86 06.04 In which region are ethnic religions most widely practiced? 1. Asia 2. South America 3. North America 4. North Africa 5. Europe

87 06.06 __________ consider solstices to be holy times. 1. Buddhists 2. Jews 3. Confucians 4. Christians 5. Pagans

88 06.06 __________ consider solstices to be holy times. 1. Buddhists 2. Jews 3. Confucians 4. Christians 5. Pagans

89 06.07 _________ typically favors cremation over burial. 1. Islam 2. Judaism 3. Taoism 4. Christianity 5. Hinduism

90 06.07 _________ typically favors cremation over burial. 1. Islam 2. Judaism 3. Taoism 4. Christianity 5. Hinduism

91 06.08 What is the second-highest rank within the Roman Catholic hierarchy? 1. Pope 2. Archbishop 3. Bishop 4. Cardinal 5. Priest

92 06.08 What is the second-highest rank within the Roman Catholic hierarchy? 1. Pope 2. Archbishop 3. Bishop 4. Cardinal 5. Priest

93 06.09 The caste system in India 1. Places Shudras at the top of the hierarchy 2. Was created by the Aryan invaders of India 3. Does not affect how individual Hindus practice the religion 4. Is enforced by official government policies 5. Sees the “untouchables” as closest to enlightenment

94 06.09 The caste system in India 1. Places Shudras at the top of the hierarchy 2. Was created by the Aryan invaders of India 3. Does not affect how individual Hindus practice the religion 4. Is enforced by official government policies 5. Sees the “untouchables” as closest to enlightenment

95 06.10 Which three religions have holy places in Jerusalem? 1. Sikhism, Islam, Judaism 2. Islam, Christianity, Hinduism 3. Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism 4. Islam, Christianity, Judaism 5. Jainism, Christianity, Judaism

96 06.10 Which three religions have holy places in Jerusalem? 1. Sikhism, Islam, Judaism 2. Islam, Christianity, Hinduism 3. Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism 4. Islam, Christianity, Judaism 5. Jainism, Christianity, Judaism

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