Question of the Day Identify the symbol for its religion
1. The moon and star is now a symbol of Islam. Some Muslim countries have the moon on their flag. This symbol was first used in Turkey. 2. This is the Hindu symbol. It is called Om or Aum. This is the word for god. 3. One of the oldest symbols of the Jewish faith is the menorah, a seven-branched candelabrum used in the Temple. 4. This is the Sikh symbol. It is called the Khanda. It is a circle and two swords. The circle means God is always there. The sword means Sikhs believe in truth and must help people in need. 5. This is a Buddhist symbol. The wheel shows the cycle of birth, death and reincarnation.
Role of Religion How has religion played a role in the development of human societies? –Combating social ills, sustaining the poor, promoting the arts, educating the deprived, and advancing medical knowledge –Blocked scientific study, encouraged the oppression of dissidents, supported colonialism and exploitation, and condemned women to an inferior status in many societies
disposition of the deceased - Each religion approaches the disposition of the deceased in different ways, and cultural landscapes reflect the religious traditions. Hindu crematorium in Mombasa, Kenya Christian, western regions bury dead in cemetaries. Hindu faith requires cremation.
Antwerp, Belgium Religion’s impact in history and culture is evident in its centrality in many places Churches often built in the center of towns, reflecting their importance.
secularism 2009 survey – Is religion important in your life? More Developed Countries (MDCs) –US – 57% –France – 13% –Sweden – 8% –Czech Republic – 7% Less Developed Countries (LDCs) –Senegal – 98% –Bangladesh – 97% –Brazil – 78%
Europe or western society highly influenced by Christianity Identify characteristics about yourself that are influenced by religion –poverty –education –medicine –women –oppression
Hinduism Common account holds that Hinduism originated from practices of ancient cities of Mojenjo Daro and Harappa (Indus River valley in Pakistan). ethnic religion do not actively seek converts –spread around world by British colonialism but you only see pockets of Hinduism rather than regions Hindus define their religion as monotheistic –universal soul is Brahman (main god) and all other gods are various expressions of Brahman –most consider it polytheistic
Hindu Caste System Pariah Top Caste
Hindu Gods and Goddesses Brahma (Creator) Vishnu (Preserver) Shiva (Destroyer) Three aspects of the divine
Reincarnation – all beings have souls and are arranged in a hierarchy; goal is to move upward to a point of union w. the universal soul
“Sacred Cow” Devout Hindus are vegetarian.
Hindu Temple – Angkor Wat, Cambodia. This temple suffers from neglect and destruction now, as Buddhism has supplanted Hinduism in most of Cambodia.
From the Hearth of South Asia Buddhism – splintered from Hinduism 2500 years ago BCE). Originated in a region from Nepal south to the Ganges River area. * anyone can achieve salvation, reach enlightenment founder: Siddartha (the Buddha) sacred sites: stupas (contain sculptures of Buddha) diffusion: most strongly into Tibet in the north and into East Asia **Enlightenment comes from self knowledge, elimination of greed, craving, and desire, complete honesty, and never hurting another person or animal.
Buddhism Estimated 347 million adherents to Buddhism Theraveda Buddhism a monastic faith that holds salvation is a personal matter, achieved through good and religious activities, including periods of service as a monk or nun –Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, and Laos Mahayana Buddhism holds that salvation can be aided by appeals to superhuman, holy sources of merit; do not serve as monks but practice meditation –Vietnam, Korea, Japan, and China Lamaism (Tibet) combines monastic Buddhism with worship of local demons and deities.
Buddhism ETHICS –Emphasis of Buddhism is ethical rather than theological.
Four Noble Truths (64) 1.Life is Suffering 2.Cause of Suffering = Desire for Pleasure and Material Gain 3.Renounce Desires if you want to stop suffering. 4.Follow the Eightfold Path a.Renounce Desires b.Attain Nirvana
Shintoism Japan focused on nature and ancestor worship many Japanese practice both Shintoism and Buddhism
Shinto Shrine In Kyoto, Japan, this Shinto shrine is visible after walking through a torii – a gateway usually formed by two wooden posts and topped by two horizontal beams.
From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow) River Valley Taoism – originated in China more than 2500 years ago BCE) * oneness of humanity and nature founder: Lao-Tsu sacred text: “Book of the Way” (Tao Te Ching) social manifestation: Feng Shui - the art and science of organizing living spaces in order to channel life forces that exist in nature in favorable ways. diffusion: East Asia
Taoism Taoist virtues –simplicity –spontaneity –tenderness –tranquility –competition, possession, and even pursuit of knowledge are to be avoided. the best government is the least government.
From the Hearth of Huang He (Yellow) River Valley Confucianism – (blueprint for Chinese civilization) originated in China about 2500 years BCE) * real meaning of life lay in the present * service to one’s fellow humans should supercede service to spirits. founder: Confucius (551 to 479 BCE) sacred text: “Confucian Classics” (Analects) * a collection of Confucius’ writings and sayings diffusion: East Asia, Southeast Asia
Communist China’s effect on religion Examples of opposition to government’s anti-religion initiatives burial mounds cremation and columbaria
From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean Judaism – originated in Southwest Asia about 4000 years ago. * first major monotheistic religion, covenant between God (one God) and Abraham (the chosen people) sacred text: Torah founder: Abraham sacred sites: Jerusalem (Western Wall), land between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River social manifestation: Zionism diffusion: into European cities during the diaspora, into N. America during WWII, into Israel over last 50 years
Judaism Jews have a turbulent history. –Moses led from Egypt to Canaan, where a split occurred, resulting in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. –Israel was wiped out immediately by conquering tribes but Judah survived until the Babylonians and Assyrians conquered them. –Jews regrouped and took control of Jerusalem but were subsequently conquered by the Romans in 70 CE. –diaspora scattered Jews across the globe. Zionism (emerged as a response to persecution) –Ideals are rooted in the belief that Jews should not be absorbed into other societies and should have a homeland located in and around Jerusalem
Judaism Reform- adjust practices to modern times –Reform Judaism is the most liberal expression of modern Judaism. In America, Reform Judaism is organized under the Union for Reform Judaism (formerly known as the Union of American Hebrew Congregations), whose mission is "to create and sustain vibrant Jewish congregations wherever Reform Jews live." –Today, Reform Jews affirm the central tenets of Judaism - God, Torah, and Israel - while acknowledging a great diversity in Reform Jewish beliefs and practices. Reform Jews are more inclusive than other Jewish movements: women may be rabbis, cantors, and synagogue presidents; interfaith families are accepted; and Reform Jews are "committed to the full participation of gays and lesbians in synagogue life as well as society at large." Orthodox- return to traditional ways –Orthodox Jews believe the entire Torah - including "Written," the the Pentateuch, and "Oral," the Talmud) was given to Moses by God at Sinai and remains authoritative for modern life in its entirety. (religionfacts.com) –has held fast to such practices as daily worship, dietary laws (kashruth), traditional prayers and ceremonies, regular and intensive study of the Torah, and separation of men and women in the synagogue. It also enjoins strict observance of the sabbath and religious festivals and does not permit instrumental music during communal services (religionfacts.com)
Judaism Conservative- in between Reform and Orthodox –Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside the USA) is a moderate sect that seeks to avoid the extremes of Orthodox and Reform Judaism. Conservative Jews wish to conserve the traditional elements of Judaism while also allowing for reasonable modernization and rabbinical development. –Conservative Jews observe the Sabbath and dietary laws, although some modifications have been made to the latter. As in Reform Judaism, women may be rabbis –number of studies have shown that there is a large gap between what the Conservative movement teaches and what most of its laypeople have incorporated into their daily lives. Conservative Judaism holds that halakha (Jewish law) is normative, i.e. that it is something that Jewish people must strive to actually live by in their daily lives. This would include the laws of Shabbat (the Jewish Sabbath); the laws of kashrut (keeping kosher); the practice of thrice daily prayer; observance of the Jewish holidays and life-cycle events. In practice, the majority of people who have come to join Conservative synagogues only follow all these laws rarely Sources- religionfacts.com
Judaism Hasidic Jews- –Hasidic (or Chasidic) Judaism arose in 12th-century Germany as a movement emphasizing asceticism and mystical experience born out of love and humility before God. –Hasidic Jews center on a leader called a rebbe or tzaddik, who may or may not be a rabbi. The rebbe is considered especially enlightened and close to God and is looked to for guidance in all aspects of life, from Torah interpretation to choosing a spouse to buying a home. A rebbe's advice is considered absolutely authoritative.
Western Wall, Jerusalem
Jewish neighborhoods in European Cities the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague, the Czech Republic
From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean Christianity – originated in Southwest Asia about 2000 years ago. * monotheistic religion, follow teachings of Jesus to achieve eternal life sacred text: Bible founder: Jesus (son of God) sacred sites: Bethlehem, Jerusalem split in the church: * split into Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches in 1054 * Protestant sect split off in 1400s and 1500s diffusion: into Western Europe, and then world wide during colonialism and after.
Roman Catholic Church Claims the most adherents of all the Christian faiths Teaches the infallibility of the pope in interpreting Jesus’ teachings and in navigating the modern world Catholic church peaked in the Middle Ages when the Church controlled sources of knowledge and worked in conjunction with the monarchs
First Split in Christianity, 1054 CE Western Roman empire = Roman Catholicism Eastern Roman empire = Eastern Orthodox
Second split in 1517 w. Martin Luther and those that protested some practices of the Catholic church = Protestants Protestants splintered into many groups: Baptists, Presbyterians, Methodists, Church of Christ, etc.
Switzerland concentrations of Catholics and Protestants by canton and commune
The Orthodox World Dominate Religion Red More than 10% Orange
Roman Catholic Distribution
The Christian World
From the Hearth of the Eastern Mediterranean Islam – originated on Arabian peninsula about 1500 years ago. * monotheistic religion, revelations Muhammad received from Allah, Five Pillars. sacred text: Qu’ran founder: Muhammad sacred sites: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem split in the church: * shortly after Muhammad’s death, split into Sunni Muslims (great majority) Shi’ite Muslims (concentrated in Iran) diffusion: across Arabian peninsula, across North Africa, into Spain and also east into Southeast Asia
Five Pillars of Islam Profession of Faith –There is but one god Allah and Mohammed is his prophet. Prayer Fasting during Ramadan Almsgiving/Charity Hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca
Split in Islam Two main branches: –Sunni (great majority) believed rightful heir to Mohammed’s caliphate (area of influence) was an unrelated candidate believe in the effectiveness of family and community in solving life’s problems –Shi’ite (concentrated in Iran) believed rightful heir was Ali, Mohammed’s son in law 16 th century- Iranian (Persian) ruling dynasty made Shi’ite Islam the only legitimate faith of that empire Imam is the sole source of true knowledge (Imams are Shi’ite Muslim leaders whose appointments are regarded as sanctioned by Allah. (believed to be w/o sin and infallible)
The Diffusion of Islam
minaret (for call to prayer) stands on the Sabah State Mosque in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
Diffusion of Islam into Europe large mosque in Paris, France
The Islamic World
Islam – dar al Islam (world of Islam) ; Dar al Garb; Dar al Kufr
Islamic extremists and jihad an Islamic holy war against the West
Government Impact on Religion The Soviet Union: -had an official policy of atheism -discouraged religious practice -seized church bells, demolished churches, etc. -tolerated Islamic practice among old but not young -drew boundaries for political control that separated ethnic groups in small areas -Christian Armenia & Shi’ite Muslim Azerbaijan
Armenia and Azerbaijan Soviet Union’s divide-and-diminish plan