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World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 11 Peoples and Civilizations of the Americas, 200 - 1500 C.E.

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Presentation on theme: "World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 11 Peoples and Civilizations of the Americas, 200 - 1500 C.E."— Presentation transcript:

1 World History: The Earth and its Peoples Chapter 11 Peoples and Civilizations of the Americas, 200 - 1500 C.E.

2 Objectives How did differing environments influence the development of Mesoamerican, Andean, and northern people? What technologies were developed to meet the challenges of these environments? How were the civilizations of Mesoamerica and the Andean region similar? How did they differ? How did religious belief and practice influence political life in the ancient Americas?

3 Classic-Era Culture and Society, 200-900 Classic Period - (200-900 CE) –Olmec traditions –platform and pyramid structures political and cultural innovations –elite ability to control laborers –rich and power of leaders Teotihuacan - (450-600 CE) –largest city in Americas 125,000 to 200,000 –pyramids to Sun and Moon gods human sacrifice –well-being of society –Quetzalcoatl feathered serpent god

4 Classic-Era Culture and Society, 200-900 Teotihuacan Agriculture –marginal lands into production –chinampas “floating gardens” year-round farming Commoner Housing –apartment-like stone buildings –artisans Commerce –base of wealth for elite class Politics –alliance of elite families –demise to invaders or interior elite / class conflict

5 The Maya Maya –Guatemala, Belize, Honduras –tropical climate and fragile soils managed forests; terracing draining swamps; gardens –single culture, no political unity city-states –centered of religious temples awe the masses pyramids and plazas alignment with Sun and Venus rulers –priestly and political –bloodletting as communication

6 The Maya Military –captives not territory elite warriors sacrificed Women –ruling class important roles in ceremonies bloodletting –common gardens; family, religion, healing Technology –calendric system ritual, solar, cycle, long count –math zero and place value

7 Postclassic Period, 900-1500 Population expansion –intensified agriculture –increased warfare Toltecs - 968-1156 CE –Tula –important innovations military and political conquest state –warrior, sacrifice images –downfall division of responsibility struggle between religious cults new Mesoamerican order –urbanized Toltec statecraft

8 The Aztecs Aztecs - 1325 –Mexica –clan-based from N. Mexico serfs and mercenaries adopt Toltec urbanization –Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco Lake Texcoco shift to monarch system –rulers selected by council –war provided legitimacy –social reorganization (inequality) warrior elite –slaves and serfs clothes, diets, marriage

9 Aztecs Population –150,000 (500,000 by 1500 CE) Agriculture –labor of clans and defeated –land reclamation Lake Texcoco dike –chinampas maize, fruits, vegetables –tribute system 1/4 of crops Commerce –specialized merchant class –no money or credit (barter) –Tenochtitlan markets

10 Aztecs Religion –polytheistic; dual nature gods male and female war and agriculture (Twin Temples) –Huitzilopochtli cult of the hummingbird Sun’s warmth –human hearts –Tlatoc rain god human sacrifice –war captives –criminals, slaves, tribute –political subtext

11 Sacrificial Tools

12 Northern Peoples ^ Agriculture = ^ Population –maize, beans, squash –irrigation systems Southwestern Cultures –Mexican influence Anasazi - 450-1200 CE –“ancient ones” –four-corner region –underground buildings (kivas) artisan activities Decline –population pressures –limited arable land in drought

13 Mound Builders Adena - 500 BCE –Ohio River Valley –monumental earthworks elite burial mounds Hopewell - 100-400 CE –hunter-gatherer / limited agriculture –chiefdom hereditary religious and secular Cahokia –Mississippi Valley –East St. Louis –30,000 population

14 Andean Civilizations, 200-1500 Andean Society –effective organization of labor khipus –census and tribute counts terrace farming –ayllu (clan) communally held land reciprocal relationship –mit’a (territorial state) state projects vertical integration –small ecological areas –access to essential zones

15 Moche Moche - 200 CE –city-state influence via military theocratic society –massive irrigation coca for religious rituals –llamas and alpacas artisanship –pottery: textiles –gold and silver objects: metal tools decline –natural disasters –rise of new military powers (Wari)

16 Tiwanaku and Wari Tiwanaku –Andean highland (13,000’) –Lake Titicaca reclamations –ceremonial / political center large regional population Wari –possible twin capital or dependency –lacks central planning Decline increased military conflict

17 The Inca Inca –ambitious military expansion resources from ecological zones llamas and alpacas –collective efforts 1/7 male population –held hostage local ruler heirs held in Cuzco –Cuzco Incan capital shape of a Puma Weakening –civil war in 1525

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