Presentation on theme: "Settling the Americas How did early people adapt to life in North America? Page 20."— Presentation transcript:
1 Settling the AmericasHow did early people adapt to life in North America?Page 20
2 Settling the Americas – Lesson 1 How did the first Native Americans arrive in North America?Water routesLand routesWhy did hunter-gatherers settle in the Americas?They were following game that supplied their food and clothing.Glaciers trapped water to expose the floor of the Bering Sea between Siberia and Alaska. This formed a land bridge called Beringia.Hunter-gatherers crossed a land bridge following animals and picked berries, grasses, and mushrooms.
4 Settling the AmericasSurpluses in food allowed people time to specialize in trade, building, and pottery.What are the three main reasons civilizations develop?FarmingSurplusSpecialization
5 What are two of the earliest civilizations in Mexico? OlmecMayaWhat led to the decline of the Maya civilization?The people could not produce enough food for everyone.The Olmec were the first to use chocolate, develop a calendar, and understand the idea of zero.Teotihuacán was the first major city in the Americas. Its temples and streets were laid out according to the position of the sunThe Maya had a calendar, developed a mathematics system, built pyramids, created a system of writing, and studied the stars.Movie 45:52 – 53:06Page 23
6 What are three early North American civilizations and where did they settle? Hohokam (present-day Arizona)Ancestral Pueblo (the Southwest)Mound Builders (the Midwest)Why did some early people build mounds?The Hopewell used mounds for burials and religious ceremonies.Mississippians used mounds for burial and to watch the sun and stars.The Hohokam farmed using irrigation and built homes from adobe.Irrigation supplies land with water through a series of pipes and ditches.The Ancestral Pueblo built homes into the sides of cliffs and used dry farming.Dry farming uses collected rainwater and melted snow.Homes had special rooms, called kivas, for meetings and religious purposes.Cahokia was the greatest Mississippian city. In 1100 A.D., it was one of the largest cities in the world.Movie 37:38 – 45:45Page 25
7 Settling the AmericasWhat are two factors that affect the way that cultures developed?ClimateNatural resourcesWhat three crops were important to the Hohokam and the Ancestral Pueblo?maizebeanssquashHow did the availability of natural resources affect people’s decisions to settle.
8 Native Americans of the West – Lesson 2 How did environments of the West affect the lives of Native Americans?Page 28
9 Native Americans of the West Inuit were hunters who used different parts of animals for food, clothing, tools, and weapons.The Tlingit and other Pacific Northwestern groups used waterways to hunt and trade.Pacific Northwest groups made totem poles to tell stories about important family members and to celebrate special events.Potlatches are feasts at which guests receive gifts from the host.
10 made tools and shelter from natural resources Native Americans of the WestAlikeTlingitInuitconservednatural resourcesgot most food from seamade tools and shelter from natural resourceshunterslived in Arcticbuilt pit houses, igloos, tentswealthy tradersknown for craftsbuilt plank housesPage 31
11 People of the Southwest – Lesson 3 How did the Pueblo and Navajo adapt to a desert environment?Movie 30:10-37:38Page 32
12 The Navajo were hunter-gatherers who migrated to the Southwest. Native People of the SouthwestPuebloThe Pueblo used dry farming and built homes from adobe. Homes were secured by raising ladders so intruders could not enter.They also made jewelry.NavajoThe Navajo were hunter-gatherers who migrated to the Southwest.They borrowed ideas from the Pueblo to adapt to the desert environment. They used dry farming, wove cotton to make cloth, and made jewelry from silver and turquoise.They lived in hogans, which are dome shaped homes made from log or stick frames then covered with mud or sod.The Navajo captured sheep and became shepherds.They used the meat for food and they used wool to make clothes and blankets.
13 made silver and turquoise jewelry Native People of the SouthwestPuebloAlikeNavajobuilt single-family hogansraised sheep“walked in beauty”built adobe apartmentsgrew maizeused dry farmingwove cotton clothmade silver and turquoise jewelryPage 35
14 Native Americans of the Plains – Lesson 4 How did Native Americans of the Plains use natural resources to survive?Page 36
15 Native Americans of the Plains Native Americans of the Plains hunted bison for food, clothing, and to make teepees.Teepees are cone-shaped homes made with long poles and covered with animal hides.The Lakota kept records of important events of each year. These records are called winter counts.Boys and girls were taught different skills to prepare them for adulthood.List two ways life changed for Native Americans on the Plains after the arrival of horses.Hunted on horsebackTraded with faraway groupsPage 37
16 People of the Eastern Woodlands – Lesson 5 How did groups of the Eastern Woodlands live?Page 40
17 People of the Eastern Woodlands Eastern Woodlands groups used materials from the forest for food and clothing. for example, they ate muskrat and deer meat.Slash-and-burn farming is when people cut down, or slash, trees to allow rays of sunlight to reach a plot of land. Then they burn the undergrowth to clear room for crops.After the harvest, they leave the plot of land empty for several years. This prevents the soil from wearing out.Identify two major Native American groups that lived in the Eastern Woodlands.CreekIroquoisWhat kind of farming did they use and why?They used slash-and-burn farming because the forests were so thick.Page 41
18 They arranged the town around a council house or Chokofa. People of the Eastern WoodlandsCreekThe Creek built wattle-and-daub huts for individual families. Huts were made from poles and covered with grass, mud, or thatch.They arranged the town around a council house or Chokofa.They also decorated pots with stamps.IroquoisThe Iroquois built homes on top of steep-sided hills with wood. These homes are called longhouses.The used high log fences to protect their villagesPage 43
19 celebrated Green Corn Festival People of the Eastern WoodlandsCreekIroquoisAlikehad huts for individual familiesused wattle-and-daubarranged around a council hutstamped designs on potteryhad longhouses for several familiesbuilt of woodprotected village with fencemade wampumgrew corncelebrated Green Corn Festivalplayed lacrosse
20 Government in the Woodlands People of the Eastern WoodlandsGovernment in the WoodlandsCreekFormed a confederacyDivided towns into two typesWar towns (red)—declared war, planned battles, and held meetings with enemy groupsPeace towns (white)—passed laws and held prisonersPage 44
21 Government in the Woodlands People of the Eastern WoodlandsGovernment in the WoodlandsThe League of Six Nations is an example of an early democracy.Benjamin Franklin borrowed some of its ideas to include in the U.S. Constitution.IroquoisWomen led the clans and appointed male leaders.Formed the Iroquois ConfederacyBecame known as the League of Six Nations after the six Iroquois groups that formed itPurpose of the confederacy was to promote peace among Iroquois groups.Page 45
22 ReviewIn which areas of North America did native people settle and develop their cultures?WestSouthwestPlainsEastern WoodlandsWhat are three farming techniques that native people used?Irrigation – West in California desertDry Farming – SouthwestSlash-and-burn – Eastern WoodlandsHow did people in the Pacific Northwest use the sea?They used the sea to hunt and trade.
23 Describe some of the homes of native people and who built them. Adobe – bricks made from mud and straw; protects from extreme heat and cold (Hohokam and Pueblos)Cliffs – built into the sides of cliffs (Ancestral Pueblos)Hogans – dome-shaped homes made from log or stick frames and covered with mud or sod (Navajo)Teepees – cone-shaped homes made with long poles and covered with animal hides (Plains)Wattle-and-daub huts – made from poles and covered with grass, mud, or thatch (Creek)Longhouses – built with wood on tops of steep-sided hills (Iroquois)
24 Which Native American group formed the League of Six Nations? The Iroquois formed the League of Six Nations.How did Native Americans on the Great Plains adapt to the environment?They hunted bison and built lodges from grass, sticks, and soil.