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World History: The Earth and its Peoples

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1 World History: The Earth and its Peoples
Chapter 11 Peoples and Civilizations of the Americas, C.E.

2 Objectives How did differing environments influence the development of Mesoamerican, Andean, and northern people? What technologies were developed to meet the challenges of these environments? How were the civilizations of Mesoamerica and the Andean region similar? How did they differ? How did religious belief and practice influence political life in the ancient Americas?

3 Classic-Era Culture and Society, 200-900
Classic Period - ( CE) Olmec traditions platform and pyramid structures political and cultural innovations elite ability to control laborers rich and power of leaders Teotihuacan - ( CE) largest city in Americas 125,000 to 200,000 pyramids to Sun and Moon gods human sacrifice well-being of society Quetzalcoatl feathered serpent god

4 Classic-Era Culture and Society, 200-900
Teotihuacan Agriculture marginal lands into production chinampas “floating gardens” year-round farming Commoner Housing apartment-like stone buildings artisans Commerce base of wealth for elite class Politics alliance of elite families demise to invaders or interior elite / class conflict

5 The Maya Maya city-states rulers Guatemala, Belize, Honduras
tropical climate and fragile soils managed forests; terracing draining swamps; gardens single culture, no political unity city-states centered of religious temples awe the masses pyramids and plazas alignment with Sun and Venus rulers priestly and political bloodletting as communication

6 The Maya Military Women Technology captives not territory ruling class
elite warriors sacrificed Women ruling class important roles in ceremonies bloodletting common gardens; family, religion, healing Technology calendric system ritual, solar, cycle, long count math zero and place value

7 Postclassic Period, 900-1500 Population expansion
intensified agriculture increased warfare Toltecs CE Tula important innovations military and political conquest state warrior, sacrifice images downfall division of responsibility struggle between religious cults new Mesoamerican order urbanized Toltec statecraft

8 The Aztecs Aztecs - 1325 shift to monarch system Mexica
clan-based from N. Mexico serfs and mercenaries adopt Toltec urbanization Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco Lake Texcoco shift to monarch system rulers selected by council war provided legitimacy social reorganization (inequality) warrior elite slaves and serfs clothes, diets, marriage

9 Aztecs Population Agriculture Commerce 150,000 (500,000 by 1500 CE)
labor of clans and defeated land reclamation Lake Texcoco dike chinampas maize, fruits, vegetables tribute system 1/4 of crops Commerce specialized merchant class no money or credit (barter) Tenochtitlan markets

10 Aztecs Religion human sacrifice polytheistic; dual nature gods
male and female war and agriculture (Twin Temples) Huitzilopochtli cult of the hummingbird Sun’s warmth human hearts Tlatoc rain god human sacrifice war captives criminals, slaves, tribute political subtext

11 Sacrificial Tools

12 Northern Peoples ^ Agriculture = ^ Population Southwestern Cultures
maize, beans, squash irrigation systems Southwestern Cultures Mexican influence Anasazi CE “ancient ones” four-corner region underground buildings (kivas) artisan activities Decline population pressures limited arable land in drought

13 Mound Builders Adena - 500 BCE Hopewell - 100-400 CE Cahokia
Ohio River Valley monumental earthworks elite burial mounds Hopewell CE hunter-gatherer / limited agriculture chiefdom hereditary religious and secular Cahokia Mississippi Valley East St. Louis 30,000 population

14 Andean Civilizations, 200-1500
Andean Society effective organization of labor khipus census and tribute counts terrace farming ayllu (clan) communally held land reciprocal relationship mit’a (territorial state) state projects vertical integration small ecological areas access to essential zones

15 Moche Moche - 200 CE artisanship decline city-state massive irrigation
influence via military theocratic society massive irrigation coca for religious rituals llamas and alpacas artisanship pottery: textiles gold and silver objects: metal tools decline natural disasters rise of new military powers (Wari)

16 Tiwanaku and Wari Tiwanaku Wari Decline Andean highland (13,000’)
Lake Titicaca reclamations ceremonial / political center large regional population Wari possible twin capital or dependency lacks central planning Decline increased military conflict

17 The Inca Inca Weakening ambitious military expansion
resources from ecological zones llamas and alpacas collective efforts 1/7 male population held hostage local ruler heirs held in Cuzco Cuzco Incan capital shape of a Puma Weakening civil war in 1525

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