Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Jesus Christ: The Fullness of Divine Revelation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 6: Jesus Christ: The Fullness of Divine Revelation FAITH AND REVELATION
2 1. The Religious and Political Situation BASIC QUESTIONSWho were the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes?Who was Herod the Great?How did Judeans view the Jews of Galilee and the Samaritans?What factors aided the spread of Christianity in the Roman world?KEY IDEASThe Pharisees were zealous and learned laymen who believed in separation from Gentiles and adherence to their interpretation of the Mosaic Law. The Sadducees were politically connected priests who believed in accommodating Gentile rulers. The Essenes withdrew to the desert to live a form of purified Judaism.Herod the Great was a crafty, murderous king who got the Romans to conquer Judea for him and brought prosperity to Israel, rebuilding the Second Temple.Galilee was a region of poor, backward farmers; the Samaritans were a mixed population of Jews and Gentiles whom Judeans considered heretics and with whom they had no contact.The spread of Christianity was aided by the Pax Romana, the spread of Greek philosophy, the Jewish Diaspora, and the proselytes of the Gate.
3 1. The Religious and Political Situation Anticipatory SetExamine the objectives (p. 181, “In This Chapter We Will Discuss”) and free write for two minutes on what you already know about one or more of them.
4 1. The Religious and Political Situation How was the time immediately preceding Christ similar to that of King David’s reign? Israel had regained her old borders, Jerusalem was the capital, the Temple was purified and reconsecrated to God, and the king was both the religious and political leader of the nation. How did John Hyrcanus “Judaize” Israel? He required every man to be circumcised or leave. Being circumcised implied obeying the whole Mosaic Law with all its rituals and requirements. How did John Hyrcanus earn the hatred of the Samaritans? He destroyed the Samaritan temple on Mt. Gerizim, the center of Samaritan religious life.
5 1. The Religious and Political Situation When the high priest Aristobulus proclaimed himself king, why did this not fulfill the promises of the covenant? Though Israel was again whole and there was a king in Jerusalem, Aristobulus was a Levite, not a descendant of David (Tribe of Judah). Why was Israel doomed to be conquered again? Israel had splintered into numerous battling factions, and, as Christ said, “Every kingdom divided against itself is laid to waste and no city or house divided against itself will stand.” How did Israel lose her independence? Herod entered into a plot with the Roman emperor to seize power.
6 1. The Religious and Political Situation THE PHARISEES What was the central power in the world at the time of Christ? The Roman Empire was dominant. How did the Pharisees answer the question, “How can Jews be faithful to God amid pagans”? The best way was to build a cultural wall around themselves to keep out Gentile and pagan influences. Pharisee comes from the Aramaic word perushim, which means “separated.” How was the practice of Judaism under the Pharisees? Besides refusing to associate with Gentiles, the Pharisees thought everyone should follow the complicated ritualistic regulations they had developed under their interpretation of the Mosaic Law. Extension: The Pharisees, who were not priests, basically took the rules and regulations Moses gave to the Levitical priests to follow when they were serving in the Temple and applied them to all Jews in their everyday lives. Why could the Pharisees justifiably claim they were right in separating themselves from the rest of the world? Whenever Israel had allowed herself to be influenced by outside cultures and religions, she had met with disastrous consequences.
7 1. The Religious and Political Situation Guided ExerciseRead silently Matthew 23:1–39, thinking about the following questions:Why was a speech like this certain to earn the Pharisees’ hatred?Why might Christ have adopted such a harsh approach to them?
8 1. The Religious and Political Situation THE SADDUCEES Who were the Sadducees? They were priests who claimed to be the spiritual heirs of Zadok, King Solomon’s priest, whose heirs were supposed to be priests in Jerusalem forever. How did the Sadducees answer the question, “How can Jews be faithful to God amid pagans”? They cooperated with Gentile rulers. What were some of the Sadducees’s central beliefs? They believed only the Pentateuch was canonical, denied life after death, and rejected the existence of angels. Why did the Pharisees hate the Sadducees? The Sadducees cooperated with the Romans rather than separate themselves from them. As a consequence, the Sadducees had political power, which was denied to the Pharisees.
9 1. The Religious and Political Situation Guided Exercise Read silently Luke 20:27–40, and then free write for five minutes on what Christ revealed about Heaven in this passage.
10 1. The Religious and Political Situation How often are the Essenes mentioned in Sacred Scripture? They are never mentioned. What were the basic beliefs of the Essenes? They held the Law of Moses and Jewish customs in high esteem; rejected the animal sacrifices of the Temple; kept the Sabbath; placed much value in ceremonial purity, washing frequently and practicing baptism; and believed in the immortality of the soul. What were some of the laudable moral practices of the Essenes? They cared for the sick, practiced hospitality, treated all men equally, prohibited slavery, held goods in common, and practiced pacifism. Many also lived celibacy.
11 1. The Religious and Political Situation Guided Exercise Work with a partner to complete the following table about the various Jewish groups in Israel in the time of Christ.
13 1. The Religious and Political Situation Guided Exercise Work with a partner to compose a bullet-point list of at least three examples of Herod’s tyrannical behavior and three of his crafty behavior.
14 1. The Religious and Political Situation JUDEA AND GALILEE Who were the Zealots? They were Jewish nationalists who sought to overthrow the Roman rulers and reestablish the Kingdom of Israel as a sovereign nation. Eventually, their efforts to throw off the Romans resulted in the complete destruction of Israel. How were the Galileans distinct from the inhabitants of Judea? Most of the Hebrews who had returned from the Babylonian Exile settled around Jerusalem. Those who settled in Galilee came into contact with Israelites who had not experienced the Babylonian Exile and could trace their heritage back to the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali. Why were Galileans looked down upon by Judeans? They were poor peasants and farmers who had a distinct accent.
15 1. The Religious and Political Situation THE SAMARITANS Who were the Samaritans? These Israelites had intermarried with Gentiles during the time of the Assyrian occupation. They lived between Judea and Galilee. Where did the Samaritans worship? They worshipped on Mt. Gerizim, a site of worship for the Israelites before the capture of Jerusalem. How did Judeans regard the Samaritans? They considered them unclean heretics and so had nothing to do with them. Who are the Samaritans today? A few hundred survive today as a persecuted minority in Palestine. Extension: They speak Aramaic, the language Christ spoke.
16 1. The Religious and Political Situation SETTING THE STAGE FOR CHRIST What was the Pax Romana? It was a centuries-long relative peace the known world enjoyed under the Roman Empire. How did the Pax Romana and Roman rule facilitate the spread of Christianity? There was an extensive network of roads, one currency, one law, no borders to cross, and relative safety when traveling. What was the Roman attitude toward other religions? The Romans generally tolerated any religion as long as its adherents did not cause problems such as rebellion or refusal to pay taxes. Was Rome completely pagan? No. Under the influence of Greek philosophy, some had reasoned their way to a monotheism with God as the First Cause.
17 1. The Religious and Political Situation THE SPREAD OF THE JEWISH RELIGION What was the Jewish Diaspora? The Diaspora refers to communities of Jews who, after the Babylonian Exile, lived outside Palestine and throughout the Roman Empire. How many Jews lived outside Palestine, and where could they have been found? It is estimated they comprised seven percent of the population of the Roman Empire, with Jewish communities in every major town. How did Christianity spread through the Diaspora? It rooted itself in Jewish communities before spreading to the larger population.
18 1. The Religious and Political Situation What are the proselytes of the Gate? These Gentiles were attracted to Judaism and believed in the one true God. They worshiped in Jewish synagogues and studied the Scriptures yet refrained from converting, which required circumcision and following the dietary laws. They were eager converts to Christianity. What two groups was St. Paul addressing when he began, “Men of Israel, and you that fear God…” (Acts 13:16)? He was referring to Jews and the proselytes of the Gate, respectfully.
19 1. The Religious and Political Situation Closure Write a paragraph summarizing how the beginning of the first century AD was a propitious time for the coming of the Messiah.
20 1. The Religious and Political Situation Homework AssignmentReadingMARY, THE MOTHER OF GOD through TEACHING THE TEACHERS.Study QuestionsQuestions 1–8.Practical Exercise 5.WorkbookQuestions 1–12.
21 1. The Religious and Political Situation Alternative AssessmentFree write for five minutes on the following question: If you had to choose only one, which would you choose to be, and why: a Pharisee, a Sadducee, an Essene, a Galilean, or a proselyte at the Gate?
22 2. The Infancy of Christ BASIC QUESTIONS What is the Annunciation? What is the Nativity?What is the Epiphany?What is the Finding in the Temple?KEY IDEASThe Annunciation refers to the announcement of the Archangel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary that she would be the mother of the Savior, the Son of the Most High, and that this would be accomplished by the power of the Holy Spirit.In accord with the prophet Micah, Christ was born in Bethlehem, the city of David. He was born in poverty, and angels announced to shepherds that he was “a Savior… Christ the Lord.”Magi from the East were the first Gentiles to adore the Christ.Christ’s wisdom was revealed in the Finding in the Temple. During his “hidden years,” from his infancy until he began his public ministry, Christ lived an ordinary life, sharing the condition of the vast majority of human beings.
23 2. The Infancy of Christ Anticipatory Set Say a decade of one of the first three Joyful Mysteries of the Rosary, using the “scriptural method” of saying the Rosary.The essence of the scriptural method is to read a relevant Bible passage before each Hail Mary is prayed and then to meditate on that passage while the Hail Mary is recited.
24 2. The Infancy of Christ MARY, THE MOTHER OF GOD What was betrothal in the time of Christ?In Jewish custom, it was a contract similar to marriage. The couple did not yet live together, but their promise could not be broken.What is the significance of the word “overshadow” in the Archangel Gabriel’s greeting?The word is an unusual one in Greek and not used anywhere else in the New Testament. It is used in the Old Testament: the cloud overshadowed the Tabernacle when the Ark of the Covenant had been placed in it. Thus, to overshadow implies the presence of God. How is the Blessed Virgin Mary’s response to God’s call different from what might be expected from the Old Testament in light of other divine calls from the Old Testament?Most of the great people of Israel—including Abraham, Moses, and David—though accepting of God’s plan for them, had nevertheless expressed surprise, doubt, and even resistance. Sarah, for example, laughed at God’s message to her. In contrast, the Blessed Virgin Mary’s response was immediate belief, obedience, and acceptance.
25 2. The Infancy of ChristGuided Exercise Work with a partner to choose one of the titles of the Blessed Virgin Mary from the Litany of Loreto and explain it, writing from the perspective of the Old Testament.
26 2. The Infancy of Christ Guided Exercise Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following prompt:Based on the sidebar “Mary as the Ark of the New Covenant” (p. 189) and your own background knowledge, explain in one or two sentences how the Visitation―the Blessed Virgin Mary’s visit to her cousin St. Elizabeth―is deeply rooted in the Old Testament.
27 2. The Infancy of ChristTHE BIRTH OF JESUS Why did St. Joseph travel from Nazareth, where he lived, to Bethlehem? St. Joseph traveled to Bethlehem with his pregnant wife to register in the Roman census. What prophesy did this journey fulfill? The Messiah was to be born in Bethlehem as the prophet Micah predicted: from Bethlehem “shall come forth for me one who is to be ruler in Israel” (Mi 5:2). What did the angels tell the shepherds about Jesus? This child was a Savior, the Anointed successor to David, and the Lord, the one who sits at God’s right hand. Why is it surprising the first people to know about the birth of the Messiah were shepherds? Shepherds were poor outcasts in Jewish society, avoided by many Jews as unclean, yet David had been a shepherd who tended his flocks in those very same fields.
28 2. The Infancy of ChristTHE EPIPHANY Who were the Magi (or wise men)? They may have been Persian astrologers. Why might Herod have been especially nervous about Balaam’s prophesy to Balak? Balaam’s prophesy spoke of a rising star, which represented a son of Jacob, who would dispossess an Edomite. The new king whom the Magi sought was born in Bethlehem and thus a son of Jacob. Herod himself was from Edom, so he could have been afraid the infant king the Magi came to visit would overthrow him or his descendants. What was the significance of the gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh? Gold and frankincense are gifts Isaiah predicted would be brought by all the nations to the God of Israel. Gold indicates Christ’s royalty, and frankincense refers to his priesthood and spiritual divinity. Myrrh is an oil used both to anoint the priests of Israel and to anoint a dead body for burial, so it also suggested Christ’s Sacrifice on the Cross.
29 2. The Infancy of ChristTEACHING THE TEACHERS What is unique about the Finding of Christ in the Temple? It is the only story about Christ recorded in the Gospels between his infancy and when he began his public ministry about age thirty. How does the Finding in the Temple reveal Christ’s divine and human natures? By age twelve, the Christ child displayed an amazing command of the Scriptures and was able to discuss and debate them with the most educated men in Jerusalem. At the same time, Christ was a boy, he grew up, he worried his parents, and he practiced his faith.
30 2. The Infancy of ChristClosure Free write for five minutes about an Old Testament prophecy cited in one of the infancy narratives (cf. Mt 1–3; Lk 1–2).
31 2. The Infancy of Christ Homework Assignment Reading ReadingJOHN THE BAPTIST MAKES STRAIGHT THE WAY through THE TWELVE.Study QuestionsQuestions 9–11.Practical Exercise 7.WorkbookQuestions 13–22.
32 2. The Infancy of ChristAlternative Assessment In groups of three or four, read Mary’s Magnificat (Lk 1:46–55) and try to relate this prayer to the Old Testament and the history of Israel.
33 3. What Jesus Did and Taught BASIC QUESTIONSWho was St. John the Baptist?Why was Christ baptized, and why did he undergo temptation?Why did Christ perform miracles?Who are the Twelve Apostles?KEY IDEASSt. John the Baptist, the final prophet, was a New Elijah who preached a baptism of repentance to prepare people for the Messiah.Christ received St. John’s baptism and fasted in the wilderness for forty days, where he was tempted by the Devil.Christ performed miracles out of love and to show his divinity.Christ chose the Twelve Apostles to carry on his work.
34 3. What Jesus Did and Taught Anticipatory SetRead the Acts of the Apostles 10:34–43, thinking about the following question: What is the basic outline of the story of Christ as described by St. Peter?
35 3. What Jesus Did and Taught ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST MAKES STRAIGHT THE WAY Who was St. John the Baptist? St. John the Baptist was Christ’s cousin, a Levite who preached repentance and baptism for the forgiveness of sins to prepare the way for the Messiah. How were St. John the Baptist and the prophet Elijah similar in appearance? St. John was clothed with camel’s hair and had a leather belt around his waist, whereas Elijah wore a garment of haircloth with a girdle of leather about his loins. How did St. John the Baptist’s ministry fulfill the last words of Malachi, the last prophet in the Old Testament? Malachi prophesied that God would send the Prophet Elijah to Israel to turn the hearts of fathers to their children and the hearts of children to their fathers; thus they would not be punished by God. St. John the Baptist preached and baptized to encourage people from all walks of life to repent and amend their lives.
36 3. What Jesus Did and Taught How did Christ identify St. John the Baptist with the prophet Elijah? He said St. John the Baptist was the second coming of Elijah prophesied by Malachi. Why did St. John the Baptist worry many Jewish priests and officials? He told them the Kingdom of Heaven was at hand, which meant that the Messiah was coming. To some priests and politicians, this meant St. John the Baptist was another false prophet who could spark a rebellion, which could only end badly for them and for Israel.
37 3. What Jesus Did and Taught THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST How was Christ’s preparation like that of Elijah and Moses? He fasted in the wilderness for forty days, the same period for which Elijah and Moses had fasted in the wilderness of Sinai. What is significant about the number forty in the Old Testament? In addition to the fasting of Elijah and Moses in the previous answer, forty is the number of years the Israelites wandered in the wilderness before entering the Promised Land, and it was the number of days and nights it took to flood the world so it could be created anew through Noah. What does it mean to say Christ was tempted by the Devil? The word tempted means “tested.” Though Christ did not sin, it was necessary for him to have overcome temptations that had cause people to sin.
38 3. What Jesus Did and Taught Guided Exercise Complete a paragraph shrink on the first four paragraphs under THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST (through the quote from Matthew 3:16–17).
39 3. What Jesus Did and Taught Guided Exercise Work with a partner to complete the following table about the insights that Sts. Matthew, Mark, and Luke had about Christ’s temptations.
41 3. What Jesus Did and Taught MIRACLES What did most Jews expect from the Messiah, and what did they get? Most Jews expected an anointed prophet-king who would bring the covenants with Israel to their fulfillment. They received God himself incarnate in the Person of Jesus Christ. Which actions of Christ most clearly demonstrated both his human and divine natures? His miracles showed his natures. What was Christ’s first miracle? He turned water into wine at the Wedding Feast in Cana.
42 3. What Jesus Did and Taught How does the miracle at Cana relate to the Last Supper? At Cana, Christ turned water into wine as a act of charity. At the Last Supper, he turned wine into his Blood to manifest the ultimate act of charity (love): his Death on the Cross. How were Christ’s healings messianic? Under the promised Son of David, “No inhabitant will say, ‘I am sick’; the people who dwell there will be forgiven their iniquity ” (Is 33:24). Christ’s healings and forgiveness demonstrated the arrival of the messianic age. What did Christ’s exorcisms demonstrate? They showed his divinity and dominion over demons. Why did Christ heal the paralytic? Christ wanted to heal the man’s infirmity and show he has authority to forgive sins.
43 3. What Jesus Did and Taught Guided Exercise Silently read the relevant scriptural passage(s) describing the miracle you are given, and draw an illustration of the miracle without labeling it.
44 3. What Jesus Did and Taught Sidebar: The Beatitudes What is paradoxical about the beatitudes? Those suffering misfortunes are actually blessed because of the rewards they will receive. For example, those who are poor in spirit will inherit the Kingdom of God, so they are blessed.
45 3. What Jesus Did and Taught Guided Exercise Work with a partner to compose a bullet-point list of ways Christ violated the Pharisees’ principle of strict separation of Jews from non-Jews and Gentiles or sinners.
46 3. What Jesus Did and Taught THE TWELVE How did Christ intend his message to spread throughout the world? He instructed his Apostles to go to all nations, teaching and baptizing. What is significant about the number twelve? It signifies perfection in governance and hearkens to the Twelve Tribes of Israel. On the foundation of the Twelve Apostles united under St. Peter, their head, Christ established the New Israel, his Church, which he promised would last until the end of time. Why did some of the Apostles have two names? Like many Jews, some of the Apostles had two names: a Jewish name, by which they were known to family and friends, and a Greek or Roman name, which was useful in the Gentile world.
47 3. What Jesus Did and Taught Sidebar: Our Father Guided Exercise Work with a partner to complete the following table paraphrasing the petitions of the Lord’s Prayer.
49 3. What Jesus Did and Taught Closure Write a paragraph discussing the ways Jesus showed he is the Messiah.
50 3. What Jesus Did and Taught Homework AssignmentReadingTHE DEATH, BURIAL, AND RESURRECTION OF JESUS CHRIST through I AM.Study QuestionsQuestions 12–16.Practical Exercises 8–9.WorkbookQuestions 23–32.
51 3. What Jesus Did and Taught Alternative Assessment Have each student choose one of the miracles listed in this lesson and write an account of the miracle told from the point of view of the person who was healed.
52 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ BASIC QUESTIONSWhat was the Last Supper?What is the Cup of Consummation?Why did the Sanhedrin condemn Christ to death?KEY IDEASChrist used the Passover meal’s Cup of Blessing as the occasion to institute the Sacrament of the Eucharist, which he called the Blood of the Covenant.Christ refused to drink the Cup of Consummation during the Passover meal. In Gethsemane, he asked the Father to let him be spared the cup. He drank it to the full in his Passion and Death.The Sanhedrin tried to convict Christ of crimes against the Jewish religion using false testimony. When they asked if he is the Son of God, he said he is; for this reason they convicted him of blasphemy.
53 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ Anticipatory SetRead St. Matthew’s account of the Passion from the Last Supper until Jesus’ arrest (Mt 26:17–68).
54 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ THE DEATH, BURIAL, AND RESURRECTION OF JESUS CHRIST Was Christ surprised by his arrest, Passion, Death, and Resurrection? No; moreover, he made frequent reference to these inevitable events. When did Christ’s “popularity” reach its height? In the third year of his public ministry, upon his entering Jerusalem, the crowd proclaimed him the Messiah, the Son of David. What were the religious authorities planning when Christ entered Jerusalem? They were deciding how to put him to death.
55 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ Why did Christ enter Jerusalem riding a donkey? This fulfilled Zechariah’s prophesy, in which the people of Jerusalem would be filled with joy because their king is approaching, humble and riding on a donkey (cf. Zec 9:9). What were the two stages in the establishment of the New Covenant? They were the celebration of the Last Supper and Christ’s Sacrifice on the Cross.
56 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ THE MISSING CUP What was the Passover meal? It was the commemoration of the passing of the Israelite people out of slavery, their reception of the Law, and the establishment of Israel as a nation set apart. At the first Passover what did the Jews to do with the blood of the slaughtered lamb? They took hyssop, dipped it in the blood, and touched the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood. What did the blood of the Passover lamb accomplish? It saved the firstborn male of each Hebrew family from death.
57 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ Why did the Jews celebrate the ritual meal each year? God had instructed them to celebrate it annually to remember what he had done for them. How did Christ change the Passover meal during the Last Supper? He transformed the Passover ritual into the celebration of the New Covenant, the Mass. What is the relationship between Christ and the Passover lamb? Christ became the spotless Passover Lamb, and, through his Blood shed on the Cross, all people were freed from the slavery to sin, and the People of God were transformed into the New Israel.
58 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ How many cups of wine were drunk during the Passover meal? Four. How did Christ change the ritual at the time of the third cup? He identified the Cup of Blessing with his Blood of the New Covenant; the bread and wine were his Body and Blood. Where did the phrase “blood of the covenant” originate? It appears in Exodus 24:8. With these words God ratified the Mosaic Covenant with Israel at Mt. Sinai, making them his Chosen People. The people were sprinkled with the blood of the sacrifice.
59 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ What did Christ mean by “Blood of the Covenant”? He declared he was establishing a New Covenant, but, instead of the animal blood spilled at Mt. Sinai, it would be his own Body sacrificed and his own Blood to seal the promise between God and man. How did Christ leave the Passover meal unfinished? He did not drink the fourth cup, the Cup of Consummation.
60 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ Guided Exercise Work with a partner to identify the three Passovers referred to in the Catechism, no (cf. FROM THE CATECHISM at the end of the chapter).
61 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ Guided Exercise Work with a partner to read silently Exodus 24:8. Write a paragraph explaining the blood of the covenant and what Christ likely meant when he said “my blood of the covenant” (Mt 26:28).
62 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ THE CUP OF CONSUMMATION What did Christ ask the Father in the garden? To “take this cup from” him, meaning his final sufferings. Why should the use of the word “cup” capture our attention? This cup of suffering is identified with the Cup of Consummation that Christ had not drunk earlier that evening at the Last Supper; he was to drink it in his Passion and Death. Extension: When the mother of the sons of Zebedee asked they be given the chief places in Christ’s kingdom, he asked them if they could drink the cup he was going to drink. (cf. Mt 20:22).
63 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ What was the sign of Judas’s betrayal? He gave Christ a kiss, which was the ordinary way a disciple would have greeted his master. What may have been Judas’ motivation to have betrayed Christ? Judas may have been a Zealot who hoped for a political messiah, a military leader who would defeat the Roman occupiers. Judas may have become frustrated with Christ’s teachings (cf. Jn 6:64) of love for neighbor, obedience to authority, and his willingness to suffer death. Why was Christ first brought to Annas? Although Annas was deposed by the Romans, most Jews still considered him the legitimate high priest. His son-in-law Caiaphas seemed to defer to him as well.
64 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ “I AM” What did most of the Sanhedrin believe even before the trial? Christ was a false prophet and blasphemer. What kind of evidence was presented against Christ? Evidence was produced by false witnesses who contradicted each other. How did Caiaphas gain the final evidence to convict Christ? Caiaphas asked Jesus directly if he is the Messiah (Christ).
65 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ How did Christ respond to the Caiaphas’s direct question? “I am; and you will see the Son of man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven” (Mk 12:62). What legitimate point did Caiaphas have to condemn Christ? Christ identified himself with the Son of God, which would have been blasphemy were he not the Son of God. How did Caiaphas violate the Mosaic Law? At hearing such blasphemy, he tore his robes, which the high priest was not supposed to do.
66 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ Guided Exercise Read Leviticus 24:10–16, keeping in mind the Jewish attitude toward blasphemy.
67 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ Closure Write a paragraph explaining how Christ changed the celebration of the Passover meal at the Last Supper.
68 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ Homework AssignmentReadingPILATE EXAMINES JESUS through ST. PETER AND JUDAS.Study QuestionsQuestions 22–27.Practical Exercise 10.WorkbookQuestions 33–41.
69 4. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ Alternative Assessment Search the Internet to read about how modern-day Jews celebrate the Passover.
70 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued) BASIC QUESTIONSHow was Pilate unjust in his condemnation of Christ?How did Judas’s and St. Peter’s remorse differ?KEY IDEASTo prompt him to execute Christ, the Sanhedrin lied to Pilate about Christ’s crime. Pilate was convinced Christ was innocent but wanted to appease the Sanhedrin, so he tried to make the problem go away, including sending him to Herod Antipas for judgment, which met with no success. When the Sanhedrin accused him of not being a friend of Caesar, Pilate finally agreed to execute Christ and let an insurrectionist go free.Both Judas and St. Peter betrayed Christ, and both repented, but Judas despaired while St. Peter experienced true contrition.
71 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued) Anticipatory SetRead the account of Christ’s arrest and condemnation. (Mt 26:69—27:32).
72 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued) PILATE EXAMINES JESUS Why did the Sanhedrin have to ask the Roman governor to put Christ to death? Under Roman law they were not allowed to carry out a death sentence, so they had to persuade the Roman authorities Christ was guilty of a secular crime deserving death. How did the Sanhedrin try to convince Pilate Christ should be put to death? They said Christ was a leader among the revolutionary Zealots, who sought to reestablish the Kingdom of Israel. What lie did the Sanhedrin tell Pilate? They said Christ forbade the Jews from paying taxes to Caesar.
73 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued) What was Pilate’s initial reaction to the Sanhedrin’s charge? He wanted nothing to do with the case. What reason did Christ give Pilate he would not let his followers fight for him? His kingdom is not of this world. What reason did Christ give Pilate for his having come into the world? He bears witness to the truth.
74 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued) CONDEMNED TO DEATH How did Pilate see Christ at this point? Pilate saw Christ as innocent of any crime against Rome. Why did Pilate send Christ to Herod Antipas? Herod Antipas ruled Galilee, Jesus’ home district. Pilate hoped Herod would make a ruling so he would not have to. What was unjust about Pilate’s decision to flog and release Christ? Though Pilate acknowledged Christ was innocent, he still had him flogged, a terrible, life-threatening punishment, perhaps to appease the Sanhedrin.
75 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued) What custom did Pilate invoke to persuade the Sanhedrin to change their mind about Christ? He invoked his custom of pardoning one criminal at Passover. He gave them the choice between Barabbas and Christ. Why did Pilate finally give in to the Sanhedrin’s demands? If he would have released Christ, they would have said he was no friend of Caesar. Pilate knew if he were to allow a rebel to live, he would have been in trouble with Caesar.
76 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued) Guided Exercise Work with a partner to answer the following questions about Barabbas.
77 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued)
78 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued) Guided ExerciseWork with a partner to read the Catechism, no. 598 (below), and then review the paragraph in the student text beginning, “The role that Judas,” and answer the following question in writing: Some have blamed the Jews for killing Christ and have used this as a basis for anti-Semitism. According to the Church, who is responsible for having killed Christ?
79 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued) ST. PETER AND JUDAS How did Judas betray Christ? He revealed where the chief priests could arrest Christ safely. How did St. Peter betray Christ? After Christ’s arrest, St. Peter denied he even knew him. What was lacking in Judas’s repentance? When he tried to return the money the Sanhedrin had paid him, they refused his offer. He despaired of forgiveness and killed himself. What was right about St. Peter’s repentance? Christ prophesied that St. Peter would deny him three times before the cock crowed. At the third crow, St. Peter wept bitterly out of a sorrow fueled by love.
80 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued) Closure Write a paragraph summarizing how Pilate acted as an unjust judge against Christ.
81 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued) Homework AssignmentReadingJESUS CRUCIFIED through THE WOMEN WHO MET THE RISEN LORD.Study QuestionsQuestions 28–31.Practical Exercise 2.WorkbookQuestions 42–49.
82 5. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (continued) Alternative Assessment Free write for five minutes about how Pilate could have resisted the demand for Christ’s death were he truly a just governor.
83 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) BASIC QUESTIONSHow was Christ’s Crucifixion?How did Christ complete his Passover?How is Psalm 22 related to the Crucifixion?How did Christ’s disciples first learn of his Resurrection?KEY IDEASChrist was crucified as King of the Jews.Christ died, draining the Cup of Consummation.Psalm 22 provided a prophetic description of Christ’s Passion.An angel announced Christ’s Resurrection to the three women who went to anoint Christ’s Body. Christ then appeared to St. Mary Magdalene.
84 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) Anticipatory SetRead the account of Christ being led away to Crucifixion through his entombment (Mt 27:32–66).
85 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) JESUS CRUCIFIED Why did Christ need help carrying his Cross? He was weak from having been scourged. Legally, how did the soldiers press St. Simon of Cyrene to carry Christ’s Cross? Soldiers could press a person into service to carry baggage for one Roman mile. When Christ said, “If any one forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles” (Mt 5:41), to what was he referring? He referred to the same Roman law in the previous question.
86 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) Why did someone offer Christ wine mixed with myrrh? It was a painkiller; he refused it. Why did the Jewish authorities object to the sign Pilate had placed above Christ? The sign identified Christ as the King of the Jews. They said it should read, “This man said, ‘I am King of the Jews” (Jn 19:21). What kind of mockery did Christ experience on the Cross? He was mocked both by passersby and by one of the thieves crucified with him.
87 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) Sidebar: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, ROMAN STYLE In the Roman Empire, for whom was crucifixion reserved? Crucifixion was reserved for the most heinous criminals—for example, rebels and runaway slaves—to deter others from imitating them. Why was crucifixion a terrible punishment? It is both very painful and deeply humiliating. Why does breaking the legs of a crucified man hasten death? The crucified has to use his legs to push himself up to breathe. If the legs are broken, he dies more quickly of asphyxiation.
88 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) THE LAST CUP Why is this not a cry of despair: “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?” This lamentation begins Psalm 22, which ends in a triumphant delivery by God. What is the connection between the sponge soaked in sour wine on a branch of hyssop and the Passover? During the Passover, a bunch of hyssop was used to sprinkle the blood of the Passover lamb. Christ’s last drink of wine was administered by a sponge attached to a branch of hyssop. What is the meaning of Christ’s last sip of wine and his declaration, “It is finished”? It meant he was drinking the Cup of Consummation, completing his own Passover. He was the New Lamb sacrificed for all people. What is the connection between the Eucharist and Calvary? The offering of Christ’s Blood on Calvary will be offered until the end of time in the Eucharist. Each time the followers of Christ gather to share in the meal of their salvation, they share in the Blood of the New Covenant established by Christ.
89 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) Why was Christ pierced? He appeared to be dead. The soldier wanted to ensure it. How do two Old Testament prophecies come together in Christ’s piercing? First, the Mosaic Law forbade the breaking of any of the bones of the Passover lamb; by not breaking Christ’s legs, the Gospels confirm that Christ is the New Passover Lamb. Second, at the time of Christ, wine was drunk after mixing in water. The Blood and water spilling from the side of Christ refers to the Eucharist, and the Church continues to mix water and wine to prepare the chalice in the celebration of the Eucharist. What does the rending of the curtain of the Temple signify? The separation between God and his people was ended.
90 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) Guided Exercise Work with a partner to read Psalm 22 (cf. Supplemental Reading 2) and identify two prophecies fulfilled in Christ’s Crucifixion.
91 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) THE BURIAL OF CHRIST Why was Christ’s body placed in a tomb rather than a common grave like most crucified criminals? Two secret followers of Christ were St. Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin, and St. Nicodemus, a Pharisee. They received permission from Pilate to take Christ’s Body and place it in a new tomb. Why did the chief priests ask Pilate to have Christ’s tomb guarded? They feared Christ’s followers would steal the body and claim he had risen from the dead.
92 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) Guided Exercise Read the Catechism, no. 1851, and then free write about which of the sufferings experienced by Christ you think is the worst and why.
93 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) THE WOMEN WHO MET THE RISEN LORD Why did a group of women go to Christ’s tomb early Sunday morning? They went to anoint the body of Christ properly, as it was done in haste Friday afternoon due to the approach of the Sabbath. Extension: The Jewish day was calculated from sunset; it lasted from sunset Friday evening to sunset Saturday evening. The women, then, went to Christ’s tomb at the break of daylight the following (Sunday) morning. To whom was the Resurrection first announced? An angel, dressed in white, announced the Resurrection to St. Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome. Why was St. Mary Magdalene weeping at Christ’s tomb? She thought somebody had moved or stolen the body of Christ.
94 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) How did St. Mary Magdalene finally recognize Christ? He called her by name, “Mary.” What did the disciples think of St. Mary Magdalene’s announcement she had seen the Lord? It seemed an “idle tale,” that is, untrue gossip. What does it mean to be a messenger of Christ’s Resurrection? It means to tell others Christ has indeed risen from the dead.
95 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) Closure Free write for five minutes on the relationship among the Last Supper, Christ’s Death on the Cross, and the Eucharist.
96 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) Homework AssignmentReadingFULFILLING THE LAW AND THE PROPHETS through “Jesus Fulfills the Covenant with David.”Study QuestionsQuestions 32–33.Practical Exercises 3–4.WorkbookQuestions 50–57.
97 6. The Death, Burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (conclusion) Alternative Assessment Read silently 1 Corinthians 15:3–11 and then make a list of all the “messengers of the Resurrection” listed by St. Paul.
98 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets BASIC QUESTIONSHow is Christ the New Adam?How is Christ the New Noah?How is Christ the New Abraham?How is Christ the New Moses?How is Christ the New David?KEY IDEASThrough his perfect obedience to the Father, the New Adam restored man’s place in Paradise lost by the first Adam.Christ made water an instrument of salvation and founded a Church not only to fill the earth with people but also to make disciples of all nations.Christ became the Savior of the World through whom all the families of the earth are blessed.Christ is the prophet that Moses prophesied would arise in Israel who gave the perfect Law and was the saving Lamb of God.Christ is the Only-Begotten Son of God whose universal rule is through the Church.
99 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets Anticipatory SetWork with a partner to complete part of Practical Exercise 6:Choose an Old Testament prophecy and show how it points to fulfillment in Jesus Christ.
100 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets FULFILLING THE LAW AND THE PROPHETS What did Christ’s disciples still not understand about him even to the time of his death? They did not understand how God was to bring about the salvation of all people. What did Christ’s followers likely think he meant when he said he had come to fulfill the Law and the prophets? They probably thought he meant he would reestablish the temporal, Davidic Kingdom. What did Christ really mean to fulfill the Law and the prophets? He meant he would fulfill the Scriptures by suffering and dying as Isaiah had foretold.
101 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets Guided ExerciseComplete a Think/Pair/Share using the paragraph beginning, “When Moses came down,” and the following question: What is the meaning of the veil in this passage?
102 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets 1. Jesus Fulfills the Covenant with Adam What covenant did God make with Adam? Adam was made a son of God who would have everlasting life if he would obey God. What was the result of Adam having broken the covenant? It resulted in spiritual and physical death for all people. How did Christ fulfill the covenant with Adam? He was the Son who obeyed God perfectly and so restored life to fallen humanity.
103 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets 2. Jesus Fulfills the Covenant with Noah With which Sacrament did the early Church connect the Flood? They saw Baptism in the Flood. What covenant did God make with Noah? Noah would be the father of a new human race, purified by water, and God would never again destroy the whole human race by flood. How does Baptism fulfill the covenant with Noah? As forty days of rain prepared the world for a new creation, forty days of fasting and penance (the season of Lent) prepares a person to become a new creation in the waters of Baptism. People are to be fruitful and multiply the number of Christians on the earth.
104 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets 3. Jesus Fulfills the Covenant with Abraham How was God’s covenant with Abraham fulfilled partially? Hundreds of thousands of people could call themselves descendants of Abraham. Abraham’s descendants had dwelt and even built an empire in the promised land of Canaan. What part of the Abrahamic Covenant remained unfulfilled? The promise of universal blessing was unfulfilled. How did Christ fulfill the Abrahamic Covenant? Abraham’s descendant, Christ, brought a universal promise of salvation available to all people.
105 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets 4. Jesus Fulfills the Covenant with Moses What did Moses foresee at the end of Deuteronomy? He prophesied new prophet like himself. When did that prophet come? He came about 1500 years later in the Person of Jesus Christ. How did Christ fulfill the covenant with Moses? Christ is the New Moses, who gave a perfected Law and personified the Passover as the Lamb of God. When did the rabbinic tradition expect the Messiah to come? It expected the Messiah to come on Passover night.
106 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets Guided ExerciseReview the table “Jesus, the New Moses” (p. 216), and then free write for two minutes about the following question: Which similarity between Moses and Christ do you find most striking, and why?
107 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets 5. Jesus Fulfills the Covenant with David What about Christ dissatisfied some Israelites during his time? Jesus did not proclaim himself a Messiah (Christ) who would inaugurate the political restoration of the Kingdom of Israel to establish a temporal power protected by God. What kingdom did Christ come to establish? Christ established the Church, the New Israel. This Kingdom of God is not restricted by temporal domain; it includes the communion of faithful everywhere, living and dead, and so is not of this world.
108 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets Guided Exercise Work with a partner to complete the following table on Christ’s fulfillment of the promises God made to David.
110 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets ClosureFree write for five minutes on the following question: Of the five covenants fulfilled by Christ, which one do you think is the most important, and why?
111 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets Homework AssignmentReadingTHE NEW KINGDOM through CONCLUSION.Study QuestionsQuestions 17–21; 34.Practical Exercise 6.WorkbookQuestions 58–60.
112 7. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets Alternative Assessment Christ fulfilled the four titles associated with the Davidic Covenant. Work with a partner to review this chapter and invent as many new titles as you can for Christ based on these five covenants.
113 8. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued) BASIC QUESTIONHow does Christ fulfill the Davidic Covenant?KEY IDEAChrist and his Church fulfill both the primary and secondary features of the Davidic Covenant.
114 8. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued) Anticipatory SetFree write for a few minutes on something surprising about the meditation on Christ in the tomb from Supplementary Reading 5.
115 8. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued) THE NEW KINGDOM How does the promise of a universal ruler in the line of Abraham predate David, Solomon, and even Moses? Jacob told his sons that a descendent of Judah would be obeyed by “the peoples.” In Jacob’s prophecy, to what does “he comes” refer? This refers to the man who is to come to whom the ruler’s staff, or scepter, belongs. He will rule not only Israel but all nations.
116 8. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued) What is the difference between the scope of David’s and Christ’s rule? David ruled a small empire in the Middle East; Christ’s reign is unlimited. What is the relationship between Samuel’s prophecy to David and the Archangel Gabriel’s prophesy to the Blessed Virgin Mary? Samuel said God will give David’s offspring an eternal rule, and Gabriel said God will give the Blessed Virgin Mary’s Son, a descendent of David, an everlasting kingdom. Gabriel summarized the Davidic Covenant, applying its fulfillment to Christ. What is the key difference between the kind of kingdom that came and the one many expected? Many people expected an earthly king who would rule Israel and to whom all the nations of the world would show homage and obey. Instead, Christ established a heavenly kingdom with the Church as its earthly component.
117 8. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued) Guided Exercise Write a paraphrase of Luke 1:32–33.
118 8. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued) THE DAVIDIC COVENANT: THREE SECONDARY FEATURES In the Church, who is the queen mother? She is the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Mother of God. In what sense is St. Peter the prime minister in the New Covenant? According to Isaiah, the prime minister (chief steward) of the royal government received the keys of the House of David to open and shut exclusively. Christ gave St. Peter the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven with the power to bind and loose. As in the Davidic Kingdom, the office continues with his successors, the Popes. What is the thank offering in the Church? It is the Eucharist.
119 8. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued) THE DAVIDIC COVENANT: SEVEN PRIMARY FEATURES Guided Exercise Work with a partner to complete the following table on the seven primary features of the Davidic Covenant and their fulfillment in the Church.
120 8. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued)
121 8. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued) Closure Free write for five minutes about how Christ and the Church fulfill the Davidic Covenant.
122 8. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued) Homework AssignmentStudy QuestionsPractical Exercise 1.WorkbookQuestions 61–66.
123 8. Fulfilling the Law and the Prophets (continued) Alternative Assessment Free write for five minutes about some aspect of this lesson or chapter that you did not understand well.