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Geologic Resources: Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 15 G. Tyler Miller’s Living.

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Presentation on theme: "Geologic Resources: Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 15 G. Tyler Miller’s Living."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geologic Resources: Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 15 G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 15 Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College

2 Key Concepts  Types of mineral resources  Formation and location of mineral resources  Extraction and processing of mineral resources  Increasing supplies of mineral resources  Major types, acquisition, advantages, and disadvantages of fuel resources

3 Nature and Formation of Mineral Resources  Mineral resources  Metallic  Non-metallic  Magma  Hydrothermal  Weathering Fig p. 339

4 Finding Nonrenewable Mineral Resources  Satellite imagery  Aerial sensors (magnetometers)  Gravity differences  Core sampling  Seismic surveys  Chemical analysis of water and plants

5 Removing Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Surface mining Subsurface mining  Mountain Top  Contour Strip  Open-pit  Dredging  Strip mining  Room and pillar  Longwall Refer to Figs and 15-5, p. 341 and 342

6 Environmental Effects of Extracting Mineral Resources Fig p. 343

7 Environmental Effects of Processing Mineral Resources  Ore mineral  Gangue  Tailings  Smelting Fig p. 344 See Case Study p. 345

8 Environmental Effects of Using Mineral Resources  Disruption/scarring of land surface  Subsidence – houses, sewers, gas mains, ground water  Erosion of solid mining waste  Acid mine drainage  Air pollution  Storage and leakage of liquid mining waste  Wildlife  Storage and leakage of liquid mining waste  Wildlife

9 Supplies of Mineral Resources  Economic depletion  Depletion time  Reserve-to-production ratio  Foreign sources  Economics  Environmental concerns  Mining the ocean  Finding substitutes Fig p. 346

10 Evaluating Energy Resources  Renewable energy  Non-renewable energy  Future availability  Net energy yield  Cost  Environmental effects Fig p. 351

11 Important Nonrenewable Energy Sources Fig p. 350

12 North American Energy Resources Fig p. 356

13 Oil  Petroleum (crude oil)  Primary recovery  Secondary recovery  Tertiary recovery  Petrochemicals  Refining  Transporting Fig p. 355

14 Oil Shale and Tar Sands  Oil shale  Keragen  Tar sand  Bitumen Fig p. 361

15 Natural Gas  50-90% methane  Conventional gas  Unconventional gas  Methane hydrate  Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)  Liquefied natural gas (LNG)  Approximate 200 year supply Fig p. 362

16 Coal  Stages of coal formation  Primarily strip-mined  Used mostly for generating electricity  Enough coal for about 1000 years  Highest environmental impact  Coal gasification and liquefaction

17 Fig p. 363 Coal

18 Burning Coal More Cleanly  Fluidized-Bed Combustion Fig p. 364

19 Nuclear Energy  Fission reactors  Uranium-235  Potentially dangerous  Radioactive wastes Refer to Introductory Essay p. 338 Fig p. 366

20 The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fig p. 367

21 Dealing with Nuclear Waste  Low-level waste  High-level waste  Underground burial  Disposal in space  Burial in ice sheets  Dumping into subduction zones  Burial in ocean mud  Conversion into harmless materials Fig p. 370

22 Nuclear Alternatives  Breeder nuclear fission reactors  Nuclear fusion  New reactor designs Storage Containers Fuel rod Primary canister Overpack container sealed Underground Buried and capped Ground Level Unloaded from train Lowered down shaft Personnal elevator Air shaft Nuclear waste shaft Fig p. 376


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