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Geologic Resources: Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources

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Presentation on theme: "Geologic Resources: Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources"— Presentation transcript:

1 Geologic Resources: Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources
G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13th Edition Chapter 15 Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College

2 Key Concepts Types of mineral resources
Formation and location of mineral resources Extraction and processing of mineral resources Increasing supplies of mineral resources Major types, acquisition, advantages, and disadvantages of fuel resources

3 Nature and Formation of Mineral Resources
Fig p. 339 Metallic Non-metallic Magma Hydrothermal Weathering

4 Finding Nonrenewable Mineral Resources
Satellite imagery Aerial sensors (magnetometers) Gravity differences Core sampling Seismic surveys Chemical analysis of water and plants

5 Removing Nonrenewable Mineral Resources
Surface mining Subsurface mining Mountain Top Room and pillar Contour Strip Longwall Open-pit Dredging Refer to Figs and 15-5, p. 341 and 342 Strip mining

6 Environmental Effects of Extracting Mineral Resources
Fig p. 343

7 Environmental Effects of Processing Mineral Resources
Ore mineral Fig p. 344 Gangue Tailings Smelting See Case Study p. 345

8 Environmental Effects of Using Mineral Resources
Disruption/scarring of land surface Subsidence –houses, sewers, gas mains, ground water Erosion of solid mining waste Acid mine drainage Air pollution Storage and leakage of liquid mining waste Wildlife

9 Supplies of Mineral Resources
Economic depletion Depletion time Reserve-to-production ratio Foreign sources Economics Environmental concerns Mining the ocean Fig p. 346 Finding substitutes

10 Evaluating Energy Resources
Renewable energy Non-renewable energy Future availability Net energy yield Cost Environmental effects Fig p. 351

11 Important Nonrenewable Energy Sources
Fig p. 350

12 North American Energy Resources
Fig p. 356

13 Oil Petroleum (crude oil) Primary recovery Secondary recovery
Fig p. 355 Petroleum (crude oil) Primary recovery Secondary recovery Tertiary recovery Petrochemicals Refining Transporting

14 Oil Shale and Tar Sands Oil shale Keragen Tar sand Bitumen
Fig p. 361

15 Natural Gas 50-90% methane Conventional gas Unconventional gas
Methane hydrate Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Fig p. 362 Liquefied natural gas (LNG) Approximate 200 year supply

16 Coal Stages of coal formation Primarily strip-mined
Used mostly for generating electricity Enough coal for about 1000 years Highest environmental impact Coal gasification and liquefaction

17 Coal Fig p. 363

18 Burning Coal More Cleanly
Fluidized-Bed Combustion Fig p. 364

19 Nuclear Energy Fission reactors Uranium-235 Potentially dangerous
Fig p. 366 Uranium-235 Potentially dangerous Radioactive wastes Refer to Introductory Essay p. 338

20 The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fig p. 367

21 Dealing with Nuclear Waste
Low-level waste High-level waste Underground burial Disposal in space Fig p. 370 Burial in ice sheets Dumping into subduction zones Burial in ocean mud Conversion into harmless materials

22 Nuclear Alternatives Breeder nuclear fission reactors Nuclear fusion
New reactor designs Storage Containers Fuel rod Primary canister Ground Level Overpack container sealed Unloaded from train Personnal elevator Air shaft Nuclear waste shaft Underground Buried and capped Lowered down shaft Fig p. 376

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