The thesis is your mast… MAST : make a strong thesis Deliberately decide on & Use Key Words UKW… The mast must be attached firmly to the hull (intro)… Without it, you cannot hoist sails and move…
The thesis must present an argument. Can I reasonably argue the opposite? 1. No3. Yes 2. Although 1, 2 because of 3.
Cortes meets the Aztecs Disadvantages: – Overwhelmingly outnumbered – Not on his “home” territory Advantages: – Myth of Quetzalcoatal – Weapons steel swords armor crossbows – Horses – Donna Marina, or Malinche, the invaluable aide 16 th c Spanish Drawing
Why would Montezuma let Cortes into Tenochtitlan? A: Cortes is the much feared God – Quetzalcoatl After days of sight-seeing, Spaniards take Montezuma as prisoner Then, Aztecs rise up against Spaniards – Montezuma seems to be a puppet Who/what killed Montezuma? Cortes Flees
War! Aztecs out for blood 1521 – Cortes returns to Tenochtitlan with a growing army Where does he get more men ?
“Pizarro Seizing the Inca of Peru” (Atahualpa) by John Everett Millais
Expedition Similarities: Cortes and Pizarro 1.Spaniards are outnumbered 2.European weapons are superior 3.Fervent desire for gold 4.Initial “friendly” visit is arranged 5.Local resentful natives help the Europeans 6.Outbreak of European diseases among Indians 7.Ambush and capture of kings 8.Death of Indian rulers; Pizarro orders Atahualpa’s death
Spaniards Explored Widely Why? – Gold, Glory, God (that is, to spread Christianity) The Ageing Governor of PR: Ponce de Leon – What does he hope to find? – Desoto follows
Gold in the Southwest? Coronado – Great Plains, Grand Canyon “El Dorado”
Philip II, son of Charles V r. 1556-1598 “When Spain moves, the whole world trembles.” San Lorenzo de Le Escorial (see next slide) – Palace – Burial site of Spanish kings, including Charles V and Philip II, also Philip III and IV. – Library and intellectual center for Counter Reformation
Philip II’s Goals Strengthen Spanish monarchy and _________ – In Greece his navy defeated the____________ at the Battle of Lepanto – ___________ were more difficult Revolt in The Netherlands Marries Mary Tudor, a Catholic, but then she dies… And another Catholic queen is executed England was a tempting target
Queen Mary I - Bloody Mary Became Queen after ________ Restored _________ in England, persecuted Protestants A political marriage to ______, King of Spain!!!
Why did Spain become weaker? Chain of Events… 1.F and I’s Inquisition drives out many middle class Jews 2.Unable to manufacture 3.Spending too much gold and silver 4.Inflation 5.Spanish Armada Protestant forces
By Miguel de Cervantes First novel ever! 1605 Satirized chivalry and traditional ways – Decline of Spain Servant: Sancho Panza Don Quixote de la Mancha
Spanish Art and Literature El Greco (the Greek) – Painted Catholic Saints and Martyrs – Look at the next two paintings, compare Rembrandt with El Greco What do you notice about the style? The content?
Dutch Art: “The Clothmakers Guild” by Rembrandt, 1662
Philip II Fights a Revolution United Provinces of the Netherlands Calvinist Netherlands rebel against Philip II – William of Orange (though he’s Catholic) – nationalism!!! War: 1568-78 – Dutch sacrifice :___________? Nether=under or beneath (what?) – Southern provinces of the Spanish Netherlands remain Spanish: later becomes the nation of ___________
The Netherlands flourishes The individualistic Dutch – Officially Protestant – Tolerant Many Spanish Jews flee to Holland The Pilgrims go to Holland …before they go to Massachusetts (1620)
Commercial Revolution Capitalism Born Amsterdam: “The Florence of the north” – Joint stock companies – Empire of commerce – Dutch East India Company Tulips from Ottoman Empire Spices and tea from _____ – Dutch West India Company Sugar from St. Maarten
Notable Joint Stock Companies Dutch East India Company… – 17 Dutchmen put their money together British East India Shipping Co. (Which, in the movie, tried to capture the pirate Jack Sparrow!) – They dealt in sugar, spices, beaver pelts, and slaves (amongst others).
In France, Mean Queen Catherine de Medici rules – Her Weakling Sons Son king Charles has a Huguenot advisor She orders his advisor assassinated Sad, he tells her, leave none to accuse me. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1572 12,000 Huguenots slaughtered in Paris alone Up to 100,000 through months following in France
Francois Dubois, Eye Witness Account of St. Barts Day Massacre
Dynastic War in France Bourbon v Guise Catherine di Medici, mother of King Charles & daughter of Lorenzo of Florence was unhappy with Hueguenot Henry marrying into the family… Henry IV of Navarre
Henry IV Emerges in France, Catholic v Protestant War (1569-89) Philip II of Spain’s support of Catholic family backfired Bourbon: Huguenot Guise: Catholic Results in: French nationalism – French choose a Bourbon, Henry IV – But Henry converts to Catholicism to promote unity especially in Paris King Henry issues the Edict of Nantes (1598) – Religious toleration – Huguenots may live in peace, just not in Paris
Strengthening France In the Thirty Years War Cardinal Richelieu Increased French Nationalism Henry’s son King Louis XIII is weak, takes throne at 9 Cardinal Richelieu’s goals: 1.Restricted rights of Protestants 2.Allied Kings with middle class for support 3.Built up military to fight Hapsburgs
What does Richelieu think of the common people of France? Read primary source in packet He was both Duke of Richelieu & Cardinal in RCC Effectively ran France from 1624-42