Presentation on theme: "Role of Geology in Assessing Vulnerability of Underground Fortifications CPT Leif E. Christensen."— Presentation transcript:
Role of Geology in Assessing Vulnerability of Underground Fortifications CPT Leif E. Christensen
Purpose To inform the class on how geology affects the vulnerability of underground structures to conventional attack with historical examples.
References Military Geology in War and Peace, 1998 http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/libra ry/report/1990/PFA.htm http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/china/theater /df-15.htm
Outline Historical Precedence Geology and Facilities Vulnerabilities Modern Systems Summary Conclusion
Historical Precedence 400KBC Pithecanthropus (Java Man) 3,500BCEgypt and Mesopotamia 400 BCBallista, ram, tunnels A.D. 717Constantinople - Greek Fire
Historical Precedence A.D. 1161Explosives in China 14th CenturyArtillery 19th CenturyOverhead casements 20th CenturyBig Birtha, TacNuc, UGF
Historical Precedence Sir John Adams, 1924, UK Special Air Raid Precautions Subcommittee concluded: “that in the next war, it may well be the nation whose people can endure aerial bombardment the longer and with greater stoicism, that will ultimately prove victorious”
Geology and Facilities In conventional warfare, the first few meters are critical. UGFs buried more than several meters are typically immune to nonpenetrating rounds. Hard rock may even provide immunity to nuclear attack. Siege craft success is dependant upon accurate geologic assessment.
Geology and Facilities Think outside the box and neutralize rather than destroy. “Strategic geologic intelligence” assesses and maximizes UGFs with regard to topo, lithology, structure, and rock burial. “Deutch Report” (1994) identified 16 key areas to defeat threats. –detection –defeat
Vulnerablilities Depth Rock-mass strength Surface-layer penetrability –function of compressive strength –quality of rock (jointing, faulting, etc.) –depth of weathered rock
Vulnerabilities With known data, modeling is possible Projected penetration Acceptable risk
Our Little Friend Aerial delivered “bunker buster” GAM Warhead ~4500 lbs Penetration: Concrete - 20 ft; Earth Works - 100 ft
Not so Friendly Warhead Yield 50-350 KT or conventional Range of 200-600 kms Chinese made DF-15 (aka M-9) High mobility wheeled launch platform
Summary History Geology and facilities Vulnerabilities
Conclusion Throughout history mankind has hidden underground when seeking protection. By using precise geotechnical data, we can effectively determine both our own degree of protection and the most efficient way of defeating an underground threat.