Presentation on theme: "Section 2 quiz Which describes one way that early hunter-gatherers got food? They used language to organize They used tools to kill animals They grew crops."— Presentation transcript:
1Section 2 quizWhich describes one way that early hunter-gatherers got food?They used language to organizeThey used tools to kill animalsThey grew crops on farmsThey grew seeds and nutsWhat was the main unit of Stone Age culture?Groups of either hunters or gatherersA mother, a father, and childrenLarge tribes led by several leadersA small group or band of peopleWhich is a kind of technology used by Stone Age humans?FireBurialCavesEggsHow do nomads live?They return to the same place each summer and winterThey make villages from connected cavesThey travel from place to place with the seasonsThey build villages with permanent homesWhich group was the first to bury its dead?hunter-gatherersNeanderthalsHomo sapiensEarly Stone Age humans
2Section 3: Populating the Earth Homo Sapiens spread out to populate, or become inhabitants of, almost every land area of the world.The Human MigrationArchaeologists disagree on where modern humans came from or how they spreadStudy fossils and genetic informationTwo Theories about Migration“Out of Africa” theory suggests that humans migrated from Africa to new places, replacing those that already lived there.Another theory is that large-brained humans developed separately in many different parts of the world.New EvidenceNew evidence from a skull found in 2007 suggests that humans were already in their modern form when they migrated from Africa.A 2008 genetic study gives a boost to the “out of Africa” theory.Still, many questions about human migration remain unanswered.30,000 years ago, Homo sapiens were living in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia
3Quick Facts- DO NOT WRITE!! Reasons for migration include:The land on which they live no longer provides enough food for growing populationsThey need to escape immediate weather problems, such as flooding, or long-term climate problems, such as droughtAs population grow, people may want more space or need to escape overcrowding that causes disease or conflictConflicts over food, land, or power sometimes push people to explore new landsMany people have a strong drive to explore that drives them toward new lands.
4Adapting to Varied Environments As human migrated they had to adapt to new environments.A Changing ClimateDuring the past two million years- including the Stone Age- the Earth has had four long ice ages.The last great Ice Age began about 70,000 years ago, soon after modern humans appeared.Well-watered grasslands became desertsSea-level dropped- exposing land bridgesMany animals had to migrate to find foodPeople had to follow the herds for foodStaying WarmIce-Age hunter gathers learned to adaptBuilt huts out of mammoth bones and covered with animal skinUsing bone needles, they sewed snug clothing from animal skins and fursKept fires burning day and night
5Quick Facts: DO NOT WRITE Glaciers form when more snow falls than melts. Over time, so much snow piles up that the lowest layers are compressed into ice. The more fresh water that is frozen in glaciers, the less that can evaporate into clouds to fall as rain. Gravity pushes the heavy glaciers gradually downhill. The weight and movement of glaciers shapes the land in several ways. For example, glaciers push down on land to create valleys. They carve out land by picking up pieces of rock and carrying them downhill. Today, glaciers hold 70 percent to 75 percent of the fresh water on Earth. They dramatically affect the level of the seas as a result. During the warm time of dinosaurs, sea levels were about 18 feet higher than they are today. In the last ice age, sea levels were 400 feet lower because so much land was frozen in glaciers.
6Forming Larger Communities Some adapted to change by forming larger communitiesHunters could work togetherBetter defense against other nomadic groupsClans formed (25-50 people)Communities began to tradeDeveloping Complex Cultures: The Evidence of ArtCommunities became more and more complexPaintings in CavesDiscovered Lascaux cave paintings in 1940Some images were carved but most were paintedMade pigments by grinding up minerals of various colorsWhat Do They Tell Us?Humans are capable of complex thoughts and actionsDeveloping Complex Cultures: Religious Beliefs and PracticesReligious beliefs and practices are a sign of a more complex culture
7Ice Age people buried their dead Early Religious Practices Burial PracticesIce Age people buried their deadChildren covered with ivory beads in Russian graveEarly Religious PracticesCave paintings, statues, and burial sites suggest how early humans reacted to mysterious and powerful sources.Suggest that they believed in animism- natural world is filled with spirits.The Next Big ChangeBy the end of the Paleolithic Era, humans…Occupied many regions of the worldDeveloped a complex spoken languageVariety of tools and weaponsAdapted to different environmentsStill lived in small groups as hunter-gatherersAround 10,000 years ago Neolithic Era beganWatch Video: https://humanorigins.si.edu/resources/multimedia/videos/evidence-human-origins