Presentation on theme: "Section 2 quiz 1.Which describes one way that early hunter-gatherers got food? a)They used language to organize b)They used tools to kill animals c)They."— Presentation transcript:
Section 2 quiz 1.Which describes one way that early hunter-gatherers got food? a)They used language to organize b)They used tools to kill animals c)They grew crops on farms d)They grew seeds and nuts 2.What was the main unit of Stone Age culture? a)Groups of either hunters or gatherers b)A mother, a father, and children c)Large tribes led by several leaders d)A small group or band of people 3.Which is a kind of technology used by Stone Age humans? a)Fire b)Burial c)Caves d)Eggs 4.How do nomads live? a)They return to the same place each summer and winter b)They make villages from connected caves c)They travel from place to place with the seasons d)They build villages with permanent homes 5.Which group was the first to bury its dead? a)hunter-gatherers b)Neanderthals c)Homo sapiens d)Early Stone Age humans
Section 3: Populating the Earth Homo Sapiens spread out to populate, or become inhabitants of, almost every land area of the world. The Human Migration Archaeologists disagree on where modern humans came from or how they spread Study fossils and genetic information Two Theories about Migration “Out of Africa” theory suggests that humans migrated from Africa to new places, replacing those that already lived there. Another theory is that large-brained humans developed separately in many different parts of the world. New Evidence New evidence from a skull found in 2007 suggests that humans were already in their modern form when they migrated from Africa. A 2008 genetic study gives a boost to the “out of Africa” theory. Still, many questions about human migration remain unanswered. 30,000 years ago, Homo sapiens were living in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia
Quick Facts- DO NOT WRITE!! Reasons for migration include: – The land on which they live no longer provides enough food for growing populations – They need to escape immediate weather problems, such as flooding, or long-term climate problems, such as drought – As population grow, people may want more space or need to escape overcrowding that causes disease or conflict – Conflicts over food, land, or power sometimes push people to explore new lands – Many people have a strong drive to explore that drives them toward new lands.
Adapting to Varied Environments As human migrated they had to adapt to new environments. A Changing Climate During the past two million years- including the Stone Age- the Earth has had four long ice ages. The last great Ice Age began about 70,000 years ago, soon after modern humans appeared. Well-watered grasslands became deserts Sea-level dropped- exposing land bridges Many animals had to migrate to find food People had to follow the herds for food Staying Warm Ice-Age hunter gathers learned to adapt – Built huts out of mammoth bones and covered with animal skin – Using bone needles, they sewed snug clothing from animal skins and furs – Kept fires burning day and night h?v=cRRlEyplGQ8&feature=play er_embedded
Quick Facts: DO NOT WRITE Glaciers form when more snow falls than melts. Over time, so much snow piles up that the lowest layers are compressed into ice. The more fresh water that is frozen in glaciers, the less that can evaporate into clouds to fall as rain. Gravity pushes the heavy glaciers gradually downhill. The weight and movement of glaciers shapes the land in several ways. For example, glaciers push down on land to create valleys. They carve out land by picking up pieces of rock and carrying them downhill. Today, glaciers hold 70 percent to 75 percent of the fresh water on Earth. They dramatically affect the level of the seas as a result. During the warm time of dinosaurs, sea levels were about 18 feet higher than they are today. In the last ice age, sea levels were 400 feet lower because so much land was frozen in glaciers.
Forming Larger Communities Some adapted to change by forming larger communities Hunters could work together Better defense against other nomadic groups Clans formed (25-50 people) Communities began to trade Developing Complex Cultures: The Evidence of Art Communities became more and more complex Paintings in Caves Discovered Lascaux cave paintings in 1940 Some images were carved but most were painted Made pigments by grinding up minerals of various colors What Do They Tell Us? Humans are capable of complex thoughts and actions Developing Complex Cultures: Religious Beliefs and Practices Religious beliefs and practices are a sign of a more complex culture
Burial Practices Ice Age people buried their dead – Children covered with ivory beads in Russian grave Early Religious Practices Cave paintings, statues, and burial sites suggest how early humans reacted to mysterious and powerful sources. Suggest that they believed in animism- natural world is filled with spirits. The Next Big Change By the end of the Paleolithic Era, humans… – Occupied many regions of the world – Developed a complex spoken language – Variety of tools and weapons – Adapted to different environments – Still lived in small groups as hunter-gatherers Around 10,000 years ago Neolithic Era began Watch Video: https://humanorigins.si.edu/resources/multimedia/videos/evidence-human- origins