Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Human environment elective"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 4 Human environment elective SettlementChapter 4Human environment elective
2 Settlement: a place where people live Settlement: a place where people live. Settlements vary in size, location and functions.
3 Site: the piece of land a settlement is built on Site: the piece of land a settlement is built on. Physical factors often determine the location of a settlement as things like slope, water supply, defence, building materials and resources often were and are considered.By examining the land of an area you can explain why or why not this site is suitable for settlement
4 Situation: this is when you describe the settlement in relation to the surrounding lands and other towns.The land around a settlement is the area the settlement might expand into and is important to recognise positive and negative factors in the situation.
5 Physical factors that influence the location of settlement Drainage: water supply is vital but the land must be well drained (fear of flooding)Soil quality: Is the surrounding land fertile for cropsAltitude: lowland areas are easier to build upon and farm in contrast to exposed highland areas.Aspect: the direction an area is in can see an increase in sunshine hours, temperatures and less rainfall.
6 Density and Distribution Amount of people per km2 Spread of people across an area
7 Factors influencing each pattern 4 Settlement PatternsFactors influencing each patternDispersed / RandomClustered / NucleatedLinear / RibbonAbsent / None2/3 details on why and when each type of pattern occurred
8 FAVOURED SITESEarly settlers wanted a water supply so chose sites beside a water (river, sea)Early invaders chose river / coastal sites for defence and ease of escapeEarly Industrial revolution, factory owners chose sites beside water for energy suppliesThey also chose sites beside resources such as coal and iron oreRecently, government policies determine the site of new towns (Adamstown, Shannon)Settled upland areas offer some kind of natural defence, shelter and a sunnier aspect and are not prone to floodingDry point settlement were established above the regular flood levels along riversRouteways through mountains led to the development of settlements at the meeting place (focus) of all routes
9 7000BC – Old Stone AgeMiddens (ancient rubbish heap)Nomadic hunter-gathersNo fixed home territoryWandered the landscape in search of fruits and animalsStone weapons and tools which were found by archaeologistsRemains of food found in middens showing what they ate and cooked
10 (Neolithic) settlement 3500BC – New Stone Age(Neolithic) settlementMainly tombs: Megalithic tombs, barrows, portal dolmens, passage graves and court cairns, stone circles, standing stones, rock art, earthworks, fulacht fiaCultivated wild grasses and kept animals = Ireland’s 1st farmersBuilt burial chambers on high places in the landscape (hill) to remember their deadTombs found on fertile landscapes, close to water supply and at dry points above a riverSheer size of tombs shows the skill used in handling huge stones and bouldersLittle evidence of houses but thought to have been tentlike structures with animal skin stretched over curved branchesUnderstood sun and seasons (Newgrange) and aligned tombs to the rising sun
11 2000BC – Bronze Age settlement Copper mines, barrows, cist graves and wedge tombsMuch smaller gravesTheir tombs (cist and wedge tombs) were buried in small barrows or stone chambersFound mainly on low-lying landMany tombs found close to copper mines which was needed for making bronze and reflected use of resources
13 600BC-IRON AGECeltic SettlementMainly homes: Ring forts, promontory forts, hill forts and crannogs, barrowsIsolated dwellings across countrysideUsed landscape for shelter, farming and dry pointsHomes were built on defensive sites (hillltops, cliff edges and lakes)Ring forts built of earth and stoneEarthern ringforts (raths) in Ireland east and stone ringforts ( dun/caiseal) in ireland west where there is less soilCrannogs main settlement in lakes and poorly drained areas of the midlandsBarrows built as burial places
14 AD – EARLY CHRISTIANMainly religious sites: Holy wells, cross-inscribed stones, round towers, high crosses, monasteries, churches, graveyardsLived near religious sitesSites chosen were isolated for peaceful prayer and defence purposesLocation of church often liked to an important existing well etc.Houses built of wattle and daub (interwoven tree stems packed with mud) and enclosed with circular fences or embankmentsCrosses carved on Stone Age standing stones. Shown as cross-inscribed stonesMonasteries and round towers were important and social centres
21 History of settlement in Ireland 7000BC Old Stone Age3500BC New Age2000BC Bronze Age Settlement600BC Iron Age/Celtic Settlement500BC Early Christian Settlement800 / 1000AD Vikings1100 / Medieval / Norman era1500 / Plantation era1700 / Georgian settlements1900 / Industrial – Resort – Dormitory – New Towns
22 Counter - Urbanisation Urban workers moving to the countryside
23 1 Aim: To protect the future of rural Irish society Duration:Investment: €183.7 billionMethods:Transport links (rural to urban)Support rural-based industries (Farming/Fishing/Forestry)Village renewal (make villages more attractive to live in)Boost tourism in rural areasImprove water suppliesProvide education and training schemes
24 County development plans 2Each county in Ireland has its own development plan to control urban and rural settlement.The plan includes lists of committees, organisations, agencies and groups who deal with local concerns and development.
26 Functions of Urban Settlements Religious, Residential, Recreational IndustrialFunctions are the services and activities that an urban area provides for its residents and people of the surrounding areasCommercialEducationPortOpen spacesTransportServices
30 Threshold: The population needed to keep a services in business Range: The maximum distance people will travel for a product or serviceFrequency of demand: How often a service is needed.Rank order: a range of cheap daily items (milk, bread etc) to expensive and rare goods (car, yacht etc)
32 Hierarchy of settlements Urban settlements are grouped according to their size and the number of functions they have.Basically this is a ranking system from smallest to largest. It makes sense that the larger the urban area….the more functions the city will have….supply and demand.