Presentation on theme: "The city-states in Greece were constantly in war with each other. Alliances would change easily. “If we don’t end war, war will end us.” -H. G. Wells."— Presentation transcript:
The city-states in Greece were constantly in war with each other. Alliances would change easily. “If we don’t end war, war will end us.” -H. G. Wells
Athens and Sparta were the most powerful city-states in Greece. They were always fighting for supremacy. The men were trained to be ready to fight at any time. Sparta’s troops fought on land Athens’ troops fought overseas.
The enemies were forced to unite when King Xerxes from Persia tried to conquer their land in 480 B.C. During the Persian War, at the Battle of Thermopylae, 300 Spartans briefly held Xerxes back The Persians were finally defeated at the Battle of Salamis because of the Athenian Naval strategies. After the war the rivals went back to fighting each other
A hoplite was a Greek soldier who provided his own armor. The common weapons consisted of an oval shield, a bronze breast/back plate, a helmet, and a short sword. Most warriors had slaves to carry their weapons to and from the battle field.
The phalanx was a dominant formation in Ancient Greek warfare Hoplites stood shoulder-to-shoulder with their shields interlocking and spears thrust forward. There would be multiple lines of resistance to block enemy charge. The troop would rush forward and be crushed by the opponent. When the first line would fall, another would step forward.
The warships were long and slender to increase speed. The ship was lightweight and carried easily. The ship had slaves on each side of the vessel to row the long oars. −Strokes were kept in time by the piping of a flute. It was common for eyes to be carved and painted onto the boat. Many ships had an iron clad beak with three protruding spikes to make it more menacing. The battle was won by ramming into the enemy and puncturing the boat, pushing them into a rock, or disabling the rowers or oars.
The Greeks believed that burial was sacred. They believed that souls couldn’t find rest unless bodies were buried. If a citizen found a cadaver they must throw dirt on top of it to soothe the spirit. If a general did not bury a fallen soldier from his side or the enemy's he would be charged with a capital offense.
It was the responsibility of the women to take care of the dead bodies of family members. The eyes of the body were closed. A coin was placed in the mouth to pay for the boat ride along the Styx River in the Underworld. The body was washed, anointed with oil, and dressed in white for burial.
Professional mourners were hired to sing dirges at burials. Before sunrise of the next day the body would be taken to the place of burial with the family and friends following behind in a procession. The females of the family would cut their hair out of respect before the procession.
After the burial there would be a meal to honor the loved one and reflect on their memories of that person. The Greeks believed that speaking evil of the dead was a curse. For 12 days after being buried, the family brought gifts of food and drink to the grave. −Honey, milk, wine, water, or oil was poured on the grave. Most families came back yearly on birthday of the dead to place garlands on the grave.
How does bringing food to a grave show respect?