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Chapter 7: Religion Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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1 Chapter 7: Religion Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Question of the Day Identify the symbol for its religion

3 1. The moon and star is now a symbol of Islam. Some Muslim countries have the moon on their flag. This symbol was first used in Turkey. 2. This is the Hindu symbol. It is called Om or Aum. This is the word for god. 3. One of the oldest symbols of the Jewish faith is the menorah, a seven-branched candelabrum used in the Temple. 4. This is the Sikh symbol. It is called the Khanda. It is a circle and two swords. The circle means God is always there. The sword means Sikhs believe in truth and must help people in need. 5. This is a Buddhist symbol. The wheel shows the cycle of birth, death and reincarnation.

4 Field Note: Dying and Resurrection “When I made my first trip to the Soviet Union in 1964, the world was divided into West and East in the Cold War. I was cataloging the unique cultural landscape in my mind as my group drove along a road from Leningrad to Moscow: I was looking for evidence of communism on the landscape. The rural areas were filled with state and collective farms. To me, the most interesting aspect of the landscape was the multitude of churches in ruins.” Figure 7.1 Vyshniyvolochek, Russia. A Russian Orthodox church lies in ruins in this small village in © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

5 Explain Soviet relationship with religion © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

6 Key Question 7.1 What is religion, and what role does it play in culture? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 Field Note “Each religion approaches the disposition of the deceased in different ways, and cultural landscapes reflect religious traditions. In largely Christian, western regions, the deceased are buried in large, sometimes elaborate cemeteries. The Hindu faith requires cremation of the deceased. Wherever large Hindu communities exist outside of India, you will see crematoriums, the equivalent of a Hindu funeral home.” Figure 7.2 Mombasa, Kenya © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

8 Religious Diffusion expansion diffusion –contagious –hierarchical relocation diffusion © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 Cultural Landscape marked by… Houses of worship??? Presence or absence of ???? Modes of dress??? Personal habits??? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

10 According to Stoddard and Prorak, religion is “A system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities should do or should behave). A method of constructing coherence and meaning in the world Religions set standards for how people “should” behave. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. What Is Religion, and What Role Does It Play in Culture?

11 Role of Religion How has religion played a role in the development of human societies? –Combating social ills, sustaining the poor, promoting the arts, educating the deprived, and advancing medical knowledge –Blocked scientific study, encouraged the oppression of dissidents, supported colonialism and exploitation, and condemned women to an inferior status in many societies

12 disposition of the deceased - Each religion approaches the disposition of the deceased in different ways, and cultural landscapes reflect the religious traditions. Hindu crematorium in Mombasa, Kenya Christian, western regions bury dead in cemetaries. Hindu faith requires cremation.

13 Antwerp, Belgium Religion’s impact in history and culture is evident in its centrality in many places Churches often built in the center of towns, reflecting their importance.

14 Religions manifests itself in many ways: worship prayer rituals take place through regular intervals birth, marriage, and death attainment of adulthood secularism is the indifference to or rejection of religion. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. What Is Religion, and What Role Does It Play in Culture?

15 secularism 2009 survey – Is religion important in your life? More Developed Countries (MDCs) –US – 57% –France – 13% –Sweden – 8% –Czech Republic – 7% Less Developed Countries (LDCs) –Senegal – 98% –Bangladesh – 97% –Brazil – 78%

16 Europe or western society highly influenced by Christianity Identify characteristics about yourself that are influenced by religion –poverty –education –medicine –women –oppression

17 Describe how religion and language affect and change each other to shape cultures. Consider what happens to a society’s religion and language when a different religion or language diffuses to the place. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 Key Question 7.2 Where did the major religions of the world originate, and how do religions diffuse? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 monotheistic religions: single god polytheistic religions: many gods animistic religions: inanimate objects possess spirits © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Where Did the Major Religions of the World Originate, and How Do Religions Diffuse?

20 History Most religions were animistic or polytheistic until about 3500 years ago –Zoroastrianism – first monotheistic faith –Judaism, Christianity, and Islam can be traced to Zoroastrianism (some believe the Judaism is the first monotheistic faith) © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

21 History By 500 BCE, 4 major religious hearths existed –Greek along Mediterranean –Hinduism in South Asia –Judaism in eastern Mediterranean –Chinese philosophies – Huang He/Yellow River valley (China) © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 Hearths of Religion and Philosophy by 500 BCE

23 major types of religion: universalizing religions: actively seek converts believe that they offer universal appropriateness and appeal Christianity, Islam, Buddhism ethnic religions: a dherents are born into the faith do not actively seek converts spatially located, Judaism the exception © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Where Did the Major Religions of the World Originate, and How Do Religions Diffuse?

24 © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Are there any problems with the previous map? South Asia? Sub-Saharan Africa? –Cameroon France © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

26

27 Hinduism one of oldest religions; over 4000 years originated in the Indus River Valley Ganges (sacred river) ancient practices include ritual bathing and reincarnation polytheistic © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Where Did the Major Religions of the World Originate, and How Do Religions Diffuse? From the Hearth of South Asia

28 Hinduism Common account holds that Hinduism originated from practices of ancient cities of Mojenjo Daro and Harappa (Indus River valley in Pakistan). ethnic religion  do not actively seek converts –spread around world by British colonialism but you only see pockets of Hinduism rather than regions Hindus define their religion as monotheistic –universal soul is Brahman (main god) and all other gods are various expressions of Brahman –most consider it polytheistic

29 Hindu Caste System Pariah Top Caste

30 Hindu Gods and Goddesses Brahma (Creator) Vishnu (Preserver) Shiva (Destroyer) Three aspects of the divine

31 Reincarnation – all beings have souls and are arranged in a hierarchy; goal is to move upward to a point of union w. the universal soul

32 “Sacred Cow” Devout Hindus are vegetarian.

33 Hindu Temple – Angkor Wat, Cambodia. This temple suffers from neglect and destruction now, as Buddhism has supplanted Hinduism in most of Cambodia.

34 From the Hearth of South Asia Buddhism – splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago BCE). Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River area. * anyone can achieve salvation, reach enlightenment founder: Siddartha (the Buddha) sacred sites: stupas (contain sculptures of Buddha) diffusion: most strongly into Tibet in the north and into East Asia **Enlightenment comes from self knowledge, elimination of greed, craving, and desire, complete honesty, and never hurting another person or animal.

35 Buddhism Estimated 347 million adherents to Buddhism Theraveda Buddhism  a monastic faith that holds salvation is a personal matter, achieved through good and religious activities, including periods of service as a monk or nun –Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, and Laos Mahayana Buddhism  holds that salvation can be aided by appeals to superhuman, holy sources of merit; do not serve as monks but practice meditation –Vietnam, Korea, Japan, and China Lamaism (Tibet)  combines monastic Buddhism with worship of local demons and deities.

36 Buddhism S. Gautama –“Buddha” Enlightenment –Four Noble Truths –Eightfold Path

37 Buddhism ETHICS –Emphasis of Buddhism is ethical rather than theological.

38 Four Noble Truths (64) 1.Life is Suffering 2.Cause of Suffering = Desire for Pleasure and Material Gain 3.Renounce Desires if you want to stop suffering. 4.Follow the Eightfold Path a.Renounce Desires b.Attain Nirvana

39 The Eightfold Path (64) 1.RIGHT Views 2.RIGHT Intentions 3.RIGHT Speech 4.RIGHT Action 5.RIGHT Living 6.RIGHT Effort 7.RIGHT Mindfulness 8.RIGHT Concentration

40 Nirvana

41 The Spread of Buddhism

42 Field Note “Built about 800 CE when Buddhism was diffusing throughout Southeast Asia, Borobudur was abandoned and neglected after the arrivals of Islam and Christianity and lay overgrown until uncovered and restored under Dutch colonial rule from 1907 to The monument consists of a set of intricately carved, walled terraces; the upper terraces are open. In the upper terraces stand six dozen stupas, each containing a sculpture of the Buddha in meditation, visible when you peer through the openings.” Figure 7.9 Borobudur, Indonesia © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

43 Shintoism Japan focused on nature and ancestor worship many Japanese practice both Shintoism and Buddhism

44 Shinto Shrine In Kyoto, Japan, this Shinto shrine is visible after walking through a torii – a gateway usually formed by two wooden posts and topped by two horizontal beams.

45 From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow) River Valley Taoism – originated in China more than 2500 years ago BCE) * oneness of humanity and nature founder: Lao-Tsu sacred text: “Book of the Way” (Tao Te Ching) social manifestation: Feng Shui - the art and science of organizing living spaces in order to channel life forces that exist in nature in favorable ways. diffusion: East Asia

46 Taoism Taoist virtues –simplicity –spontaneity –tenderness –tranquility –competition, possession, and even pursuit of knowledge are to be avoided. the best government is the least government.

47 From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow) River Valley Confucianism – (blueprint for Chinese civilization) originated in China about 2500 years BCE) * real meaning of life lay in the present * service to one’s fellow humans should supercede service to spirits. founder: Confucius (551 to 479 BCE) sacred text: “Confucian Classics” (Analects) * a collection of Confucius’ writings and sayings diffusion: East Asia, Southeast Asia

48 Communist China’s effect on religion Examples of opposition to government’s anti-religion initiatives burial mounds cremation and columbaria

49 From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean Judaism – originated in Southwest Asia about 4000 years ago. * first major monotheistic religion, covenant between God (one God) and Abraham (the chosen people) sacred text: Torah founder: Abraham sacred sites: Jerusalem (Western Wall), land between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River social manifestation: Zionism diffusion: into European cities during the diaspora, into N. America during WWII, into Israel over last 50 years

50 Judaism Jews have a turbulent history. –Moses led from Egypt to Canaan, where a split occurred, resulting in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. –Israel was wiped out immediately by conquering tribes but Judah survived until the Babylonians and Assyrians conquered them. –Jews regrouped and took control of Jerusalem but were subsequently conquered by the Romans in 70 CE. –diaspora scattered Jews across the globe. Zionism (emerged as a response to persecution) –Ideals are rooted in the belief that Jews should not be absorbed into other societies and should have a homeland located in and around Jerusalem

51 Judaism Reform- adjust practices to modern times –Reform Judaism is the most liberal expression of modern Judaism. In America, Reform Judaism is organized under the Union for Reform Judaism (formerly known as the Union of American Hebrew Congregations), whose mission is "to create and sustain vibrant Jewish congregations wherever Reform Jews live." –Today, Reform Jews affirm the central tenets of Judaism - God, Torah, and Israel - while acknowledging a great diversity in Reform Jewish beliefs and practices. Reform Jews are more inclusive than other Jewish movements: women may be rabbis, cantors, and synagogue presidents; interfaith families are accepted; and Reform Jews are "committed to the full participation of gays and lesbians in synagogue life as well as society at large." Orthodox- return to traditional ways –Orthodox Jews believe the entire Torah - including "Written," the the Pentateuch, and "Oral," the Talmud) was given to Moses by God at Sinai and remains authoritative for modern life in its entirety. (religionfacts.com) –has held fast to such practices as daily worship, dietary laws (kashruth), traditional prayers and ceremonies, regular and intensive study of the Torah, and separation of men and women in the synagogue. It also enjoins strict observance of the sabbath and religious festivals and does not permit instrumental music during communal services (religionfacts.com)

52 Judaism Conservative- in between Reform and Orthodox –Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside the USA) is a moderate sect that seeks to avoid the extremes of Orthodox and Reform Judaism. Conservative Jews wish to conserve the traditional elements of Judaism while also allowing for reasonable modernization and rabbinical development. –Conservative Jews observe the Sabbath and dietary laws, although some modifications have been made to the latter. As in Reform Judaism, women may be rabbis –number of studies have shown that there is a large gap between what the Conservative movement teaches and what most of its laypeople have incorporated into their daily lives. Conservative Judaism holds that halakha (Jewish law) is normative, i.e. that it is something that Jewish people must strive to actually live by in their daily lives. This would include the laws of Shabbat (the Jewish Sabbath); the laws of kashrut (keeping kosher); the practice of thrice daily prayer; observance of the Jewish holidays and life-cycle events. In practice, the majority of people who have come to join Conservative synagogues only follow all these laws rarely Sources- religionfacts.com

53 Judaism Hasidic Jews- –Hasidic (or Chasidic) Judaism arose in 12th-century Germany as a movement emphasizing asceticism and mystical experience born out of love and humility before God. –Hasidic Jews center on a leader called a rebbe or tzaddik, who may or may not be a rabbi. The rebbe is considered especially enlightened and close to God and is looked to for guidance in all aspects of life, from Torah interpretation to choosing a spouse to buying a home. A rebbe's advice is considered absolutely authoritative.

54 Western Wall, Jerusalem

55 Jewish neighborhoods in European Cities the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague, the Czech Republic

56 From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean Christianity – originated in Southwest Asia about 2000 years ago. * monotheistic religion, follow teachings of Jesus to achieve eternal life sacred text: Bible founder: Jesus (son of God) sacred sites: Bethlehem, Jerusalem split in the church: * split into Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in 1054 * Protestant sect split off in 1400s and 1500s diffusion: into Western Europe, and then world wide during colonialism and after.

57 © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

58 Roman Catholic Church Claims the most adherents of all the Christian faiths Teaches the infallibility of the pope in interpreting Jesus’ teachings and in navigating the modern world Catholic church peaked in the Middle Ages when the Church controlled sources of knowledge and worked in conjunction with the monarchs

59 First Split in Christianity, 1054 CE Western Roman empire = Roman Catholicism Eastern Roman empire = Eastern Orthodox

60 Second split in 1517 w. Martin Luther and those that protested some practices of the Catholic church = Protestants Protestants splintered into many groups: Baptists, Presbyterians, Methodists, Church of Christ, etc.

61 Switzerland concentrations of Catholics and Protestants by canton and commune

62 The Orthodox World Dominate Religion Red More than 10% Orange

63 Roman Catholic Distribution

64 The Christian World

65 From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean Islam – originated on Arabian peninsula about 1500 years ago. * monotheistic religion, revelations Muhammad received from Allah, Five Pillars. sacred text: Qu’ran founder: Muhammad sacred sites: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem split in the church: * shortly after Muhammad’s death, split into Sunni Muslims (great majority) Shi’ite Muslims (concentrated in Iran) diffusion: across Arabian peninsula, across North Africa, into Spain and also east into Southeast Asia

66 Five Pillars of Islam Profession of Faith –There is but one god Allah and Mohammed is his prophet. Prayer Fasting during Ramadan Almsgiving/Charity Hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca

67 Split in Islam Two main branches: –Sunni (great majority) believed rightful heir to Mohammed’s caliphate (area of influence) was an unrelated candidate believe in the effectiveness of family and community in solving life’s problems –Shi’ite (concentrated in Iran) believed rightful heir was Ali, Mohammed’s son in law 16 th century- Iranian (Persian) ruling dynasty made Shi’ite Islam the only legitimate faith of that empire Imam is the sole source of true knowledge (Imams are Shi’ite Muslim leaders whose appointments are regarded as sanctioned by Allah. (believed to be w/o sin and infallible)

68 The Diffusion of Islam

69 minaret (for call to prayer) stands on the Sabah State Mosque in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia

70 Diffusion of Islam into Europe large mosque in Paris, France

71 The Islamic World

72 Islam – dar al Islam (world of Islam) ; Dar al Garb; Dar al Kufr

73 dar al Islam

74 Indigenous and Shamanist Indigenous –Local in scope –Reverence for nature –Passed down through tribes Shamanism –community beliefs –follow the practices and teachings of the shaman © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Where Did the Major Religions of the World Originate, and How Do Religions Diffuse?

75 Field Note: “Arriving at the foot of erosion-carved Uluru just before sunrise it is no surprise that this giant monolith, towering over the Australian desert, is a sacred place to local Aboriginal peoples. Throughout the day, the changing sun angle alters its colors until, toward sunset, it turns a fiery red that yields to a bright orange. At night it looms against the moonlit, starry sky, silent sentinel of the gods. Just two years before this, my first visit in 1987, the Australian government had returned ‘Ayers Rock’ (named by European settlers after a South Australian political leader) to Aboriginal ownership, and reclaimed its original name, Uluru. Visitors continued to be allowed to climb the 1100 feet (335m) to the top, from where the view over the desert is awesome.” Figure 7.18 Uluru, Australia © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

76 The Rise of Secularism indifference to or rejection of organized religious affiliations and idea varies greatly from country to country and within countries. antireligious ideologies can contribute to the decline of organized religions. church membership figures do not accurately reflect active participation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Where Did the Major Religions of the World Originate, and How Do Religions Diffuse?

77 Migration plays a large role in the diffusion of religions, both universalizing and ethnic. As Europe becomes more secular, migrants from outside of Europe continue to settle in the region. Imagine Europe 30 years from now. Predict where in Europe secularism will be the most prominent and where religious adherence will strengthen. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

78 Key Question7.3 How is religion seen in the cultural landscape? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

79 Sacred sites Places or spaces people infuse with religious meaning Pilgrimage: Adherents voluntarily travel to a religious site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site Sacred Sites of Jerusalem Sacred to Jews, Christians, and Muslims Wailing Wall, Temple Mount, Dome of the Rock © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Is Religion Seen in the Cultural Landscape?

80 Guest Field Note Ardmore, Ireland “At St. Declan’s Holy Well in Ireland, I found a barbed wire fence substituting for the more traditional thorn tree as a place to hang scraps of clothing as offerings. This tradition, which died out long ago in most parts of Continental Europe, was one of many aspects of Irish pilgrimage that led me to speculate on ‘Galway-to-the- Ganges’ survival of very old religious customs on the extreme margins of an ancient Indo-European culture realm. My subsequent fieldwork focused on contemporary European pilgrimage, but my curiosity about the geographical extent of certain ancient pilgrimage themes lingered. While traveling in Asia, I found many similarities among sacred sites across religions. Each religion has formation stories, explanations of how particular sites, whether Buddhist monasteries or Irish wells, were recognized as sacred. Many of these stories have similar elements. And, in 1998, I traveled across Russia from the remote Kamchatka Peninsula to St. Petersburg. Imagine my surprise to find the tradition of hanging rag offerings on trees alive and well all the way across the Russian Far East and Siberia, at least as far as Olkon Island in Lake Baikal.” Credit: Mary Lee Nolan, Oregon State University © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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82 Figure 7.21 Jerusalem, Israel. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is sacred to Christians who believe it is the site where Jesus Christ rose from the dead. Inside the church, a Christian worshipper lights a candle at Jesus Christ’s tomb. © Reuters/Corbis Images. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

83 Sacred Sites of Jerusalem Jerusalem is sacred to three major religions: Judaism, Islam, Christianity Judaism (Western Wall) Islam (Dome of the Rock)

84 Landscapes of Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism temples, shrines holy animals, ritual bathing Buddhism the Bodhi (enlightenment) tree stupus: bell shaped structures that protect burial mounds pagoda cremation in both Hinduism in Buddhism © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How Is Religion Seen in the Cultural Landscape?

85 Sacred Landscapes of Hinduism Hinduism – pilgrimages follow prescribed routes, and rituals are followed by millions. Varanasi, India on the Ganges River where Hindus perform morning rituals.

86 Sacred Landscapes of Buddhism Swedogon Pagodo in Yangon, Myanmar Eight hairs of the Buddha are preserved under the dome (chedi)

87 Medieval Europe Cathedral, church, or monastery Burial more commonly practiced Figure 7.25 Bordeaux, France. Built beginning in 1472, St. Michael’s Tower rises over Bordeaux, France, marking the importance of the Catholic Church in Bordeaux’s history and culture. © H. J. de Blij. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Landscapes of Christianity How Is Religion Seen in the Cultural Landscape?

88 Sacred Landscapes of Christianity Protestant Churches This church in Singapore is a Church of England church in city surrounded by Buddhists, Hindus, and Muslims

89 Religious Landscapes in the United States Zelinsky: Map identifying religious regions of the United States New England: Catholic South: Baptist Upper Midwest: Lutheran Southwest: Spanish Catholic West, Midlands: no dominant denomination © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Landscapes of Christianity How Is Religion Seen in the Cultural Landscape?

90 Figure 7.28 Major Religious Regions of the United States. A generalized map of the religious regions of the United States shows concentrations of the major religions. Adapted with permission from: W. Zelinsky, The Cultural Geography of the United States, rev. ed., Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992, p. 96. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

91 Protestant and Catholic Landscapes in the United States Scandinavian Lutheran Church (on left) St. Mary’s Catholic Church (on right)

92 Alhambra Palace in Granada Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain Prohibition against depicting the human form Led to calligraphy and geometric design use Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Landscapes of Islam How Is Religion Seen in the Cultural Landscape?

93 Sacred Landscapes of Islam Muslim mosques Dome of this mosque in Isfahan, Iran demonstrates the importance of geometric art evident in Muslim architecture.

94 Figure 7.33 Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Pilgrims circle the holy Kaaba in the Grand Mosque in Mecca during the hajj. © Amel Emric/AP/Wide World Photos. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

95 Choose a pilgrimage site, such as Mecca, Vatican City, or the Western Wall, and describe how the act of pilgrimage (in some cases by millions) alters this place’s cultural landscape and environment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

96 Key Question 7.4 What role does religion play in political conflicts? © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

97 Conflicts along Religious Borders interfaith boundaries: boundaries between the world’s major faiths Ex.: Christian-Muslim boundaries in Africa intrafaith boundaries: boundaries within a single major faith Ex.: Christian Protestants and Catholics, Muslim Sunni and Shi’ite © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. What Role Does Religion Play in Political Conflicts?

98 Interfaith Boundary in Africa

99 Figure 7.36 The West Bank. Adapted with permission from: C. B. Williams and C. T. Elsworth, The NewYork Times, November 17, 1995, p. A6. © The New York Times. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

100 Landscapes of Settlements Israelis have had a policy of building settlements for Jews in the Occupied Territories

101 Landscape of the Gaza Strip, 2005 In 2005, the Israeli government pulled out of the Gaza Strip, burning down Jewish settlements and handing control over to Palestinians.

102 The West Bank with the proposed security wall, parts of which the Israeli government has already built.

103 Israel and Palestine WWII, 1967 Arab-Israeli War, West Bank, Hamas Nigeria Muslim North/Christian South The Former Yugoslavia Balkan Peninsula separates the Roman Catholic Chruch and the Eastern Orthodox Church Northern Ireland Catholics and Protestants in the North © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. What Role Does Religion Play in Political Conflicts?

104 Figure 7.39 Religious Affiliation in Northern Ireland. Areas of Catholic and Protestant majorities are scattered throughout Northern Ireland. Adapted with permission from: D. G. Pringle,One Island, Two Nations? Letchworth: ResearchStudies Press/Wiley, 1985, p. 21. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

105 The Former Yugoslavia genocide ethnic cleansing

106 Religious Fundamentalism and Extremism religious fundamentalism beliefs are nonnegotiable and uncompromising religious extremism fundamentalism carried to the point of violence fundamentalists can be extremists but this does not mean that all fundamentalists (of any faith) are extremists © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. What Role Does Religion Play in Political Conflicts?

107 Islamic extremists and jihad an Islamic holy war against the West

108 Government Impact on Religion The Soviet Union: -had an official policy of atheism -discouraged religious practice -seized church bells, demolished churches, etc. -tolerated Islamic practice among old but not young -drew boundaries for political control that separated ethnic groups in small areas -Christian Armenia & Shi’ite Muslim Azerbaijan

109 Armenia and Azerbaijan Soviet Union’s divide-and-diminish plan

110 Christianity traditionalist Catholic Movement Protestant fundamentalism Judaism Orthodox conservatives extremist groups Kach and Kahane Chai Islam jihad: Tali ban in Afghanistan © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. religious fundamentalism and extremism What Role Does Religion Play in Political Conflicts?

111 Boal’s studies in Northern Ireland demonstrate that solving a religious conflict is typically not about theology; it is about identity. You are assigned the potentially Nobel Prize–winning task of “solving” the conflict either in Northern Ireland or in Israel and Palestine. Using Boal’s example, determine how you can alter activity spaces and change identities to create the conditions for long-lasting peace in this conflict zone. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.


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