2Identify the symbol for its religion. Question of the DayIdentify the symbol for its religion.126.96.36.199.4.
31. The moon and star is now a symbol of Islam 1. The moon and star is now a symbol of Islam. Some Muslim countries have the moon on their flag. This symbol was first used in Turkey.2. This is the Hindu symbol. It is called Om or Aum. This is the word for god.3. One of the oldest symbols of the Jewish faith is the menorah, a seven-branched candelabrum used in the Temple.4. This is the Sikh symbol. It is called the Khanda. It is a circle and two swords. The circle means God is always there. The sword means Sikhs believe in truth and must help people in need.5. This is a Buddhist symbol. The wheel shows the cycle of birth, death and reincarnation.
11Role of ReligionHow has religion played a role in the development of human societies?Combating social ills, sustaining the poor, promoting the arts, educating the deprived, and advancing medical knowledgeBlocked scientific study, encouraged the oppression of dissidents, supported colonialism and exploitation, and condemned women to an inferior status in many societiesPeople explain and justify how they and others “should” behave based on their religious beliefsRituals are important mark important events in peoples lives (births, deaths, marriages, adulthood, etc.
12disposition of the deceased - Each religion approaches the disposition of the deceased in different ways, and cultural landscapes reflect the religious traditions.Christian, western regions bury dead in cemetaries.Hindu faith requires cremation.HinducrematoriuminMombasa,Kenya
13Religion’s impact in history and culture is evident in its centrality in many places Churches often built in the center of towns, reflecting their importance.Antwerp, Belgium
15secularism 2009 survey – Is religion important in your life? More Developed Countries (MDCs)US – 57%France – 13%Sweden – 8%Czech Republic – 7%Less Developed Countries (LDCs)Senegal – 98%Bangladesh – 97%Brazil – 78%
16Europe or western society highly influenced by Christianity Identify characteristics about yourself that are influenced by religionpovertyeducationmedicinewomenoppression
26Early diffusion spread eastward to Southeast Asia Early diffusion spread eastward to Southeast Asia. Later, when Christianity and Islam appeared, Hindu thinkers attempted to assimilate certain teachings into their own religion.Island of Bali remains a Hindu outpost refuge for Hindu holy men, nobles, and intellectuals during the 16th century when Islam engulfed neighboring Java.
28HinduismCommon account holds that Hinduism originated from practices of ancient cities of Mojenjo Daro and Harappa (Indus River valley in Pakistan).ethnic religion do not actively seek convertsspread around world by British colonialism but you only see pockets of Hinduism rather than regionsHindus define their religion as monotheisticuniversal soul is Brahman (main god) and all other gods are various expressions of Brahmanmost consider it polytheistic
33Hindu Temple –Angkor Wat, Cambodia. This temple suffers from neglect and destruction now, as Buddhism has supplanted Hinduism in most of Cambodia.Early diffusion of Hinduism to Southeast Asia
34From the Hearth of South Asia Buddhism –splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago BCE). Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River area.* anyone can achieve salvation, reach enlightenmentfounder: Siddartha (the Buddha)sacred sites: stupas (contain sculptures of Buddha)diffusion: most strongly into Tibet in the north andinto East Asia**Enlightenment comes from self knowledge, elimination of greed, craving, and desire, complete honesty, and never hurting another person or animal.Formed as a reaction to questions about Hinduisms strict social hierarchy. Prince Siddhartha, heir to a wealthy kingdom in what is now Nepal, founded Buddhism.Spread by Emperor Asoka, the leader of a powerful Indian state, through missionaries into Southeast Asia and South Asia.
35Buddhism Estimated 347 million adherents to Buddhism Theraveda Buddhism a monastic faith that holds salvation is a personal matter, achieved through good and religious activities, including periods of service as a monk or nunSri Lanka, Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, and LaosMahayana Buddhism holds that salvation can be aided by appeals to superhuman, holy sources of merit; do not serve as monks but practice meditationVietnam, Korea, Japan, and ChinaLamaism (Tibet) combines monastic Buddhism with worship of local demons and deities.
36Buddhism S. Gautama Enlightenment “Buddha” Four Noble Truths Eightfold Path
37BuddhismETHICSEmphasis of Buddhism is ethical rather than theological.
38Four Noble Truths (64) Life is Suffering Cause of Suffering = Desire for Pleasure and Material GainRenounce Desires if you want to stop suffering.Follow the Eightfold PathRenounce DesiresAttain Nirvana
39The Eightfold Path (64) RIGHT Views RIGHT Intentions RIGHT Speech RIGHT ActionRIGHT LivingRIGHT EffortRIGHT MindfulnessRIGHT Concentration
43Shintoism Shintoism Japan focused on nature and ancestor worship many Japanese practice both Shintoism and Buddhism
44Shinto Shrine In Kyoto, Japan, this Shinto shrine is visible after walking through a torii – a gateway usually formed by two wooden posts and topped by two horizontal beams.When you enter through the gates, it signals you have left the secular and entered the sacred world.
45From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow) River Valley Taoism –originated in China more than 2500 years ago BCE)* oneness of humanity and naturefounder: Lao-Tsusacred text: “Book of the Way” (Tao Te Ching)social manifestation: Feng Shui - the art and science of organizing living spaces in order to channel life forces that exist in nature in favorable ways.diffusion: East AsiaGeomancers people who know the desires of the powerful spirits of ancestors, dragons, tigers, and other beings occupying the natural world.
46Taoism Taoist virtues the best government is the least government. simplicityspontaneitytendernesstranquilitycompetition, possession, and even pursuit of knowledge are to be avoided.the best government is the least government.
47From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow) River Valley Confucianism – (blueprint for Chinese civilization)originated in China about 2500 years BCE)* real meaning of life lay in the present* service to one’s fellow humans should supercede service to spirits.founder: Confucius (551 to 479 BCE)sacred text: “Confucian Classics” (Analects)* a collection of Confucius’ writings and sayingsdiffusion: East Asia, Southeast AsiaMainly a philosophy of lifeConfucius denied divine ancestry of Chinese rulers, educated the landless and weak, disliked supernatural mysticism, and argued that human virtues and abilities, not heritage, should determine a person’s position and responsibilities in society. EDUCATION was important!Chinese communist government tried to suppress the religion in 1949 from public practice but it survived.
48Communist China’s effect on religion Examples of opposition to government’s anti-religion initiativesburial moundscremation and columbaria
49From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean Judaism –originated in Southwest Asia about 4000 years ago.* first major monotheistic religion, covenant betweenGod (one God) and Abraham (the chosen people)sacred text: Torahfounder: Abrahamsacred sites: Jerusalem (Western Wall), land betweenthe Mediterranean and the Jordan Riversocial manifestation: Zionismdiffusion: into European cities during the diaspora,into N. America during WWII, into Israel overlast 50 yearsCovenant – Jews will worship only one God and God agrees to protect his chosen people, the Jews.One of the world’s most influential religions, even though it only claims 18 million adherents.
50Judaism Jews have a turbulent history. Moses led from Egypt to Canaan, where a split occurred, resulting in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah.Israel was wiped out immediately by conquering tribes but Judah survived until the Babylonians and Assyrians conquered them.Jews regrouped and took control of Jerusalem but were subsequently conquered by the Romans in 70 CE.diaspora scattered Jews across the globe.Zionism (emerged as a response to persecution)Ideals are rooted in the belief that Jews should not be absorbed into other societies and should have a homeland located in and around JerusalemJews did not return to the area of Israel until the late 19th and early 20th century. Known as the diaspora.Jews into Central Europe- Ashkenazim JewsJews into North Africa and Iberian Peninsula- Sephardim
51Judaism Reform- adjust practices to modern times Reform Judaism is the most liberal expression of modern Judaism. In America, Reform Judaism is organized under the Union for Reform Judaism (formerly known as the Union of American Hebrew Congregations), whose mission is "to create and sustain vibrant Jewish congregations wherever Reform Jews live."Today, Reform Jews affirm the central tenets of Judaism - God, Torah, and Israel - while acknowledging a great diversity in Reform Jewish beliefs and practices. Reform Jews are more inclusive than other Jewish movements: women may be rabbis, cantors, and synagogue presidents; interfaith families are accepted; and Reform Jews are "committed to the full participation of gays and lesbians in synagogue life as well as society at large."Orthodox- return to traditional waysOrthodox Jews believe the entire Torah - including "Written," the the Pentateuch, and "Oral," the Talmud) was given to Moses by God at Sinai and remains authoritative for modern life in its entirety. (religionfacts.com)has held fast to such practices as daily worship, dietary laws (kashruth), traditional prayers and ceremonies, regular and intensive study of the Torah, and separation of men and women in the synagogue. It also enjoins strict observance of the sabbath and religious festivals and does not permit instrumental music during communal services (religionfacts.com)
52Judaism Conservative- in between Reform and Orthodox Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside the USA) is a moderate sect that seeks to avoid the extremes of Orthodox and Reform Judaism. Conservative Jews wish to conserve the traditional elements of Judaism while also allowing for reasonable modernization and rabbinical development.Conservative Jews observe the Sabbath and dietary laws, although some modifications have been made to the latter. As in Reform Judaism, women may be rabbisnumber of studies have shown that there is a large gap between what the Conservative movement teaches and what most of its laypeople have incorporated into their daily lives. Conservative Judaism holds that halakha (Jewish law) is normative, i.e. that it is something that Jewish people must strive to actually live by in their daily lives. This would include the laws of Shabbat (the Jewish Sabbath); the laws of kashrut (keeping kosher); the practice of thrice daily prayer; observance of the Jewish holidays and life-cycle events. In practice, the majority of people who have come to join Conservative synagogues only follow all these laws rarelySources- religionfacts.comReform jews accept Converts as do Orthodox Jews.
53JudaismHasidic Jews-Hasidic (or Chasidic) Judaism arose in 12th-century Germany as a movement emphasizing asceticism and mystical experience born out of love and humility before God.Hasidic Jews center on a leader called a rebbe or tzaddik, who may or may not be a rabbi. The rebbe is considered especially enlightened and close to God and is looked to for guidance in all aspects of life, from Torah interpretation to choosing a spouse to buying a home. A rebbe's advice is considered absolutely authoritative.
54Western Wall, Jerusalem Sacred to Jews because it is where the Temple Mount stood and is the site of where Abraham almost sacrificed his son Isaac. Jews gather to remember the destruction and offer prayers.For Christians, it is sacred both because of Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son and because Jesus was crucified outside the city’s walls.For Muslims, it is important because of the Dome of the Rock, which stands next to the Wailing Wall. It is the site where Mohammed ascended to heaven with the angel Gabriel. Called al-Haram al Sharif (the Noble Sanctuary) by the Muslims.
55Jewish neighborhoods in European Cities the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague, the Czech Republic Built in 1400s the last person buried there was in It appears jumbled because people were buried in layers (up to 12)
56From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean Christianity –originated in Southwest Asia about 2000 years ago.* monotheistic religion, follow teachings of Jesus toachieve eternal lifesacred text: Biblefounder: Jesus (son of God)sacred sites: Bethlehem, Jerusalemsplit in the church:* split into Eastern Orthodox and RomanCatholic churches in 1054* Protestant sect split off in 1400s and 1500sdiffusion: into Western Europe, and then world wideduring colonialism and after.Crucifixion of Jesus fulfilled an ancient prophecy and changed the fate of Jesus’ followers- giving them eternal life1054- split between Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches (Rome v. Constantinople)**largest and most globally dispersed with 1.5 billion adherents
58Roman Catholic ChurchClaims the most adherents of all the Christian faithsTeaches the infallibility of the pope in interpreting Jesus’ teachings and in navigating the modern worldCatholic church peaked in the Middle Ages when the Church controlled sources of knowledge and worked in conjunction with the monarchs
59First Split in Christianity, 1054 CE Western Roman empire = Roman Catholicism Eastern Roman empire = Eastern Orthodox
60Second split in 1517 w. Martin Luther and those that protested some practices of the Catholic church = ProtestantsProtestants splintered into many groups: Baptists, Presbyterians, Methodists, Church of Christ, etc.
61Switzerland concentrations of Catholics and Protestants by canton and commune
62The Orthodox World Dominate Religion Red More than 10% Orange
65From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean Islam –originated on Arabian peninsula about 1500 years ago.* monotheistic religion, revelations Muhammadreceived from Allah, Five Pillars.sacred text: Qu’ranfounder: Muhammadsacred sites: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem split in the church:* shortly after Muhammad’s death, split into Sunni Muslims (great majority)Shi’ite Muslims (concentrated in Iran)diffusion: across Arabian peninsula, across NorthAfrica, into Spain and also east into Southeast AsiaTraced back to a single founder, Mohammed, who was born in Mecca. Mohammed received the revelations from Allah, where he spoke the verses of the Koran. Islam recognizes Jesus and Abraham as important prophets but Mohammed is the most important prophet.Earthly matters are profane; only Allah is pure. His will is absolute; he is omnipotent and omniscient. Muslims believe that all humans live in a world that was created for their use but only until the final judgement day.
66Five Pillars of Islam Profession of Faith Prayer There is but one god Allah and Mohammed is his prophet.PrayerFasting during RamadanAlmsgiving/CharityHajj- pilgrimage to MeccaNo alcohol, smoking, or gambling. Mosques are built for observation of Friday prayer and social gatherings.
67Split in Islam Two main branches: Sunni (great majority) believed rightful heir to Mohammed’s caliphate (area of influence) was an unrelated candidatebelieve in the effectiveness of family and community in solving life’s problemsShi’ite (concentrated in Iran)believed rightful heir was Ali, Mohammed’s son in law16th century- Iranian (Persian) ruling dynasty made Shi’ite Islam the only legitimate faith of that empireImam is the sole source of true knowledge (Imams are Shi’ite Muslim leaders whose appointments are regarded as sanctioned by Allah. (believed to be w/o sin and infallible)The veneration of Ali has diffused throughout Sunni Islam and is reflected in the respect all Muslims show to Ali’s descendants, the sayyids of East Africa and the sharifs of North Africa.
72Islam – dar al Islam (world of Islam) ; Dar al Garb;Dar al KufrDar al Islam (Arabic: دار الإسلا) is the area of the world under the rule of Islam , literally, "the home of Islam" or "the home of submission." This is often used by extremists to include areas that used to be part of the Muslim world such as Al-Andalus (Spain) as well as the Muslim world. It is not a Quranic term or used in the Hadith and it is variously interpreted Moderate Muslims except that Dar al Islam may be any place where Muslims are secure, even if it is a secular society, whereas extremists have a different view.Dar al Islam is defined as opposed to Dar al Harb, the house of war, where it is permitted according to to some to wage Jihad, holy war for Islam. There are also various intermediate areas defined, such as Dar al Hudna, lands outside Islam that are subject to trucial obligations, and Dar al Kufr (the home of the unbelievers), a term specifically used by Muhammad to refer to territories of the Quraish tribe. Dar al-SalamDar al-Islam is also known and referred to as Dar al-Salam, or house/abode of Peace.The term appears in the Koran in as a name of Paradise. Dar al-HarbDar al-Harb (Arabic: دار الحرب "house of war"; also referred to as Dar al-Garb "house of the West" in later Ottoman sources; a person from "Dar al-Harb" is a "harbi" (Arabic:حربي)) is a term classically referring to those countries where the Muslim law is not in force, in the matter of worship and the protection of the faithful and Dhimmis. The term refers to the relationship between an Islamic state and neighboring non-Muslim states with whom it has not signed a peace treaty or pact.In Reliance of the Traveler, point w43.2, a hadith is referred to containing the exact word Dar al-Harb. Scholars have, nevertheless, disagreed on its reliability as is commented in Reliance of the Traveler. Dar al-KufrDar al-Kufr (Arabic: دار الكفر, "house/domain of disbelief") is a term used by Muhammad to refer to the Quraish-dominated society of Mecca between his flight to Medina and his triumphant return.For much of Islamic history, the preferred term used to describe non-Islamic societies has been dar al-Harb, emphasizing various Islamic countries' aspirations to conquer such territories and render them part of dar al-Islam.A traditional Arabic saying attributed to Muhammad goes: "Unbelief is one community”, or in other words, "infidels are of one nation", expressing the view that distinctions between different types of non-Muslims are insignificant in relation to the overriding distinction between Muslim and non-Muslim.
83Sacred Sites of Jerusalem Jerusalem is sacred to three major religions: Judaism, Islam, ChristianityJudaism (Western Wall)Islam (Dome of the Rock)Sacred to Jews because it is where the Temple Mount stood and is the site of where Abraham almost sacrificed his son Isaac. Jews gather to remember the destruction and offer prayers.For Christians, it is sacred both because of Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son and because Jesus was crucified outside the city’s walls. Church of Holy Sepulchre marks tomb of where Jesus was buried before he rose from the dead.For Muslims, it is important because of the Dome of the Rock, which stands next to the Wailing Wall. It is the site where Mohammed ascended to heaven with the angel Gabriel. Called al-Haram al Sharif (the Noble Sanctuary) by the Muslims.Crusades helped to cement protection by Christians of Church of Holy Sepulchre, Jews of the Western Wall, and Muslims of the Dome of the Rock.
85Sacred Landscapes of Hinduism Hinduism – pilgrimages follow prescribed routes, and rituals are followed by millions.Varanasi, India on theGanges River where Hindus perform morning rituals.Hindus believe the erection of a temple will bring merit on the builder so the Hindu cultural landscape is dotted with countless shrines. Temples must be near water because many believe the gods will not venture far from water. Water also has a holy function for ritual bathing.Varanasi city of Lord Shiva
86Sacred Landscapes of Buddhism Swedogon Pagodo in Yangon, MyanmarEight hairs of the Buddha are preserved under the dome (chedi)Bodhi tree (tree of enlightenment)Stupas- bell shaped structures that protect burial mounds
93Sacred Landscapes of Islam Muslim mosquesDome of this mosque in Isfahan, Iran demonstrates the importance of geometric art evident in Muslim architecture.Mosque is a town’s most important and most carefully maintained building. Five times every day, from the minaret, that faithful are called to prayer.Islam’s prohibition to depicting the human form led to the use of geometric designs and calligraphy. Muslim architecture represents the unifying concept of Islamic monotheism the perfection and vastness of Allah.
107Islamic extremists and jihad an Islamic holy war against the West
108Government Impact on Religion The Soviet Union:had an official policy of atheismdiscouraged religious practiceseized church bells, demolished churches, etc.tolerated Islamic practice among old but not youngdrew boundaries for political control that separated ethnic groups in small areasChristian Armenia & Shi’ite Muslim Azerbaijan
109Armenia and Azerbaijan Soviet Union’s divide-and-diminish plan