Why did Realism develop? Intellectual Ideas of the period: Materialism: Science, technology, and industry can help to understand all truth, solve all problems, and create happiness for humans. Utilitarianism: Virtue is based on utility and conduct should be directed toward promoting the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Survival of the fittest (Darwinian theory) Once applied to animals, now referred to the survival of businesses Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto Everyone is equal: in pay, in status, in goods. Rising standard of living Vaccinations, telegraph, public sanitation, electricity allowed for individuals living in an industrialized world live longer and healthier.
Realism in Visual Arts Objective: a truthful objective, scientific, view of the world Artists wanted to show society as it really was (not “Romanticized”) Scenes of industrial cities, physical labor, real people who complete the real work. Artist was thought of as a scientific observer of detail Movement was heavily influenced by the invention of the camera
Gaustave Courbet 1819-1877 French Father of Realist movement ◦ Despised labels Famous works: -Burial at Ornans -Interior of My Studio Technical elements: ◦ Simple and direct methods of construction ◦ Somber palette applied with palette knife Addressed social and controversial issues through his art. Many of his works were considered pornographic. His style encompassed the spontaneity, irregularity, and harshness of real life.
Burial at Ornans Burial at Ornans Gustave Courbet 1850
Burial at Ornans No heroism/exalted truth It’s a small town funeral. There is no glorification Incarnation of Socialism= funeral goers Even though the painting is divided into three groups of people, each group is equal in social status. There is no social hierarchy. Also, these individuals, who were once not permitted to be the subject of fine art, are now able to be the subjects. Scale of a history painting History painters are paintings that are extremely large and depict a historic event. This large canvas is dedicated to the average people Subject’s ordinariness and anti-heroic composition outraged critics This image lacks bright color. Courbet used color to symbolize the mundane realities of life and death. "The Burial at Ornans was in reality the burial of Romanticism.”
Interior of My Studio – Seven Years of My Life as an Artist- 1855
Interior of My Studio – Seven Years of My Life as an Artist “Fantasy Self-Portrait” ◦ Even though this painting depicts Courbet and other individuals present in a realistic manner, the organization of the composition is a figment of Courbet’s imagination. Courbet central character ◦ Courbet unites this otherwise divided painting. This painting is divided into three sections. The individuals to his left are peasants, a hunter, a priest, a mother and child who represent life in his hometown. Courbet’s art is made for these people. The individuals to his right are critics, clients, and intellectuals. These are the people who criticize his work; he DOES NOT create his work for them. Small child ◦ The small child represents innocence. Nude model ◦ The nude model represents nature.
Édouard Manet Édouard Manet 1832 – 1883 Born in Paris, France (frequently visited and studied at the Louvre when he was young). Painted “modern-life” subjects He began as a Realist but made the transition to Impressionism His two most famous paintings are thought to have marked the beginning of Modern art. - The Luncheon on the Grass - Olympia
The Luncheon on the Grass Models from real life ◦ Woman is a combination of Manet’s wife and favorite model. ◦ Men are Manet’s brother and brother-in- law. Nude is unidealized and unabashed ◦ Without shame, the woman sits at a picnic with two FULLY clothed men. Nothing is idealized… ◦ Ordinary men with a promiscuous woman in the park Flattening of forms, loose manner of composition ◦ These characteristics were some of the objections critics had to this piece. “A commonplace woman of the demione, as naked as can be, shamelessly lolls between two dandies dressed to the teeth The latter look like schoolboys on a holiday, perpetrating an outrage to play the man, This is a young man’s practical joke- a shameful, open sore.
This is an image of a woman of his time --a courtesan ◦ “Olympia” was the professional name for prostitutes Formal Composition ◦ quickly, in rough brushstrokes No carefully constructed perspective ◦ Manet offers a picture frame flattened into two planes Body is a commodity. ◦ While middle-and- upper class gentlemen of the time may frequent courtesans and prostitutes, they do not want to be confronted with one in a painting gallery. A real woman, flaws and all, with an independent spirit. ◦ Shamelessness and look of defiance shocked viewers ◦ She is not idealized (no s-curve) Reference to racial divisions ◦ The maid serves the courtesan. A black maid and prostitute evoked moral depravity, inferiority, and animalistic sexuality “a courtesan with dirty hands and wrinkled feet… her body has the livid tint of a cadaver displayed in the morgue; her outlines are drawn in charcoal and her greenish, bloodshot eyes appear to be provoking the public, protected all the while by a hideous Negress.”
Thomas Eakins 1844 – 1916 Born in Philadelphia, PA A painter, photographer, sculptor, and professor Commonly used nude subjects (was fired from his teaching position for using a nude model in a drawing class in front of a female student). Had an interest in and was an innovator in the subject of motion photography. He used photographs to paint his subjects.
The Gross Clinic Dr. Gross, a Pennsylvania doctor, is a pioneer surgeon who is demonstrating a daring procedure Physician is relatively emotionless; the patient’s mother is very upset Attendants hold chlorophorm and the bloody incision- very important! Why? Symbolizes the people’s faith in scientific and medical progress ◦ The light focuses on Dr. Gross’ head (his brain) and on the dissected leg. ◦ Patient suffered from osteomyelitis (a bone infection) This painting is controversial because of its graphic nature and also because the surgery itself is controversial (they would have amputated rather than done procedure). “It is a picture that even strong men find difficult to look at long, if they can look at all.”
Baby at Play The painting depicts the artist's two-and-a-half-year- old niece, Ella Crowell playing. His penetrating psychological insight elevates this picture from a sentimental genre scene to a highly serious portrayal of an earnest, intelligent child. Controversy? ◦ There isn’t much controversy surrounding the baby. The composition has been discussed because the relaxed scene of the child playing has such a formal composition. Formal Elements: ◦ Her figure is arranged in a stable pyramidal block at the composition's center and the deft handling of light and shadow further emphasizes spatial volume. Eakins' choice of a lowered vantage point encourages the spectator to adopt a child's point of view.
What did you learn? Complete the handout entitled, “Realism Learning Guide: Visual Art Content Check” using your notes. TURN AND TALK… ◦ 2 Brains ◦ Your notes ◦ Your right answers…
Burial at Ornans Burial at Ornans Gustave Courbet 1850
Interior of My Studio – Seven Years of My Life as an Artist- 1855
Realism in Theater There is significant character development Dialogue Foreshadowing Cause-and-Effect Structure sometimes even seemed “plotless” no real story but only a focus on the characters. Characters finally seen as individuals with props that give information on the character Subjects: Dismal Controversial topics topics which Victorian society attempted to conceal. The plays you will study confront and redefine Victorian gender roles.
Realist Themes Realist Themes: Theme One: Direct observation of human behavior and it was to deal with everyday life and problems as subjects and themes. Theme Two: Criticism of societies and the recognition of the absurdity of life. Theme Three: A longing for another life that is either better or different than the one being lived.
Henrik Ibsen 1828 – 1906 Born in Norway His plays attacked society’s values and dealt with unconventional subjects within the form of the well-made play (cause- and-effect structure). Wrote about controversial topics of the time (STDs, marriage issues, roles of women in society) James Joyce said Ibsen’s work "has provoked more discussion and criticism that of any other living man." Famous work: A Doll’s House (1879).
A Doll’s House - Background Knowledge Major Idea: Gender Roles in Victorian England “In terms of gender ideology, the accession of Victoria (as a Queen) was something of a paradox. Traditionally, women were defined physically and intellectually as the 'weaker' sex, in all ways subordinate to male authority. In private life women were subject to fathers, husbands, brothers even adult sons. Publicly, men dominated all decision-making in political, legal and economic affairs.” http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/periods_styles/19thcentury/gender _health/gender_ideology/index.html http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/periods_styles/19thcentury/gender _health/gender_ideology/index.html Famous Work: A Doll’s House As you watch this clip, explain how Ibsen challenges the quote above. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLXkzcR1YK0
Reading: Why does A Doll’s House still impact us today? Objective: ◦ Demonstrate your knowledge of the impact of these plays on Victorian and Contemporary society Assignment: ◦ Read the summary of the play and answer the corresponding questions on your handout Note: Some of the questions are comprehension questions (Do you understand the text?) while others require you to analyze the impact of the play (Do we still struggle with the same issues discussed in the play?) Time Allotment: ◦ 12 minutes
Homework Objective: ◦ Create a Realist self-portrait Requirements: ◦ All subject matter in the painting must be “Realistic”. ◦ Clean lines… in a setting where you would occur ◦ Your illustration must take up an entire sheet of white computer paper. ◦ Your illustration must use color and must be drawn. Point Value: 20 pts ◦ (Equals two percentage points of your grade)
Exit Slip- Question Summary 1) Why is the Hay Wain Romantic? 2) Saturn Devouring His Son and The Family of Charles IV were created during the Romanticism era and by the same artist. Why are they so different? 3) What is “gesamtkunstwerk?” 4) Listening Check: Identify the composer and the song title. 5) Why are Luncheon on the Grass and Olympia significant to the world of art? 6) What was the main goal of Realist art? 7) Why is The Burial at Ornans controversial? 8) Who is considered the father of the Realist movement? 9) What technological innovation fueled the Realist Movement? 10) Practice short answer: ◦ List the three innovations made to ballet during the Romantic period. ◦ Explain why each of these innovations was made and how it reflects Romanticism in dance.
1.) Why is this painting Romantic? A. Cleanliness of nature contrasts with the filth of the city during the Industrial Revolution. B. The use of the Classical style in depicting the human figure. C. The focus on chivalry and the supernatural. D. The ornamentation and bold colors that the artist has incorporated to attract attention.
2.) 2.) Both paintings were created during the Romanticism era and by the same artist. Why are they so different? A.The artist became mentally ill and wanted to share his nightmarish visions with the world. B.The artist lost favor with the royal family and wanted to depict them being eaten. C.The artist lost his hearing and as a result became very callous and began creating nightmarish depictions to reflect his pain. D.The above statement is incorrect and the painting on the left actually belongs in the Baroque era.
3.) What is “gesamtkunstwerk?” A. Wagner’s description of his vision of opera as a perfect union of theatre, music, dance, and visual art. B. A synonym for polyphony combining two different melodic lines simultaneously. C. The aspects of music that determines the variations in of loudness or softness. D. A form of music in which a theme is developed usually by counterpoint.
4.) Listening Check: Identify the composer and the song title. A.Ride of the Valkyries, Wagner A. Kill Da Wabbit, Palestrina B. The Wedding March, Wagner C. Four Swans, Tchaikovsky
5.) Why are the above paintings significant to the world of art? A. They portrayed wealthy and influential women of the time period. B. They are the definition of what should be in a Romantic painting. C. They document important events of the time period. D. They represent the beginning of modern art.
6.) What was the main goal of Realist art? A. To help people remember times when life was simpler. B. Provide an escape from the rigors of the Industrial Revolution. C. To give truthful/objective view of the world, show the viewer things as they actually appear. D. To inspire emotions of awe and chivalry.
7.) Why is this painting controversial? A.The man being buried was a known criminal and did not deserve to be painted. B.The Catholic church was angry that some of the mourners were protestant and should not have been included. C.Conflicted with Romantic ideals of heroism and a lack of respect for social hierarchy. D.The artist failed to be a scientific observer of the scene.
8.) Who is considered the father of the Realist movement? A. Bernini B. Eakin C. Courbet D. Manet
Bellringer What technological innovation fueled the Realist Movement? A. The Cotton Gin B. The Telegraph C. The Phonograph D. The Camera