Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Role of Geology in Assessing Vulnerability of Underground Fortifications CPT Leif E. Christensen.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Role of Geology in Assessing Vulnerability of Underground Fortifications CPT Leif E. Christensen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Role of Geology in Assessing Vulnerability of Underground Fortifications CPT Leif E. Christensen

2 Purpose To inform the class on how geology affects the vulnerability of underground structures to conventional attack with historical examples.

3 References Military Geology in War and Peace, ry/report/1990/PFA.htm /df-15.htm

4 Outline Historical Precedence Geology and Facilities Vulnerabilities Modern Systems Summary Conclusion

5 Historical Precedence 400KBC Pithecanthropus (Java Man) 3,500BCEgypt and Mesopotamia 400 BCBallista, ram, tunnels A.D. 717Constantinople - Greek Fire

6 Historical Precedence A.D. 1161Explosives in China 14th CenturyArtillery 19th CenturyOverhead casements 20th CenturyBig Birtha, TacNuc, UGF

7 Historical Precedence Sir John Adams, 1924, UK Special Air Raid Precautions Subcommittee concluded: “that in the next war, it may well be the nation whose people can endure aerial bombardment the longer and with greater stoicism, that will ultimately prove victorious”

8 Geology and Facilities In conventional warfare, the first few meters are critical. UGFs buried more than several meters are typically immune to nonpenetrating rounds. Hard rock may even provide immunity to nuclear attack. Siege craft success is dependant upon accurate geologic assessment.

9 Geology and Facilities Think outside the box and neutralize rather than destroy. “Strategic geologic intelligence” assesses and maximizes UGFs with regard to topo, lithology, structure, and rock burial. “Deutch Report” (1994) identified 16 key areas to defeat threats. –detection –defeat

10 Vulnerablilities Depth Rock-mass strength Surface-layer penetrability –function of compressive strength –quality of rock (jointing, faulting, etc.) –depth of weathered rock

11 Vulnerabilities With known data, modeling is possible Projected penetration Acceptable risk

12 Our Little Friend Aerial delivered “bunker buster” GAM Warhead ~4500 lbs Penetration: Concrete - 20 ft; Earth Works ft

13 Not so Friendly Warhead Yield KT or conventional Range of kms Chinese made DF-15 (aka M-9) High mobility wheeled launch platform

14 Summary History Geology and facilities Vulnerabilities

15 Questions

16 Conclusion Throughout history mankind has hidden underground when seeking protection. By using precise geotechnical data, we can effectively determine both our own degree of protection and the most efficient way of defeating an underground threat.


Download ppt "Role of Geology in Assessing Vulnerability of Underground Fortifications CPT Leif E. Christensen."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google